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Crocodile Farming in Papua New Guinea As recently as the 1950s, crocodiles were abundant in Papua New Guinea. Hunting was a major occupation and was unrestricted. Some Australians and Europeans made fortunes by shooting thousands of crocodiles a year to make shoes and handbags in Europe and North America. Although it was obvious that wild populations could not sustain such wholesale slaughter, the destruction continued. By 1967 both the salt- water crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) and the freshwater crocodile (Crocodylus novaeguineae) were threatened with extinction. By 1968, de- spite increased hunting, the yield of skins had dropped in half; along the easily accessible river systems, crocodile populations had been wiped out. By 1969 the saltwater crocodile had disappeared from much of its range throughout the country, and wildlife officers estimated that without pro- tection most specimens of breeding size would be eliminated within five years. But how could crocodiles be protected? Papua New Guinea is divided by mountain ranges, ravines, torrential rivers, forests, seas, malarial swamps, and more than 700 languages. It would take hundreds of trained wildlife officers to enforce a ban on crocodile hunting, particu- larly in the face of opposition from tribesmen who have traditionally harvested crocodiles for food, decorative items, and implements. The challenge was given to the officers of the Wildlife Division. Under the leadership of Max C. Downes, these officials concluded that the best way to protect cocodile populations was to halt the slaughter of the large breeding adults and build up a new hide industry based on the increased numbers of young that would result. Few young crocodiles ever reach breeding age in the wild. The tiny, virtually defenseless hatchlings are easy prey for large fish, birds, or other crocodiles. Almost all of them are killed by predators or by other natural causes, such as floods.. What was needed, the wildlife officers concluded, were incentives to
10 CROCODILES AS A RESOURCE FOR THE TROPICS NEW IRELAND <5 c BOUGAINVILLE Port Moresby \ Popondetta S â¢ . PAPUA NEW GUINEA JXÂ£ Main area of crocodile distribution Main areas of crocodile distribution in Papua New Guinea. make these smaller animals economically attractive, incentives to encour- age local people to raise small crocodiles to commercial size. If that could be accomplished, hundreds of hatchlings that would normally perish could be utilized without endangering the wild populations' future. Vil- lagers could benefit by selling skins while the vital breeding-sized animals were being left alone to provide more hatchlings. The system could bene- fit both the villagers and the vulnerable crocodile populations. The idea was viable partly because many Papua New Guineans â par- ticularly those of the Sepik and Fly Rivers â have ancient spiritual and cultural attachments to crocodiles. To them, the idea of handling and managing the animals is not unusual. Crocodile motifs are common in their art and they live in harmony with the big beasts and do not consider them dangerous pests to be eliminated. Legislation passed by the Papua New Guinea government in 1969 cap- italized on this tradition by making the villagers themselves the real force in crocodile protection. The law did not ban crocodile hunting, but in- stead banned the possession, sale, and export of skins larger than 20 inches (51 cm) wide. In this way, it protected breeding-sized animals
CROCODILE FARMING IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA 11 while allowing for the harvest of juveniles. It also allowed a person to kill a crocodile if attacked (but barred the selling of the skin, if it were over- sized). In 1980, the legislation was supplemented by a law banning the export of small skins. Together, the bans on possessing large skins and export- ing small skins have created a stimulus for gathering small crocodiles from the wild and rearing them to moderate size on farms. The legisla- tion has been the impetus for crocodile farming. Crocodile farming officially started in Papua New Guinea in 1972. In the late 1970s, it was extensively supported by a UNDP/FAO assistance program that provided personnel and funds for technical support and program management.Today there are about 300 small village farms* supplying a number of larger business groups that rear crocodiles. Wildlife officers now teach crocodile farming, not crocodile conserva- tion per se. They have introduced crocodile-rearing techniques to vil- lagers all over Papua New Guinea. They help build pens and teach tribes- men how to care for the young reptiles, which are so vulnerable and timid that they can literally die of fright. Government loans of up to US$10,000, along with matching develop- ment bank loans, are availble to help a farmer enter the crocodile farm- ing business. The funds pay for pumps for changing the water in the pens and sometimes for an outboard motor used in gathering young croco- diles. Everything else a villager needs can be obtained from the forest, in- cluding materials for pen construction; a small farm can therefore be established inexpensively. The Three Types of Farms The government's crocodile management program recognizes three levels of operation: village farms (up to 300 crocodiles), small-business farms (up to 1,000 crocodiles), and large-business farms (more than 1,000 crocodiles). A village crocodile farm consists of a small pen fenced with posts lashed together with vines. This stockade fence is about 1.5m high and is sunk about 60 cm in the ground so the crocodiles cannot burrow out. Much of the enclosure is planted with grass, cassava, and banana trees to provide secluded areas where the animals, which regulate their body tem- perature by the warmth of the sun, can find shade. A shallow pool is excavated in the center. *The numbers vary, since some villagers go in and out of production depending on their need for income, seasonal variation in river levels, the cost of fuel, and the availability of government extension agents.
12 CROCODILES AS A RESOURCE FOR THE TROPICS Moitaka demonstration farm near Port Moresby. Meandering channels have proved more effective than large pools because they overcome the tendency of a dominant male to com- mandeer the water as his exclusive territory. (N.D. Vietmeyer) These village farms are usually run by only one or two people. Many are little more than pens scattered in the remote bush for holding young crocodiles until a buyer from a larger farm comes around. Small croco- diles bring less money than medium-sized animals, but the villager avoids having to feed and care for them for a long period.* The small-business farm usually consists of a group of enclosures (each about 6 m x 6 m) constructed of bush materials. It is typically located near an airstrip. It buys crocodiles from the village farmer and, in turn, supplies them to the larger farms, which sometimes dispatch air- craft to pick the animals up.f *Because of operational difficulties, many village farms were abandoned in 1982. Lack of proper husbandy âdespite government efforts âwere the main reason for these difficulties. Most villagers now collect and hold young only until buyers from commercial farms arrive. However, they are still earning money from crocodiles, and the concept of fully functioning village farms remains valid for the future in Papua New Guinea, as well as for appropriate sites elsewhere. fSpecial cardboard shipping containers have been devised. They can be folded to make cyl- inders of various diameters to fit crocodiles of different sizes.
CROCODILE FARMING IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA 13 Large-scale crocodile farms accommodate as many as 20,000 croco- diles and require a large investment. They serve to regulate the export of skins and are the major purchasers of live crocodiles from the smaller farms. During periods of drought, flooding, or diminished food sup- plies, the large-scale farms also act as emergency buyers. On the outskirts of Lae on Papua New Guinea's northern coast, there is a 100-hectare farm with nearly 8,000 crocodiles. It is associated with a poultry com- pany, and the crocodiles are raised on the offal from the slaughterhouse. Cutting up by-catch fish for crocodiles at the Moitaka farm. Crocodiles live mainly on fish, but insects, crustaceans, frogs, rodents, and slaughterhouse offal are also used. (N.D. Vietmeyer)
14 CROCODILES AS A RESOURCE FOR THE TROPICS Village-level farm. Small crocodiles are timid, easily frightened, and often must be hand fed. (Division of Wildlife, Papua New Guinea) Government Research and Extension The Wildlife Division has constructed four demonstration farms across the country and one large research farm at Moitaka near Port Moresby, the capital city. After training at one of these, a tribesman can start his own farm alone or can call on the government for further assistance. Moitaka is also the site of short courses in crocodile farming. Prospec- tive farmers are brought in for several weeks' training. They learn how to build pens, to feed and care for crocodiles, to kill and skin them, and to prepare the hides for market. They also learn about the crocodile laws and the reason they were enacted. A farm at Lake Murray, in a remote and swampy area of the Western Province, serves the same purpose. It is built entirely from bush materials (see picture, pp. 6-7). The Wildlife Division provides instruction books, profusely illustrated for the illiterate. The books include vivid descriptions of all phases of farming the animals. Economic Gains In 10 years, crocodile rearing has expanded remarkably in Papua New Guinea. It has already become the main source of income for the people of some swamp and river areas. The Ambunti area, for example, pro-
CROCODILE FARMING IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA 15 duces coffee and rice, but crocodile skins now bring in much of the area's income. By 1981 the farms nationwide contained a total of 30,000 croco- diles, ensuring a sustained production of at least 10,000 skins a year worth approximately USS1-2 million on the international market. Because crocodiles are a familiar resource, villagers take to the pro- gram quickly. By contrast, introducing cattle or western-style crop rais- ing requires massive education and training, in addition to some social and environmental disruption. On government farms in Papua New Guinea, fish-fed crocodiles have increased their belly width by 25 cm per year and are ready for slaughter in 2-3 years when the width approaches 50 cm. The selling price of the skin is then between $100 and $200, depending on species, flaws, and size. But skins are not the only product. A crocodile with a skin big enough to market can provide 20 kg of meat. The meat is white and is low in fat. Papua New Guinea is a net importer of meat, and crocodile farming is now augmenting local supplies. The large farm at Lae already sells frozen crocodile meat (including front and hind legs, tail steaks, ribs, and chops) both locally and on foreign markets. Some orders have come in from dealers in Paris who supply expensive French restaurants. Crocodile farmers, Sepik River area.