National Academies Press: OpenBook

Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration (2015)

Chapter: Appendix B: Committee Biographies

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographies." National Research Council. 2015. Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18805.
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APPENDIX B

Committee Biographies

Dr. Marcia K. McNutt, American Association for the Advancement of Science (Committee Chair) is the former Director of the U.S. Geological Survey and current Editor-in-Chief of the Science family of journals. She is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. She was awarded by the American Geophysical Union the Macelwane Medal in 1988 for research accomplishments by a young scientist and the Maurice Ewing Medal in 2007 for her significant contributions to deep-sea exploration. She holds honorary doctoral degrees from the University of Minnesota, Colorado College, Monmouth University, and Colorado School of Mines. Dr. McNutt received her Ph.D. in earth sciences from Scripps Institution of Oceanography.

Dr. Waleed Abdalati, is Director of the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at the University of Colorado, a professor in the Department of Geography, and Director of the Earth Science and Observation Center. In 2011 and 2012 he was on a leave of absence from the university to serve as the Chief Scientist at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). In this role he oversaw the full portfolio of NASA science activities and served as advisor on agency science matters to the NASA administrator and NASA leadership. His research has focused on the study of polar ice cover using satellite and airborne instruments. During his initial tenure at NASA from 1998 to 2008 he held a variety of positions in the areas of scientific research, program management, scientific management, and mission science oversight. Prior to his joining NASA, he worked as an engineer in the aerospace industry. Dr. Abdalati received a B.S. in mechanical engineering from Syracuse University in 1986, and an M.S. in aerospace engineering and a Ph.D. in geography from the University of Colorado in 1991 and 1996, respectively.

Dr. Ken Caldeira is a senior member of the Carnegie Institution’s Department of Global Ecology staff and a professor, by courtesy, in Stanford’s Environmental Earth System Sciences department. Dr. Caldeira has a wide-spectrum approach to analyzing the world’s climate systems. He studies the global carbon cycle; marine biogeochemistry and chemical oceanography, including ocean acidification and the atmosphere-ocean carbon cycle; land cover and climate change; the long-term evolution of climate and geochemical cycles; and energy technology. In 2001, he was a contributing author to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Working Group I Third Assessment Report. In 2005, he was coordinating lead author for the ocean storage

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographies." National Research Council. 2015. Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18805.
×

chapter of the IPCC Special Report on Carbon Capture and Storage. He was on the U.K. Royal Society ocean acidification panel in 2005 and geoengineering panel in 2009. He was a lead author of the 2007 U.S. State of the Carbon Cycle report. He was a co-author of the 2010 National Academy of Sciences (NAS) America’s Climate Choices report. In 2010, Caldeira was elected Fellow of the American Geophysical Union. Caldeira was a contributing author to the 2014 IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (IPCC AR5).

Dr. Scott Doney is a Senior Scientist and Chair of the Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI). He graduated with a B.A. in chemistry from the University of California, San Diego, in 1986 and a Ph.D. in chemical oceanography from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Joint Program in Oceanography in 1991. He was a postdoctoral fellow and later a scientist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, before returning to Woods Hole in 2002. He was awarded the James B. Macelwane Medal from the American Geophysical Union (AGU) in 2000, an Aldo Leopold Leadership Fellow in 2004, the WHOI W. Van Alan Clark Sr. Chair in 2007, and the A.G. Huntsman Award for Excellence in Marine Science in 2013. He is an AGU Fellow (2000) and an American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Fellow (2010). His science interests span oceanography, climate, and biogeochemistry. Much of his research focuses on how the global carbon cycle and ocean ecology respond to natural and human-driven climate change. A key focus is on ocean acidification due to the invasion into the ocean of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning. He was the inaugural chair of the U.S. Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry Program, past director of the WHOI Ocean and Climate Change Institute, and a convening lead author of the Oceans and Marine Resources chapter of the 2014 U.S. National Climate Assessment.

Dr. Paul G. Falkowski is Bennett L. Smith Professor of Business and Natural Resources at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, and Director of the Rutgers Energy Institute. His research interests include biogeochemical cycles, photosynthesis, biological oceanography, molecular biology, biochemistry and biophysics, physiological adaptation, plant physiology, evolution, mathematical modeling, and symbiosis. Dr. Falkowski is also the Lead Principal Investigator in the Environmental Biophysics and Molecular Ecology (EBME) program. That program focuses on molecular biology and biophysics to address key questions in biological oceanography and marine biology. The EBME program provides a laboratory in the Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences at Rutgers University that addresses the application of similar techniques to primary production, nitrogen fixation, and other rate-determining processes in aquatic as well as terrestrial ecosystems. Dr. Falkowski has received many awards; his most recent include the Board of Trustees Award for Excellence in Research, Rutgers University

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographies." National Research Council. 2015. Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18805.
×

(2000); Vernadsky Medal, European Geosciences Union (2005); and Board of Governors Professor, Rutgers University (2005). Dr. Falkowski was elected to the NAS as a member in 2007. He has also received numerous grants, some from NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy (DOE), and the Moore Foundation. Dr. Falkowski received his Ph.D. in biology at the University of British Columbia.

Dr. Steve Fetter is Associate Provost for Academic Affairs at the University of Maryland. He has been a professor in the Maryland School of Public Policy since 1988, serving as Dean from 2005 to 2009. In 2009-2012 he was Assistant Director At-Large in the Office of Science and Technology Policy in the White House. Dr. Fetter is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, a Fellow of the American Physical Society (APS), and a recipient of the APS Joseph A. Burton Forum Award. He has been a member of the Director of National Intelligence’s Intelligence Science Board and the Department of Energy’s Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee, served as President of the Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs and Vice Chairman of the Federation of American Scientists (FAS), and received the FAS Hans Bethe Science in the Public Service award. He has been an advisor to the U.S. departments of State, Defense, and Energy and has held visiting positions at Stanford, Harvard, and MIT. He received a Ph.D. in energy and resources from the University of California, Berkeley, and an S.B. in physics from MIT.

Dr. James R. Fleming is a historian of science and technology and Professor of Science, Technology and Society at Colby College. He is a fellow of the AAAS and the American Meteorological Society (AMS), series editor of Palgrave Studies in the History of Science and Technology, contributing author to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and chair of the AAAS Section on Societal Impacts of Science and Engineering. Dr. Fleming earned a B.S. in astronomy from Pennsylvania State University, an M.S. in atmospheric science from Colorado State University, and an M.A. and Ph.D. in history from Princeton University. He has held a number of major fellowships and lectureships, including the Charles A. Lindbergh Chair in Aerospace History at the Smithsonian Institution, the Roger Revelle Fellowship of the AAAS, the Ritter Memorial Fellowship at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, the H. Burr Steinbach Lectureship at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, the Gordon Cain Conference Fellowship at the Chemical Heritage Foundation, a Woodrow Wilson Center policy scholarship, and a Scholar’s Award from the U.S. National Science Foundation. He is currently a visiting scholar in the history department at Columbia University.

Dr. Steven P. Hamburg is Chief Scientist at Environmental Defense Fund. He is an ecosystem ecologist specializing in the impacts of disturbance on forest structure

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographies." National Research Council. 2015. Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18805.
×

and function. He has served as an advisor to both corporations and nongovernmental organizations on ecological and climate change mitigation issues. Previously, he spent 16 years as a tenured member of the Brown University faculty and was founding Director of the Global Environment Program at the Watson Institute for International Studies. Dr. Hamburg is the Co-Chair of the Royal Society’s Solar Radiation Management Governance Initiative and a member of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Advisory Committee on Research, Economics, Extension and Education. He has been the recipient of several awards, including recognition by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change as contributing to its award of the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize. Dr. Hamburg earned a Ph.D. in forest ecology from Yale University.

Dr. M. Granger Morgan is Lord Chair Professor in Engineering; Professor and Department Head, Engineering and Public Policy; Professor in Electrical and Computer Engineering; and professor in The H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management, Carnegie Mellon University (CMU). Dr. Morgan’s research interests are focused on policy problems in which technical and scientific issues play a central role. Methodological interests include problems in the integrated analysis of large complex systems; problems in the characterization and treatment of uncertainty; problems in the improvement of regulation; and selected issues in risk analysis and risk communication. Application areas of current interest include global climate change; the future of the energy system, especially electric power; risk analysis, including risk ranking; health and environmental impacts of energy systems; security aspects of engineered civil systems; national research and development policy; radio interference on commercial airliners; issues of privacy and anonymity; and a number of general policy, management, and manpower problems involving science and technology. Most of Dr. Morgan’s professional career has been spent at CMU with short stints at Brookhaven National Labs, the National Science Foundation, and the University of California, San Diego. His professional activities include a large number of publications, memberships on numerous panels, including the Electric Power Research Institute Advisory Board (which he previously chaired) and the Scientific and Technical Council of the International Risk Governance Council (which he chairs). He is past chair of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Science Advisory Board. He is a member of the NAS and has served on and chaired many National Research Council (NRC) committees. He earned his Ph.D. in applied physics and information science from the University of California, San Diego.

Dr. Joyce E. Penner is the Ralph J. Cicerone Distinguished University Professor of Atmospheric Science and Associate Chair for the Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences Department. Dr. Penner’s research focuses on improving climate models through the addition of interactive chemistry and the description of aerosols and their direct and indirect effects on the radiation balance in climate models. She is interested

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographies." National Research Council. 2015. Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18805.
×

in cloud and aerosol interactions and cloud microphysics, climate and climate change, and model development and interpretation. Dr. Penner has been a member of numerous advisory committees related to atmospheric chemistry, global change, and Earth science, including the IPCC, which was awarded the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize. She was the coordinating lead author for IPCC (2001), Chapter 5, on aerosols and report coordinator for the 1999 IPCC report: Aviation and the Global Atmosphere. Dr. Penner received a B.A. in applied mathematics from the University of California, Santa Barbara, and her M.S. and Ph.D. in applied mathematics from Harvard University. She is currently a member of the NRC U.S. National Committee for the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, as well as the Vice-Chair of the Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space. Prior NRC service includes being a member of the Space Studies Board, the planning committee for the Workshop on Uncertainty Management in Remote Sensing of Climate Data, and the Panel on Climate Variability and Change for the 2007 decadal survey on Earth science and applications from space.

Dr. Raymond T. Pierrehumbert is the Louis Block Professor in Geophysical Sciences at the University of Chicago, having earlier served on the atmospheric science faculties of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Princeton. His research work has dealt with a wide range of problems in the physics of climate, including anthropogenic climate change, climate of the early Earth, climate of Mars and Titan, and most recently exoplanet climate. He was a lead author of the IPCC Third Assessment Report, and a co-author of the NRC report on abrupt climate change and of the report on climate stabilization targets. He is a Fellow of the AGU, and in recognition of his work on climate he has been named Chevalier de l’Ordre des Palmes Academiques by the Republic of France. Dr. Pierrehumbert is the author of Principles of Planetary Climate, a textbook on comparative planetary climate published by Cambridge University Press, and, with David Archer, co-author of The Warming Papers (Wiley/Blackwell). He received his Ph.D. from MIT.

Dr. Philip J. Rasch serves as the Chief Scientist for Climate Science at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a Department of Energy Office of Science research laboratory. In his advisory role, he provides leadership and direction to PNNL’s Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division. The division conducts research on the long-term impact of human activities on climate and natural resources using a research strategy that starts with measurements and carries that information into models, with a goal of improving the nation’s ability to predict climate change. Dr. Rasch provides oversight to more than 90 researchers who lead and contribute to programs within a number of government agencies and industry. These programs focus on climate; aerosol and cloud physics; global and regional scale modeling; integrated assessment of global change; and complex regional meteorology and chemistry.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographies." National Research Council. 2015. Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18805.
×

Dr. Rasch earned bachelor’s degrees in chemistry and atmospheric science from the University of Washington and master’s and Ph.D. degrees in meteorology from Florida State University.

Dr. Lynn M. Russell is professor in the Climate, Ocean, and Atmosphere program at Scripps Institution of Oceanography on the faculty of the University of California, San Diego, where she has led the Climate Sciences Curricular Group since 2009. Her research is in the area of aerosol particle composition and microphysics, including the behavior of particles from both biogenic and combustion processes. Her research group pursues both modeling and measurement studies of atmospheric aerosols, using the combination of these approaches to advance our understanding of fundamental processes that affect atmospheric aerosols. She completed her undergraduate work at Stanford University, and she received her Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the California Institute of Technology for her studies of marine aerosols. Her postdoctoral work as part of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Advanced Studies Program investigated aerosol and trace gas flux and entrainment in the marine boundary layer. She served on the faculty of Princeton University in the Department of Chemical Engineering before accepting her current position at Scripps in 2003. She has been honored with young investigator awards from the Office of Naval Research, NASA, the Dreyfus Foundation, NSF, and the James S. McDonnell Foundation. In 2003 she received the Kenneth T. Whitby Award from the American Association for Aerosol Research (AAAR; 2003) for her contributions on atmospheric aerosol processes, and she was named AAAR Fellow in 2013.

Dr. John T. Snow, is a Regents’ Professor of Meteorology and Dean Emeritus of the College of Atmospheric and Geographic Sciences at the University of Oklahoma. Currently, Dr. Snow’s professional interests lie in the field of “Earth system science,” merging research in the Earth and life sciences to generate a comprehensive explanation for “how the world works.” In recent years, Dr. Snow has been involved in a number of local and regional economic development projects and technology transfer efforts. Dr. Snow is involved with a number of professional organizations, serving as an AMS Fellow, a Royal Meteorological Society Fellow, and a member of the NSF Geosciences Advisory Committee, to name a few. The AMS has honored Dr. Snow with the Charles Anderson Award for his efforts in improving education and diversity in the atmospheric sciences, and the Cleveland Abbey Award for his excellent service to both the Society and the profession. Dr. Snow earned both his B.S. and M.S. in electric engineering from the Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, and his Ph.D. in atmospheric sciences from Purdue University in 1977.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographies." National Research Council. 2015. Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18805.
×

RADM David W. Titley, USN [Ret.], is currently the Director of the Center for Solutions to Weather and Climate Risk at Pennsylvania State University. He is a nationally known expert in the field of climate, the Arctic, and national security. He served as a naval officer for 32 years and rose to the rank of Rear Admiral. Dr. Titley’s career included duties as Oceanographer and Navigator of the Navy and Deputy Assistant Chief of Naval Operations for Information Dominance. While serving in the Pentagon, Dr. Titley initiated and led the U.S. Navy’s Task Force on Climate Change. After retiring from the Navy, Dr. Titley served as the Deputy Undersecretary of Commerce for Operations, the Chief Operating Officer position at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Dr. Titley has spoken across the country and throughout the world on the importance of climate change as it relates to national security. He was invited to present on behalf of the Department of Defense at both congressional hearings and the IPCC meetings from 2009 to 2011. He has presented a TEDx talk on climate change and speaks regularly on this topic at universities across the country. He currently serves on the Advisory Board of the Center of Climate and Security based in Washington, DC. Dr. Titley holds a B.S. in meteorology from the Pennsylvania State University. From the Naval Postgraduate School, he earned an M.S. in meteorology and physical oceanography, and a Ph.D. in meteorology. He was elected a Fellow of the American Meteorological Society in 2009 and was awarded an honorary doctorate from the University of Alaska, Fairbanks.

Dr. Jennifer Wilcox is an Assistant Professor of Energy Resources Engineering in the School of Earth Sciences and an affiliate faculty member in the Emmet Interdisciplinary Program for the Environment and Resources at Stanford University. Her research efforts include sorbent design and testing for carbon and trace-metal capture from fossil fuels, adsorption studies of CO2 on coal and gas shales, and membrane design for N2 and H2 separations. She also heads the Clean Conversion Laboratory in the School of Earth Sciences. She received the NSF Career Award (2005) and the Army Research Office Young Investigator Award (2009). Wilcox earned a B.A. in mathematics from Wellesley College, and an M.A. in physical chemistry and a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the University of Arizona. She recently authored the first textbook on carbon capture.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographies." National Research Council. 2015. Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18805.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographies." National Research Council. 2015. Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18805.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographies." National Research Council. 2015. Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18805.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographies." National Research Council. 2015. Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18805.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographies." National Research Council. 2015. Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18805.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographies." National Research Council. 2015. Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18805.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographies." National Research Council. 2015. Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18805.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographies." National Research Council. 2015. Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18805.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Committee Biographies." National Research Council. 2015. Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18805.
×
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The signals are everywhere that our planet is experiencing significant climate change. It is clear that we need to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases from our atmosphere if we want to avoid greatly increased risk of damage from climate change. Aggressively pursuing a program of emissions abatement or mitigation will show results over a timescale of many decades. How do we actively remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to make a bigger difference more quickly?

As one of a two-book report, this volume of Climate Intervention discusses CDR, the carbon dioxide removal of greenhouse gas emissions from the atmosphere and sequestration of it in perpetuity. Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration introduces possible CDR approaches and then discusses them in depth. Land management practices, such as low-till agriculture, reforestation and afforestation, ocean iron fertilization, and land-and-ocean-based accelerated weathering, could amplify the rates of processes that are already occurring as part of the natural carbon cycle. Other CDR approaches, such as bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration, direct air capture and sequestration, and traditional carbon capture and sequestration, seek to capture CO2 from the atmosphere and dispose of it by pumping it underground at high pressure. This book looks at the pros and cons of these options and estimates possible rates of removal and total amounts that might be removed via these methods.

With whatever portfolio of technologies the transition is achieved, eliminating the carbon dioxide emissions from the global energy and transportation systems will pose an enormous technical, economic, and social challenge that will likely take decades of concerted effort to achieve. Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration will help to better understand the potential cost and performance of CDR strategies to inform debate and decision making as we work to stabilize and reduce atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.

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