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FREDERICK SEITZ, President Emeritus, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York RALPH HERBERT SMUCKLER, Dean of International Studies and Pro- grams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan GILBERT F. WHITE, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Col- orado, Boulder, Colorado BILL c. WRIGHT, Assistant Dean for International Programs, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma JOHNG. HURLEY, Director MICHAEL c. c. McDONALDDOW, Associate Director/Studies MICHAEL P. GREENE, Associate Director/Research Grants 55
Office of International Affairs Board on Science and Technology for International Development (JH-217D) National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20418, USA How to Order BOSTID Reports Reports published by the Board on Science and Technology for International Development are sponsored in most instances by the U.S. Agency for Interna- tional Development and are intended for free distribution primarily to readers in developing countries. A limited number of copies is available without charge to readers in the United States and other industrialized countries who are affiliated with governmental, educational, or research institutions, and who have profes- sional interest in the subject areas treated by the report. Requests should be made on your organization's letterhead. Single copies of published reports listed below are available free from BOSTID at the above address while the supplies last. Energy 18. Energy for Rural Development: Renewable Resources and Alternative Technologies for Developing Countries. 1976. 305 pp. Examines energy tech- nologies with power capabilities of 10-100 kW at village or rural level in terms of short- or intermediate-term availability. Identifies specific R&D efforts needed to make intermediate-term application feasible in areas offering realistic prom- ise. (French language edition is available through NTIS, Accession No. PB 286-467.) 19. Methane Generation from Human, Animal, and Agricultural Wastes. 1977. 131 pp. Discusses means by which natural process of anaerobic fermentation can be controlled by man for his benefit and how the methane gen- erated can be used as a fuel. 33. Alcohol Fuels: Options for Developing Countries. 1983. Examines the potential for the production and utilization of alcohol fuels in developing coun- tries. Includes information on various tropical crops and their conversion to alcohols through both traditional and novel processes. 36. Producer Gas: Another Fuel for Motor Transport. 1983. During World War II Europe and Asia used wood, charcoal, and coal to fuel over a million gasoline and diesel vehicles. However, the technology has since been vir- tually forgotten. This report reviews producer gas and its modern potential. 38. Supplement to Energy for Rural Development: Renewable Resources and Alternative Technologies for Developing Countries. 1981. 240 pp. Up- dates the 1976 BOSTID publication and offers new material on direct and in- direct uses of solar energy. Provides index to both volumes. 56
39. Proceedings, International Workshop on Energy Survey Methodologies for Developing Countries. 1980. 220 pp. Report of a 1980 workshop organized to examine past and ongoing energy survey efforts in developing countries. In- cludes reports from rural, urban, industry, and transportation working groups, excerpts from 12 background papers, and a directory of energy surveys for developing countries. Technology Options for Developing Countries 8. Ferrocement: Applications in Developing Countries. 1973. 89 pp. Assesses state of the art and cites applications of particular interest to developing countriesâboat building, construction, food and water storage facilities, etc. 14. More Water for Arid Lands: Promising Technologies and Research Op- portunities. 1974. 153 pp. Outlines little-known but promising technologies to supply and conserve water in arid areas. (French language edition is available from BOSTID.) 21. Making Aquatic Weeds Useful: Some Perspectives for Developing Countries. 1976. 175 pp. Describes ways to exploit aquatic weeds for grazing, and by harvesting and processing for use as compost, animal feed, pulp, paper, and fuel. Also describes utilization for sewage and industrial wastewater treat- ment. Examines certain plants with potential for aquaculture. 28. Microbial Processes: Promising Technologies for Developing Coun- tries. 1979. 198 pp. Discusses the potential importance of microbiology in de- veloping countries in food and feed, plant nutrition, pest control, fuel and energy, waste treatment and utilization, and health. 31. Food, Fuel, and Fertilizer for Organic Wastes. 1981. 150 pp. Ex- amines some of the opportunities for the productive utilization of organic wastes and residues commonly found in the poorer rural areas of the world. 34. Priorities in Biotechnology Research for International Development: Proceedings of a Workshop. 1982. 261 pp. Report of a 1982 workshop organ- ized to examine opportunities for biotechnology research in developing coun- tries. Includes general background papers and specific recommendations in six areas: 1) vaccines, 2) animal production, 3) monoclonal antibodies, 4) energy, 5) biological nitrogen fixation, and 6) plant cell and tissue culture. Biological Resources 16. Underexploited Tropical Plants with Promising Economic Value. 1975.187 pp. Describes 36 little-known tropical plants that, with research, could become important cash and food crops in the future. Includes cereals, roots and tubers, vegetables, fruits, oilseeds, forage plants, and others. 22. Guayule: An Alternative Source of Natural Rubber. 1977. 80 pp. De- scribes a little-known bush that grows wild in deserts of North America and pro- duces a rubber virtually identical with that of the rubber tree. Recommends funding for guayule development. 57
25. Tropical Legumes: Resources for the Future. 1979. 331 pp. Describes plants of the family Leguminosae, including root crops, pulses, fruits, forages, timber and wood products, ornamentals, and others. 37. The Winged Bean: A High Protein Crop for the Tropics. (Second Edi- tion). 1981. 59pp. An update of BOSTID's 1975 report of this neglected tropical legume. Describes current knowledge of winged bean and its promise. 47. Amaranth: Modern Prospects for an Ancient Crop. 1983. Before the time of Cortez grain amaranths were staple foods of the Aztec and Inca. Today this extremely nutritious food has a bright future. The report also discusses vege- table amaranths. Innovations in Tropical Reforestation 26. Leucaena: Promising Forage and Tree Crop for the Tropics. 1977.118 pp. Describes Leucaena leucocephala, a little-known Mexican plant with vigorously growing, bushy types that produce nutritious forage and organic fer- tilizer as well as tree types that produce timber, firewood, and pulp and paper. The plant is also useful for revegetating hillslopes, providing firebreaks, and for shade and city beautification. 27. Firewood Crops: Shrub and Tree Species for Energy Production. 1980.237 pp. Examines the selection of species suitable for deliberate cultivation as firewood crops in developing countries. 35. Sowing Forests from the Air. 1981. 64 pp. Describes experiences with establishing forests by sowing tree seed from aircraft. Suggests testing and devel- opment of the techniques for possible use where forest destructions now out- paces reforestation. 40. Firewood Crops: Shrub and Tree Species for Energy Production. Volume II. 1983. A continuation of BOSTID report number 27. Describes 27 species of woody plants that seem suitable candidates for fuelwood plantations in developing countries. 41. Mangium and Other Fast-Growing Acacias for the Humid Tropics. 1983. 63 pp. Highlights ten acacias species that are native to the tropical rain forest of Australasia. That they could become valuable forestry resources else- where is suggested by the exceptional performance of Acacia mangium in Malaysia. 42. Calliandra: A Versatile Small Tree for the Humid Tropics. 1983. 56 pp. This Latin American shrub is being widely planted by villagers and govern- ment agencies in Indonesia to provide firewood, prevent erosion, yield honey, and feed livestock. 43. Casuarinas: Nitrogen-Fixing Trees for Adverse Sites. 1983. These robust nitrogen-fixing Australasian trees could become valuable resources for planting on harsh, eroding land to provide fuel and other products. Eighteen species for tropical lowlands and highlands, temperate zones, and semiarid regions are highlighted. 58
Managing Tropical Animal Resources 32. The Water Buffalo: New Prospects for an Underutilized Animal. 1981. 118 pp. The water buffalo is performing notably well in recent trials in such unexpected places as the United States, Australia, and Brazil. Report discusses the animal's promise, particularly emphasizing its potential for use out- side Asia. 44. Butterfly Farming in Papua New Guinea. 1983. 36 pp. Indigenous butterflies are being reared in Papua New Guinea villages in a formal govern- ment program that both provides a cash income in remote rural areas and con- tributes to the conservation of wildlife and tropical forests. 45. Crocodiles as a Resource for the Tropics. 1983. 60 pp. In most parts of the tropics crocodilian populations are being decimated, but programs in Papua New Guinea and a few other countries demonstrate that, with care, the animals can be raised for profit while the wild populations are being protected. 46. Little-Known Asian Animals with a Promising Economic Future. 1983. Describes banteng, madura, mithan, yak, kouprey, babirusa, Javan warty pig and other obscure, but possibly globally useful wild and domesticated animals that are indigenous to Asia. General 29. Postharvest Food Losses in Developing Countries. 1978. 202 pp. Assesses potential and limitations of food-loss reduction efforts; summarizes ex- isting work and information about losses of major food crops and fish; discusses economic and social factors involved; identifies major areas of need; and sug- gests policy and program options for developing countries and technical assistance agencies. 30. U.S. Science and Technology for Development: Contributions to the UN Conference. 1978. 226 pp. Serves the U.S. Department of State as a major background document for the U.S. national paper, 1979 United Nations Con- ference on Science and Technology for Development. The following topics are now under study and will be the subjects of future BOST1D reports: â¢ Leucaena: Promising Forage and Tree Crop for the Tropics (Second Edi- tion) â¢ Jojoba For a complete list of publications, including those that are out of print and available only through NTIS, please write to BOST1D at the address above. 59
j ORDERFORM While the limited supply lasts, a free copy of Crocodiles as a Resource for the Future will be sent to institutionally affiliated recipients (in gov- ernment, education, or research) on written request or by submission of the form below. Please indicate on the labels the names, titles, and ad- dresses of qualified recipients and their institutions who would be inter- ested in having this report. Please return this form to: Office of International Affairs (JH-217D) National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue Washington, D.C. 20418, USA 45 45 43 45 45
The National Academy of Sciences The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by Act of Congress a a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation for the furtherance of science and technology, required to advise the fed- eral government upon request within its fields of competence. Under its corporate charter the Academy established the National Research Coun- cil in 1916, the National Academy of Engineering in 1964, and the Insti- tute of Medicine in 1970. The National Research Council The National Research Council was established by the National Acad- emy of Science in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a pri- vate, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Acad- emy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the con- duct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respec- tively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. The Office of International Affairs The Office of International Affairs is responsible for many of the in- ternational activities of the Academy and the Research Council. Its pri- mary objectives are to enhance U.S. scientific cooperation with other countries; to mobilize the U.S. scientific community for technical assis- tance to developing nations; and to coordinate international projects throughout the institution. The Board on Science and Technology for International Development The Board on Science and Technology for International Development (BOSTID) of the Office of International Affairs addresses a range of issues arising from the ways in which science and technology in develop- ing countries can stimulate and complement the complex processes of social and economic development. It oversees a broad program of bilat- eral workshops with scientific organizations in developing countries and conducts special studies. BOSTID's Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation publishes topical reviews of unconventional technical proc- of potential importance to developing