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FACILITIES: DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Facilities for the care and maintenance of laboratory primates should be de- signed with the aim of insuring: Maximum comfort and welfare of the animals Dependable measures for restraint and security Minimum opportunity for transmission of contagious diseases and parasites Control of ventilation, temperature, humidity, light, and noise DESIGN Receiving Area A receiving area is needed for the admission and immediate handling or selec- tion of primates from incoming shipments. It is essential in facilities where large colonies are maintained. This area should be provided with efficient restraining equipment and with facilities for sanitizing the area and equipment after each use. Quarantine and Conditioning Area This area is for housing newly arrived primates until they are in a good state of health and nutrition and suitable for research purposes. Diagnosis and treatment of respiratory, enteric, and parasitic infections are the essentials of a quarantine and conditioning program. The facilities should be designed to prevent the spread of infections from one group of incoming animals to another. Therefore, several small rooms to house each incoming group separately are better for this purpose than a single large one.
8 Where colonies are small, the quarantine area may be used as the re- ceiving area. Postquarantine Holding Area The postquarantine holding area is the area where animals are housed permanently. Cages, equipment, and rooms in the holding area must be sanitized before new groups of animals are moved in from the quarantine and conditioning area. So far as possible, each new group should be segregated in the holding area. Quarantine and holding areas should be designed to have separate equip- ment and separate personnel for handling animals. Observance of these pre- cautions will aid in preventing transmission of disease from the quarantine area to the holding area. Isolation Area This area, which is a special holding area, is for animals requiring complete isolation, that is, animals known to have a contagious disease. Infirmary An infirmary, or treatment area, should be maintained for animals needing specific treatment. It should be separate from the postquarantine holding area. Other Areas Other areas that should be included in plans for a primate facility are: Offices Lunchroom Shop Surgical and postsurgical recovery rooms Diagnostic, necropsy, and research laboratories Special diet kitchen
9 Pharmacy Cage- and equipment-washing area Cage- and equipment-maintenance area Storage areas for feed (refrigerated and nonrefrigerated), cages, equipment, and expendable items Locker rooms and toilets Disposal area (incinerator) Janitorial supply area PREVENTING CONTAMINATION Facilities should be designed, constructed, and operated with a view to pre- venting soiled, contaminated material and equipment from coming into contact with clean, uncontaminated material and equipment. Crossovers from contaminated to clean areas should be minimized. The design and construction of cages, feeding equipment, and waterers should: Make cleaning simple and efficient Minimize the opportunity of transmitting microorganisms, parasites, and vermin CONSTRUCTION Walls Exterior walls should be resistant to fire, liquids, moisture, rodents, and vermin. Wood walls are not recommended. Interior bearing walls and partitions should be made of material that will prevent transfer of liquids between rooms. Satisfactory materials include masonry, tile brick, cement block, and poured cement. Where necessary they may be sealed or sized for waterproofing with silicone, resin, plastic, or neoprene-based materials. When tile is used, the grout should be sealed. Cages should be designed or positioned in such a manner that animals cannot reach the walls with their hands. Ceilings Materials used for constructing ceilings should meet the same requirements as for interior walls, and they should have the same finishing coat.
10 Ceilings should meet walls and partitions in a close fit. Crevices that de- velop as a result of settling or vibration should be filled with caulking com- pound or similar material. A false, or restraining, ceiling of wire mesh should be put in place to prevent escaped animals from grasping or resting on lights or other ceiling fixtures; alternatively, fixtures should be recessed flush with the ceiling. Floors New floors should be constructed of dense-mix concrete, terrazzo, or glazed tile. Such floors should be smooth, impervious to moisture, and easy to clean. The application of a waterproofing compound to the floor is recom- mended. It should extend 6 inches up the adjoining walls and partitions. Doors Doors providing entrance to buildings should have latches and locks, and should fit tightly. Door frames and partitions should be sealed with caulking compound (or similar material) where they join the wall. Inward-opening doors are desirable for animal rooms. A double door or vestibule between primate rooms and connecting cor- ridors or the outside contributes to security. Windows If outside windows exist, they should be covered with screens fine enough to keep out insects, yet strong enough to prevent animals from escaping. High-tensile-strength stainless steel screening that will serve both these pur- poses is available. Lights At least 30 foot-candles of light should be provided at cage level in animal rooms. Lights should be easy to clean. Fixtures, switches, and outlets should be installed so that rodents and insects cannot find shelter in them. Light fixtures in indoor gang cages and in chimpanzee rooms should be flush with the ceiling or placed above a wire cage ceiling.
11 SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM The sewage disposal system in an animal facility should be constructed and operated in compliance with federal, state, and local laws and regula- tions. When a new system is contemplated, authority to dispose of animal wastes through the municipal system must be obtained. Each animal room and outdoor cage should be adequately drained by means of floor drains, a drainage trench system, or a wet-vacuum system. The advice of a qualified sanitary engineer should be obtained before deciding on the type and capacity of system to be installed. CAGES AND EQUIPMENT General Requirements CAGE DESIGN AND SIZE Cage design should augment the disease-control program. The bottom of a cage should be perforated or of woven wire with spaces large enough so that feces will fall through to the stainless steel dropping pans and troughs. Solid removable partitions or solid cage sides should separate animals in adjacent cages. This kind of separation reduces injuries and inhibits the spread of pathogens. Openings should be of sufficient size to assure adequate lighting and ventilation and to permit thorough washing inside the cages. Movable backs facilitate the tasks of restraining and transferring the animals. The sides and back of a standard cage* may be solid or 5/8-in. mesh or 10- or 12-gauge smooth expanded metal. If several cages are banked so that one side is common to adjacent cages, the side in question must be solid or consist of mesh through which fingers cannot pass. Doors may be of the hinged, sliding, or guillotine type, or a combination of these. Latches should be fastened with a lock, snap, or spring bolt; they must be tamperproof. The proper size of a cage depends on the size of the animals, their normal postural attitude, and the type of research being conducted. It is necessary to consider whether the animals are to be caged singly or in groups and whether they are to be held for short or long periods. ""'Standard cage" denotes a cage suitable for housing any of the Old World monkeys (except the bonneted macaque or other particularly long-tailed species) that are in routine laboratory use. Figure 1 shows one type of standard cage.
12 FIGURE 1 Standard cage, "Oregon" type. MATERIALS Cage materials should be nontoxic; resistant to water, food wastes, and excretory products; and of sufficient hardness and strength to resist chewing, clawing, and permanent bending by the species contained. Acceptable materials include fiber glass, plastic, stainless steel, stainless metal alloys, aluminum, or galvanized metals. Cages that are per- manently installed in the building may be of ribbon slate, resin-coated compressed asbestos, tile, or poured concrete. EQUIPMENT Feed hoppers inside a cage should be constructed to prevent soilage of feed. A preferable alternative is to bolt or weld the hop- pers outside the cage and provide openings through which they can be reached. Hoppers should be of strong, rustproof metal or durable plastic. They should be tamperproof. Watering devices should provide an ad libitum source of fresh, potable water. They should be designed for ease of removal, ease of cleaning, and prevention of back-siphoning. They should be checked several times a day for proper functioning. Two points should be kept in mind concerning automatic watering devices: medication is not easily controlled when they are used; animals often must be trained to use them. When dowel- or rung-type perches are used in cages, they should be located at different heights, and one should not be located directly over the other.
13 FIGURE 2 Transfer cage. TRANSFER CAGES By means of transfer cages, primates can be transferred to another cage or area with a minimum of handling, restraint, and fright, and with a minimum of injury to animals and personnel. Transfer cages (see Figure 2) should have guillotine doors, which make possible the simultaneous opening of transfer-cage and holding-cage doors. Those for large species should have casters to facilitate moving them to another area. Transfer cages must be maintained in a sanitary condition. Cages for Prosimians TUPAIIDAE A 2- by 2- by 2-ft cage is ample for a breeding pair of tree shrews. Reinforced hardware cloth is satisfactory as construction material. Floors may be made of wire mesh or sheet metal and should be covered with peat moss, wood chips, or other nesting material. Recommended equipment includes vertical and horizontal climbing sur- faces, a perching shelf, and, at floor level, two or more nest boxes, each with a small entrance.
14 LORISIDAE Electric-weld wire (1/2 in. by 1 in.) or hardware cloth (1/2 in. by 1/2 in.) on a nonporous, easily cleaned framework is suit- able for cages. A 3- by 3- by 3-ft cage provides ample room for a breeding pair of Lorisidae weighing 750 g or more. Lesser dimensions are suitable for smaller species. Each pair of animals should have a nest box. When the animals are first put in the cage, two nest boxes are advantageous. After the animals have slept together regularly, one box can be removed. The boxes should be easy to remove. They should be capable of being closed; this facilitates daytime handling of the animals. A flat shelf or wood dowels 1/2 in. to 1 in. in diameter make satisfactory perches. Cages for New World Monkeys Cages for New World monkeys should be constructed of wire mesh at the top and on at least two sides. This type of construction is desirable because it provides areas over which the animals can climb. MARMOSETS A cage 18 in. wide, 18 in. deep, and 24 in. high, with removable perches, is suitable for a breeding pair of marmosets. Up to four juvenile animals can be maintained in such a cage. SQUIRREL MONKEYS A cage 12 in. wide, 22 in. deep, and 21 in. high will accommodate two adult squirrel monkeys or three juveniles. A gang cage 59 in. wide, 38 in. deep, and 67 in. high (inside dimensions) will accommodate 20 adults or 30 juveniles. Perches, which should be removable, should be high enough to enable the monkeys to rest on them without having their tails touch the bottom of the cage. CAPUCHINS AND RINGTAILS A cage 24 in. wide, 32 in. deep, and 32 in. high will accommodate two adults or three or four juveniles. These monkeys are best housed in groups. Ten to fifteen adults can be properly housed in a walk-in facility 5 ft wide, 6 ft deep, and 7 ft high. SPIDER MONKEYS A cage 36 in. wide, 40 in. deep, and40 in. high will accommodate two adult spider monkeys. A walk-in facility 5 ft wide, 6 ft deep, and 7 ft high will accommodate ten adults.
15 Cages for Old World Monkeys INDIVIDUAL CAGES The following are desirable dimen- sions of individual cages for macaques: For an adult female: 30 to 32 in. high, 28 in. deep, and 28 to 30 in. wide. (Cages with these dimensions are commercially available.) For an adult male: 45 to 48 in. high, 42 in. deep, and 42 to 45 in. wide. For two young adults weighing 3 to 8 kg or three or more animals weigh- ing 2 to 5 kg: 30 to 32 in. high, 28 in. deep, and 28 to 30 in. long. (These dimensions are satisfactory provided the paired or grouped animals are compatible.) A standard cage is not suitable for the bonneted macaque (Macaca radiatd). This species has a pendulous tail that is roughly equal to the crown-rump length. For this reason, an adult needs a cage with greater height equipped with a perching bar. Although general experience indicates thatM fascicularis, Presbytis spp., Cercopithecus aethiops, and C. mitis are not as prone to tail-head injury as M. radiata, one must always be vigilant for the exception. Variations in these dimensions are permissible, but height should not be less than indicated above. These heights are necessary for cartwheeling and other exercises. Platform-type perches may be especially useful when more than one animal occupies a cage. They should be designed so that waste materials cannot collect on them and constructed of materials that are easily cleaned, such as metal doweling. A cage with a movable back that can be brought forward to restrain the animal against the cage front is called a squeeze cage. It can be effectively used for restraining a monkey so that procedures such as inoculation, draw- ing blood, or diagnostic skin tests may be performed without removing the monkey from the cage. Scissors-type nets may also be used to capture a caged monkey, but this method of catching monkeys is awkward, time-consuming, and dangerous to personnel when compared with transfer cages (see page 13) and squeeze cages (see above). GANG CAGES Gang cages provide space at economical cost. They allow room for exercise and the establishment of social groups where this is required. However, the individual animal cannot be as closely observed
16 under this system as when individually caged. Transmission of disease and parasites between animals occurs more readily in gang cages, and animals are more difficult to capture and restrain. In group caging, a minimum of 2 sq ft of floor space per animal is sug- gested, provided no more than 10 animals are caged together. Gang caging in excess of 100 animals requires zoo or compound facilities, standards for which are beyond the scope of this guide. Some of the bio- medical research institutions that have facilities for housing large numbers of animals will furnish information about enclosures upon request. Southwest Foundation for Research and Education P.O. Box 2296 San Antonio, Texas 78206 National Center for Primate Biology University of California Davis, California 95616 Oregon Regional Primate Research Center Beaverton, Oregon 97005 Laboratory of Perinatal Physiology National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Blindness U.S. Public Health Service San Juan, Puerto Rico 00753 6571st Aeromedical Research Laboratory Aerospace Medical Division Air Force Systems Command Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico 88330 INDOOR-OUTDOOR ENCLOSURES If indoor-outdoor en- closures are used, at least 2 sq ft of floor space per adult animal should be provided in the shelter area and 2 to 4 sq ft per animal in the outside area. The enclosure should not be more than 7 ft high. Greater height adds to the difficulty of catching obstreperous animals. Perches should be placed along the walls of the outside area in step fashion. A perch of open-frame (rather than mesh) design is recommended for cleaning ease. One-inch galvanized pipe, formed to make a perch 26 in. long and 8 in. wide, will accommodate two animals. It is recommended that there be enough perches to accommodate two thirds of the group at any one time.
17 Construction materials should be the same as those recommended for outdoor baboon gang or colony cages (see below) except that the woven galvanized wire fencing may be 11-gauge and should have a 1-in. diamond. If several outdoor-indoor enclosures are built adjacent to one another, sidewalls should be of solid construction to prevent fighting and spread of disease. Animals should enter the outdoor enclosure through a top-mounted swinging door 15 in. high and 12 in. wide. When locked in place, such a door can be operated as a guillotine-type door. This arrangement permits the capture of animals by locking all of them inside one of the enclosures and then allowing one or two to escape through the hatch into a squeeze cage. The guillotine door permits closing off an enclosure while it is being cleaned. Doors should be provided between inside and outside enclosures for use by personnel. The indoor area should be heated in cold weather. Radiant heating is recommended. Use of heated air is discouraged because of drafts and hot blasts-health hazards resulting from improper system design and operation. Cages for Baboons IN DIVIDUAL CAGES Individual cages for adult baboons should be made of aluminum, stainless steel, or galvanized iron. A cage suitable for holding one adult should have the following inside di- mensions: width, 32 in.; depth, 36 in.; height, 47 in. (See Figure 3.) FIGURE 3 Individual cage for baboons.
18 The floor should be gridded and should consist of tubular metal ade- quately supported. It should be high enough above the dropping pan to prevent the animal from touching excreta. A movable back is desirable. With it, the cage can be used as a squeeze cage. Guillotine doors should be located on one side of the cage front, not in the middle. Two perch bars made of 1-in. aluminum pipe should be attached to the front and back of the cage (penetrating the movable back) opposite the side on which the door is located. They should be about 12 in. above the floor and 6 in. apart. Cages may be suspended from an overhead support or may rest on cast- ers with locking devices to prevent cage movement. GANG CAGES Gang cages are especially well suited for out- door use but can also be used effectively indoors. (See Figure 4.) Tops of cages may be flat or arched. The superstructure should be made of 2-in. (outside diameter) galvanized iron pipe arranged and supported to obtain maximum strength. If the top of the cage is arched, the superstructure should have a radius of 25 ft. The material covering the superstructure must be strong, resilient, and rustproof. Woven wire fencing made of 9-gauge galvanized iron wire having a 2-in. diamond is recommended. FIGURE 4 The baboonery at the Southwest Foundation for Research and Education, San Antonio, Texas.
19 Because of the tendency of baboons to fight, the ceiling should be at least 15 ft high. An animal attacked in a cage with a high ceiling can usually escape by climbing the cage wall, since an aggressor seldom continues pur- suit more than 7 or 8 ft above the floor. Each outdoor cage should have a built-in shelter in which animals can be protected from sun, cold, rain, and snow. The shelter should face down- wind and should be heated in cold weather. Radiant heating is preferred. Other heating systems are permissible but they must be designed to ensure safety of the animals and to require minimum maintenance. Each animal in a gang cage should have at least 28 sq ft of floor space. In the shelter, each animal should have at least 2 sq ft of floor space. The entrance to the outdoor cage should be at least 40 in. wide and 7 ft high. It should be designed so that a person must enter through a vestibule. Cages for the Great Apes Designing cages for the great apesâgorillas, chimpanzees, and orangutans- is difficult because of the speed with which the young grow and the great size attained by the adults. A cage suitable for one stage of growth is not suitable for the next. If it is sturdy enough, a cage designed for an adult monkey is suitable for a young ape. However, if adults are to be held longer than 1 month, special construction is required. Housing of juveniles and adolescents is not a problem if cages specially constructed for adults are available; such cages are also satisfactory for the younger animals. Cages for adults should be constructed of impervious material such as poured concrete, tile, or terrazzo and should be of the indoor-out- door type. The wall separating the indoor and outdoor sections should contain a guillotine door operated from the inside corridor only. Attendants should be able to lock the door from either the outside or the inside. Double lock- ing can be accomplished with two long steel rods. One rod projects through a hole in the door from the inside corridor; the other projects through a hole from outside the exterior wall of the cage. Either rod, when inserted through its hole in the door and padlocked there, prevents the door from being raised. Indoor and outdoor rooms should be adequately drained and should have direct sewer connections. Floors should be sloped for rapid runoff of liquid wastes and cleaning water, unless a wet-vacuum cleaner is used. Drainage trenches should be so located that no animal can reach them. A false floor
20 made of pipes or other smooth material may be used to keep animals out of their excreta. INDOOR ROOM The indoor room should be at least 5 ft by 5 ft if it is intended for one adult animal and 5 ft by 10 ft if intended for two. Ordinary room height is adequate. The room should be heated in cold weather. Use of copper pipes for transmitting heat is recommended; these should be built into the floor or exterior wall. Warm-air systems are permissible if the air is draft-free and not extremely hot. The room should have an off-the-floor resting place which should not be attached to a cold exterior wall unless a thermal barrier is provided. The resting place should be large enough to permit all the animals to rest com- fortably on it at the same time. It should be easy to clean. Lighting must be sufficient to permit thorough inspection for cleanli- ness. Attendants should be able to see the animals and inspect the entire room without opening the main door. For example, the corridor side of the room may be constructed of 6-gauge woven wire and may include a guillotine door to which a transfer cage can be attached. Because of space limitations, the main door probably will be of the swinging type. If so, it should swing inward. An automatic, noncontaminating watering device should be installed with extra-strong fittings in the room or the outside cage. OUTDOOR ROOM The outdoor cage should be at least 5 ft by 5 ft and 7 ft high. If the cage is large, part of it should be roofed so that the animals will have shade in hot weather. The roof should cover the woven- wire or barred ceiling of the cage. The size of the roof will depend on the orientation of the building, the height of the walls, and the type of con- struction. The entrance door should be of the sliding type. The frame should be made of 2-in. (outside diameter) galvanized iron pipe, which should be covered with 6-gauge galvanized iron wire having a 2-in. diamond. (Iron bars as fencing should be avoided; chimpanzees often reach out to grab passersby.) Tension bolts should be fastened to the vertical pipes to keep the woven wire taut. The outer edges of the fencing are usually finished by twisting adjacent strands of wire around each other. Since some animals are strong enough to unravel these edges, they should be covered with a steel plate or similar cover or placed out of reach.
21 Adjacent outside rooms should be connected with a sliding steel door 1/4 in. thick to facilitate transfer of animals. SQUEEZE CAGE It is sometimes desirable to have a tempo- rary cage into which an ape can be placed for special treatment and handling. A squeeze cage is useful on these occasions. Provisions should be made to attach the squeeze cage securely to the corridor door of the room. A guil- lotine door should be built into the corridor door for easy access to the squeeze cage.