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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 1979. Medical Technology and the Health Care System: A Study of the Diffusion of Equipment-Embodied Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18439.
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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 1979. Medical Technology and the Health Care System: A Study of the Diffusion of Equipment-Embodied Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18439.
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Page 88
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 1979. Medical Technology and the Health Care System: A Study of the Diffusion of Equipment-Embodied Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18439.
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Page 89
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 1979. Medical Technology and the Health Care System: A Study of the Diffusion of Equipment-Embodied Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18439.
×
Page 90
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 1979. Medical Technology and the Health Care System: A Study of the Diffusion of Equipment-Embodied Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18439.
×
Page 91
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 1979. Medical Technology and the Health Care System: A Study of the Diffusion of Equipment-Embodied Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18439.
×
Page 92
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 1979. Medical Technology and the Health Care System: A Study of the Diffusion of Equipment-Embodied Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18439.
×
Page 93
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 1979. Medical Technology and the Health Care System: A Study of the Diffusion of Equipment-Embodied Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18439.
×
Page 94
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 1979. Medical Technology and the Health Care System: A Study of the Diffusion of Equipment-Embodied Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18439.
×
Page 95
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 1979. Medical Technology and the Health Care System: A Study of the Diffusion of Equipment-Embodied Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18439.
×
Page 96
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 1979. Medical Technology and the Health Care System: A Study of the Diffusion of Equipment-Embodied Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18439.
×
Page 97
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 1979. Medical Technology and the Health Care System: A Study of the Diffusion of Equipment-Embodied Technology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18439.
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Page 98

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REFERENCES l. ABT Associates, Inc. "Analysis of Prospective Payment Systems for Upstate New York: Final Report." Cambridge, Mass.: ABT Associates, Inc., l976. 2. Acton, Jan Paul. "Measuring the Monetary Value of Life- saving Programs." Santa Monica, Calif.: The Rand Corpora- tion, P-5675, July l976. 3. Alliance for Engineering in Medicine and Biology. "Summary Guidelines for Technology Procurement in Non-Federal Health Care Institutions." Bethesda, Md.: Alliance for Engineer- ing in Medicine and Biology, l977. 4. American College of Surgeons and American Surgical Associa- tion. "Surgery in the United States. A Summary Report of the Study on Surgical Services in the United States." Chicago, Ill.: American College of Surgeons and American Surgical Association, l975. 5. Arnstein, Sherry R. "Technology Assessment: Opportunities and Obstacles." IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man & Cybernetics SMC7(l977):57l-82. 6. Averch, H., and Johnson, L. L. "Behavior of Firms Under Regulatory Constraint." American Economic Review 52(l962): l053-69. 7. Bailey, Elizabeth. "Innovation and Regulation." Journal of Public Economics 3(l974):285-95. 8. Banta, H. David, and McNeil, Barbara J. "Evaluation of the CT Scanner and Other Diagnostic Technologies." Health Care Management Review 3(Winter l978):7-l9. /9i Baram, Michael. "Medical Device Legislation and the Develop- ment and Diffusion of Health Technology." Background paper prepared for the Conference on Health Care Technology and 87

88 Quality of Care, Boston University, l9-20 November l976. Boston, Mass.: Boston University, Program on Public Policy for Quality Health Care, l976. l0. Barnes, Benjamin A. "Discarded Operations: Surgical In- novation by Trial and Error." In Costs, Risks, and Bene- fits of Surgery, ed. John P. Bunker, Benjamin A. Barnes, and Frederick Hosteller. New York: Oxford University Press, l977. ll. Battelle Columbus Laboratories. Evaluation of the Imple- mentation of a Medical Information System in a General Community Hospital. Vol. l: Summary and Study Structure and Methodology. Columbus, Ohio: Battelle Columbus Lab- oratories, l973. l2. Bauer, Katharine G. "Hospital Rate Setting—This Way to Salvation?" In Hospital Cost Containment: Selected Notes for Future Policy, ed. Michael Zubkoff, Ira E. Raskin, and Ruth S. Hanft. New York: Milbank Memorial Fund, Prodist Press, l978. l3. Bell, Russell S., and Loop, John W. "The Utility and Futility of Radiographic Skull Examination for Trauma." New England Journal of Medicine 284(l97l):236-39. l4. Bunker, John P., Barnes, Benjamin A., and Hosteller, Frederick, eds. Costs, Risks, and Benefits of Surgery. New York: Oxford University Press, l977. l5. Caglarcan, Erol, Faust, Richard E., and Schnee, Jerome E. "Resource Allocation in Pharmaceutical Research and Develop- ment. " In Impact of Public Policy on Drug Innovation and Pricing, ed. Samuel A. Mitchell and Emery A. Link. Wash- ington, D.C.: The American University, l976. l6. Cochrane, A. L. Effectiveness and Efficiency: Random Re- flections on Health Services. London: The Nuffield Pro- vincial Hospitals Trust, l972. l7. Collen, Morris F., ed. "Technology and Health Care Systems in the l980's." DHEW Publication No. HRA-74-30l6. Rock- ville, Md.: National Center for Health Services Research and Development, Health Services and Mental Health Adminis- tration, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, l974. l8. "Compensation and Benefits Survey: A l5-Page Report on Hospitals and Nursing Homes." Modern Healthcare, October l977:43-67. l9. Cromwell, Jerry, Ginsburg, Paul, Hamilton, Diane, and Sumner, Michael. "Incentives and Decisions Underlying Hospitals' Adoption and Utilization of Major Capital Equip- ment." Cambridge, Mass.: ABT Associates, Inc., l976. 20. Cullen, David J., et al. "Survival, Hospitalization Charges and Follow-up Results in Critically Ill Patients." New England Journal of Medicine 294(l976):982-87.

89 2l. Davis, Karen. "The Role of Technology, Demand and Labor Markets in the Determination of Hospital Costs." In The Economics of Health and Medical Care, ed. Mark Perlman. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Halsted Press, l974. 22. Davis, Karen. "Theories of Hospital Inflation: Some Em- pirical Evidence." Journal of Human Resources 8(l973): l8l-20l. 23. Dowling, William L., et al. "Prospective Reimbursement in Downstate New York and Its Impact on Hospitals—A Summary." Seattle, Wash.: University of Washington, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Department of Health Ser- vices, Center for Health Services Research, l976. 24. Elstein, Arthur S., et al. "An Analysis of Medical Inquiry Processes." Final Report Grant No. R0l-PE-0004l. East Lansing, Mich.: Office of Medical Education Research and Development, Michigan State University, l976. 25. Evans, Robert. "Does Canada Have Too Many Doctors?—Why Nobody Loves an Immigrant Physician." Canadian Public Policy 2(l976). 26. Evans, Robert. Price Formation in the Market for Physician Services. Ottawa, Ontario: Prices and Incomes Commission, l972. 27. Evans, Thomas P. "Triggering Technology Transfer." Unit, December l975:3. 28. Feldstein, Martin. "Quality Change and Demand for Hospital- Care. Econometrica 45 (Oct. l977):l68l-l702. 29. Feldstein, Martin, and Taylor, Amy. "The Rapid Rise of Hospital Costs." Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Print- ing Office, January l977. Stock No. 052-003-003-03.l. 30. Fineberg, Harvey, Bauman, Roger, and Sosman, Martha. "Com- puterized Cranial Tomography: Effect on Diagnostic and Therapeutic Plans." Journal of the American Medical As- sociation 238(l977):224-27. 3l. Fineberg, Harvey V., Parker, Gerald S., and Pearlman, Laurie A. "CT Scanners: Distribution and Planning Status in the United States." New England Journal of Medicine 297(l977):2l6-l8. 32. Fuchs, Victor R., ed. Essays in the Economics of Health and Medical Care. New York: Columbia University Press, l972. 33. Fuchs, Victor R. "The Growing Demand for Medical Care." In Essays in the Economics of Health and Medical Care, ed. Victor R. Fuchs. New York: Columbia University Press, l972. 34. Galbraith, John Kenneth. The New Industrial State. 2nd ed., revised. Boston: The Houghton-Mifflin Company, l97l.

90 35. Gaus, Clifton R. "What Goes into Technology Must Come Out in Costs." Excerpt from testimony of the Social Security Administration before the President's Biomedical Research Panel, September 29, l975. 36. Gaus, Clifton R., and Cooper, Barbara S. "Technology and Medicare: Alternatives for Change." Background paper pre- pared for the Conference on Health Care Technology and the Quality of Care, Boston University, l9-20 November l976. Boston, Mass.: Boston University, Program on Public Policy for Quality Health Care, l976. 37. Gaus, Clifton R., Cooper, Barbara S., and Hirschman, Con- stance G. "Contrasts in HMO and Fee-for-Service Performance." Social Security Bulletin 39(l976):3-l4. 38. Gibson, Robert M., and Mueller, Marjorie Smith. "National Health Expenditures, Fiscal Year l976." Social Security Bulletin 40(4)(April l977):3-22. 39. Ginsburg, Paul P. "Resource Allocation in the Hospital In- dustry: The Role of Capital Financing." Social Security Bulletin 35(l972):20-30. 40. Gordon, Gerald, et al. "Organizational Structure, Environ- mental Diversity, and Hospital Adoption of Medical Innova- tions." In Innovation in Health Care Organizations: An Issue in Organizational Change, ed. Arnold D. Kaluzny, John T. Gentry, and James E. Veney. HADM Monograph Series, Number 4. Chapel Hill, N.C.: School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, l974. 4l. Gordon, Gerald, and Fisher, G. Lawrence, eds. The Diffusion of Medical Technology. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger Publish- ing Company, l975. ; 42. Grabowski, Henry, and Thomas, L. "Estimating the Effects of Regulation on Innovation: An International Comparative Anal- ysis of the Pharmaceutical Industry." Duke University De- partment of Economics Discussion Paper. Durham, N.C.: Duke , University, September l976. 43. Grabowski, Henry G. , and Vernon, John M. "Consumer Pro- tection Regulation in Ethical Drugs." American Economic Association Proceedings of Annual Meeting 67(l976):359-64. 44. Greer, Ann Lennarson. Hospital Adoption of Medical Technology: A Preliminary Investigation Into Hospital Decis ion-Making. Milwaukee, Wis.: The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Urban Research Center, l977. 45. Griliches, Z. "Hybrid Corn: An Exploration in the Eco- nomics of Technological Change." Econometrics 25(l957): 50l-22. 46. Grimes, Richard M., and Mosely, S. Kelley. "An Approach to an Index of Hospital Performance." Health Services Re- search ll(l976):294.

9l 47. Gross, Paul F. "Development and Implementation of Health Care Technology: The U.S. Experience." Inquiry IX(June l972):34-48. 48. Hadley, Jack, and Reinhardt, Uwe. "The Supply of Graduate Medical Education Positions by Specialty." In Policy Anal- ysis for Physician Manpower Planning: The Supply of and Demand for Graduate Medical Education Positions, ed. Kerry E. Kilpatrick. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, l977. 49. Haverkamp, Albert D., et al. The Evaluation of Continuous Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring in High Risk Pregnancy." Amer- ican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology l25(l976):3l0. 50. Havighurst, Clark, and Bovbjerg, Randall. "Professional Standards Review Organizations and Health Maintenance Organ- izations: Are They Compatible?" Utah Law Review 38l: 38l-42l. 5l. Health Insurance Institute. Source Book of Health Insurance Data l976-77. New York: Health Insurance Institute, n.d. 52. Health Services Foundation, Inc. "Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: Utilization Study." DHEW Publication No. (HRA) 75-3l25. Rockville, Md.: U.S. Dept. of Health, Edu- cation, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Health Resources Administration, l975. 53. Hellinger, Fred. "The Effect of Certificate-of-Need Legis- lation." Inquiry l3(l976):l87-93. 54. Hellinger, Fred. "Hospital Charges and Medicare Reimburse- ment." Inquiry l2:3l3-l9. 55. Hellinger, Fred. "An Empirical Analysis of Several Pros- pective Reimbursement Systems." In Hospital Cost- Containment: Selected Notes for Future Policy, ed. Michael Zubkoff, Ira E. Raskin, and Ruth S. Hanft. New York: Milbank Memorial Fund, Prodist Press, l978. 56. Hemenway, David. Industrywide Voluntary Product Standards. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger Publishing Company, l975. 57. Hospital Association of New York State. Report of the Task Force on Regulation. Albany: Hospital Association of New York State, l976. 58. Iglehart, John K. "Health Planning Program Struggles to Make a Case for Itself." National Journal 8(l976):l636. 59. Institute of Medicine. Assessing Quality in Health Care: An Evaluation. Report of a Study. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, l976. 60. Institute of Medicine. Computed Tomographic Scanning. A Policy Statement. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, l977. 6l. Institute of Medicine. Health Maintenance Organizations: Toward a Fair Market Test. Washington, D.C.: National Adademy of Sciences, l974.

92 62. Institute of Medicine. Medicare-Medicaid Reimbursement Policies. Final Report. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, l976. 63. Inter-society Commission for Heart Disease Resources. "Report of the Inter-Society Commission for Heart Disease Resources: Optimal Resources for Cardiac Surgery: Guide- lines for Program Planning and Evaluation." Circulation 52(l975) :A-23~A-4l. 64. James, John, Chief, Research Analysis and Evaluations Branch, Division of Research Grants, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Public Health Service. Personal Communi- cation. 65. Juhl, Erik, et al. The Epidemiology of the Gastrointesti- nal Randomized Clinical Trial." New England Journal of Medicine 296(l977):20-22. 66. Kaluzny, Arnold D., Glasser, Jay H., Gentry, John T., and Sprague, Jane. "Diffusion of Innovative Health Care Ser- vices in the United States: A Study of Hospitals." Medi- cal Care 8 (l970):474-87. 67. Kinzer, David M. Health Controls Out of Control. Chicago, Ill.: Teach-em, Inc., l977. 68. Klarman, Herbert E. "Application of Cost-Benefit Analysis to the Health Services and the Special Case of Technologic Innovation." International Journal of Health Services 4 (l974):325-52. 69. Lee, Maw Lin. "A Conspicuous Production Theory of Hospital Behavior." Southern Economic Journal 38 (l97l):48-58. 70. Lewin and Associates, Inc. Evaluation of the Efficiency and Effectiveness of the Section ll22 Review Process. Springfield, Va.: National Technical Information Service, l976. 7l. Luft, Harold S. "How Do Health-Maintenance Organizations Achieve Their 'Savings'? Theory, Rhetoric, and Evidence." New England Journal of Medicine 298(l978):l336-43. 72. McDermott, Walsh. "Evaluating the Physician and His Tech- nology." In Doing Better and Feeling Morse: Health in the United States. Daedalus l06(l977):l25-33. 73. McNeil, Barbara J., and Adelstein, S. James. "Determining the Value of Diagnostic and Screening Tests." Journal of Nuclear Medicine l7(l976):439-48. 74. McNeil, Barbara J., Varady, Paul D., Burrows, Belton A., and Adelstein, S. James. "Measures of Clinical Efficacy: Cost-Effectiveness Calculations in the Diagnosis and Treat- ment of Hypertensive Renovascular Disease." New England Journal of Medicine 293(l975) :2l6-20.

93 75. McNeil, Barbara J., and Adelstein, S. James. "Measures of Clinical Efficacy: The Value of Case Finding in Hyper- tensive Renovascular Disease." New England Journal of Medicine 293(l975):22l-26. 76. McNeil, Barbara J., Collins, John J., and Adelstein, S. James. "Rationale for Seeking Occult Metastases in Pa- tients with Bronchial Carcinoma." Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics l44(l977):389-93. 77. Maloney, James V. "Patient Monitoring." In Engineering in Surgery: A Symposium Sponsored by the National Academy of Engineering at Its Fourth Annual Meeting. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, l970. 78. Mansfield, Edwin. Industrial Research and Technological Innovation: An Econometric Analysis. New York: W. W. Norton, l968. 79. "Medical Technology: How Much is Enough?" A Panel Dis- cussion: Moderator, Spencer C. Johnson; Speakers, Michael E. DeBakey and Howard H. Hiatt; held at the National Leadership Conference. In The Proceedings of the National Leadership Conference on America's Health Policy. Wash- ington, D.C.: National Journal, l976. 80. Mitchell, Samuel A., and Link, Emery A., eds. Impact of Public Policy on Drug Innovation and Pricing. Proceedings of the Third Seminar on Pharmaceutical Public Policy Issues. Washington, D.C.: The American University, l976. 8lt Moore, Gordon T., et al. "Comparison of Television and Telephone for Remote Medical Consultation." New England Journal of Medicine 292(l975):729-32. 82. Mushkin, Selma J., Paringer, Lynn C., and Chen, Milton M. "Returns to Biomedical Research l900-l975: An Initial Assessment of Impacts on Health Expenditures." Mimeograph. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University, Public Services Laboratory, Dec. l977. 83. National Academy of Engineering, Committee on the Interplay of Engineering with Biology and Medicine. Study of Engi- neering in Medicine and Health Care. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Engineering, l974. 84. National Academy of Engineering, Committee on Technology Transfer and Utilization. Technology Transfer and Utiliza- tion: Recommendations for Redirecting the Emphasis and Correcting the Imbalance. Washington, D.C.: National Acad- emy of Engineering, l974. 85. National Association of Blue Shield Plans. Press Release, May l8, l977. 86. National Research Council, Assembly of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Committee on the Life Sciences and Social Policy. Assessing Biomedical Technologies: An Inquiry into the

94 Nature of the Process. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, l975. 87. National Research Council, Assembly of Life Sciences, Div- ision of Medical Sciences, Committee on National Needs for the Rehabilitation of the Physically Handicapped. Science and Technology in the Services of the Physically Handi- capped, Vol. l. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, l976. 88. Neuhauser, D., and Jonsson, E. "Managerial Response to New Health Care Technology: Coronary Artery Bypass Surg- ery." In The Management of Health Care, ed. A Sheldon Abernathy and C. Prahalad. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger Publishing Company, l974. 89. Newhouse, Joseph P. "Toward a Theory of Nonprofit Insti- tutions: An Economic Model of a Hospital." American Econ- omic Review 60(l970):64-74. 90. Noll, Roger G. "The Consequences of Public Utility Regu- lation of Hospitals." Social Science Working Paper No. 63. Pasadena, Calif.: California Institute of Technology, Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences, l974. 9l. O'Neill, John J., Nocerino, Joseph T., and Walcoff, Philip. Benefits and Problems of Seven Exploratory Telemedicine Projects. Washington, D.C.: The Mitre Corporation, l975. 92. Pauly, Mark, and Redisch, Michael. "The Not-For-Profit Hospital as a Physician's Cooperative." American Economic Review 63(l973):87-99. 93. Perrow, Charles. "Hospitals: Technology, Structure, and Goals." In Handbook of Organizations, ed. James G. March. Chicago: Rand McNally, l965. 94. Pliskin, Nava A., and Taylor, Amy K. "General Principles: Cost-Benefit and Decision Analysis." In Costs, Risks, and Benefits of Surgery, ed. John P. Bunker, Benjamin A. Barnes, and Frederick Mosteller. New York: Oxford University Press, l977. 95. "Proposed Agreement Between the Maryland Comprehensive Health Planning Agency and the Health Services Cost Review Commission." September l9, l977. 96. Rabkin, Mitchell T., and Melin, Craig N. "The Impact of Technology Upon the Cost and Quality of Hospital Care, and a Proposal for Control of New and Expensive Technology." Background paper prepared for the Conference on Health Care Technology and Quality of Care, Boston University, l9-20 November l976. Boston: Boston University, Program on Public Policy for Quality Health Care, l976. 97. Raiffa, Howard, Schwartz, William B., and Weinstein, Milton. "Evaluating Health Effects of Societal Programs." In Decision Making in the Environmental Protection Agency:

95 Selected Working Papers, Vol. l1b. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, l977. 98. Rapoport, John. "Diffusion of Technological Innovation in Hospitals: A Case Study of Nuclear Medicine." l976. NTIS Accession No. PB-250-739. Journal of Economics and Business 30(Winter l978):l08-l8. 99. Redisch, Michael A. "Hospital Inflationary Mechanisms." Paper presented at the Western Economics Association Meet- ings, Las Vegas, Nevada, l0-l2 June, l974. l00. Reider, A., Mason, J., and Glantz, L. "Certificate of Need: The Massachusetts Experience." American Journal of Law and Medicine l(l975):l3-40. l0l. Rettig, Richard A. "Lessons Learned from the End-Stage Renal Disease Experience." Background paper prepared for the Conference on Health Care Technology and Quality of Care, Boston University, l9-20 November l976. Boston: Boston University, Program on Public Policy for Quality Health Care, l976. l02. Romeo, Anthony A. "The Rate of Imitation of a Capital Embodied Process Innovation." Economics 44(l977):63-69. l03. Russell, Louise B. "Making Rational Decisions about Medi- cal Technology." Paper presented at the American Medical Association's National Commission of the Cost of Medical Care, Chicago, Illinois, November 23, l976. l04. Russell, Louise B. "The Diffusion of Hospital Technol- ogies: Some Econometric Evidence." Journal of Human Re- sources l2(l978):482-502. l05. Russell, Louise B., and Burke, Carol S. Technological Diffusion in the Hospital Sector. Washington, D.C.: National Planning Association, l975. l06. Salkever, David S., and Bice, Thomas W. "Certificate-of- Need Legislation and Hospital Costs." In Hospital Cost Containment: Selected Notes for Future Policy, ed. Michael Zubkoff and Ira E. Raskin. New York: Milbank Memorial Fund, Prodist Press, forthcoming. l07. Schifrin, Leonard G., and Tayan, Jack R. "The Drug Lag: An Interpretive Review of the Literature." International Journal of Health Services 7(l977):359-8l. l08. Schultze, Charles L. "Public Use of Private Interest." Harper's 254(l977):43-50 ff. l09. Scitovsky, Anne A., and McCall, Nelda. Changes in the Costs of Treatment of Selected Illnesses l95l-l964-l97l. San Francisco: Health Policy Program, University of California School of Medicine, l975. ll0. Shepherd, William G., and Wilcox, Clair. Public Policies Toward Business, 5th ed. Homewood, Ill.: Richard D. Irwin, Inc., l975.

96 lll. Sloan, Frank A. "Research Report: Hospital Demand for Residents." Inquiry 7(l970):65-68. ll2. Sloan, Frank, and Steinwald, Bruce. "Determinants of Physicians' Fees." Journal of Business 47(l974):493-5ll. ll3. Tanon, Christian P., and Rogers, Everett M. "Diffusion Research Methodology: Focus on Health Care Organizations." In The Diffusion of Medical Technology, ed. Gerald Gordon and G. Lawrence Fisher. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger Publishing Company, l975. ll4. Trapnell, Gordon R., with McFadden, Frank. "The Rising Cost of Catastrophic Illness." Hyattsville, Md.: Depart- ment of Health, Education, and Welfare, National Center for Health Services Research, December l977. ll5. Tuebal, Morris, Arnon, Naftali, and Trachtenberg, Manuel. "Performance in Innovation in the Israeli Electronics Industry: A Case Study of Biomedical Electronics Instru- mentation." Research Policy 5(l976):354-79. ll6. Tushman, Michael L. "A Political Approach to Organiza- tions: A Review and Rationale." Academy of Management Review 2(l977):206-l6. ll7. U.S. Congress, House. "A Bill to Amend the Public Health Service Act to Establish Within the National Institutes of Health the Center for the Evaluation of Medical Practice." H.R. 4869, 95th Congress, lst Session, March l0, l977. ll8. U.S. Congress, House. Ways and Means Committee, H. Rep. 92-23l, 92nd Congress, lst Session, l97l. ll9. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. "Assess- ing the Efficacy and Safety of Medical Technologies." (In Press.) l20. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Policy Implications of the Computed CT Scanner. OTA-H-72. Wash- ington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, l978. Stock No. 052-003-00565-4. l95pp. l2l. U.S. Congress, Senate. "A Bill to Establish a Transitional System of Hospital Cost Containment." S. l39l. l22. U.S. Department of Commerce. 1978 U.S. Industrial Outlook: With 5-Year Projections for 200 Industries. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, l978. Stock No. 003-008-00l79-3. l23. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards. Proceedings of Procurement Practices Symposium—Health Care: October l4-l6, l975. Washington, D.C.: Experimental Tech- nology Incentives Program, National Bureau of Standards, l976. Publication No. NBSIR-76-997. l24. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. "Insti- tutions Having Standard Institutional Patent Agreements

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Medical technology has unquestionably advanced at a prodigious pace in the past 20 years, changing both the capability of American medicine to detect and treat disease and the public’s expectations of medical care. The continued rapid growth in biomedical and related scientific knowledge is likely to stimulate further significant advances.

Medical Technology and the Health Care System: A Study of the Diffusion of Equipment-Embodied Technology examines the policy and research issues basic to the relationship between new medical technology and the efficiency and effectiveness of the health care system. This report assesses the process by which technology finds its way into the health care system and indentifies and analyzes successes and failures in the process of technological change. Ideally, the more effective and efficient technologies should be introduced quickly; others should not. This report considers the extent to which the ideal results actually do occur and when they don’t, why not.

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