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Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop (2014)

Chapter: Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
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F

Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor’s Degree Recipients

Gail Greenfield

THE CAREER OUTCOMES OF FEMALE ENGINEERING BACHELOR’S DEGREE RECIPIENTS:
A STUDY USING THE BACCALAUREATE & BEYOND (B&B) LONGITUDINAL STUDY

Gail Greenfield, Ph.D. The National Research Council

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
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What is the B&B Longitudinal Study?

 

images   Conducted by U.S. Department of Education’s National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)

images   Examines post-graduation experiences - e.g., education, employment, and family — of those who have graduated with a bachelor’s degree

images   Captures information on degree recipients’undergraduate experiences and key demographic information

images   Follows multiple cohorts of students over time

B&B Cohort 1 (1992-1993)

 

images   Nationally representative sample of approximately 11,000 students who graduated with a bachelor’s degree during the 1992-1993 academic year

images   Students were surveyed in their last year of college, with follow-up surveys conducted one year after graduation (1994), four years after graduation (1997), and ten years after graduation (2003)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
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B&B Cohort 2 (1999-2000)

 

images   Nationally representative sample of about 10,000 students who graduated with a bachelor’s degree during the 1999-2000 academic year

images   A follow-up survey was conducted one year after graduation (2001)

B&B Cohort 3 (2007-2008)

 

images   Nationally representative sample of close to 19,000 students who graduated with a bachelor’s degree during the 2007-2008 academic year

images   A follow-up survey was conducted one year after graduation (2009)

images   Another follow-up survey is in progress

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
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The study emphasizes Cohort 1

 

images   Cohort 1 provides a picture of the career paths of college graduates over a ten year period after graduation, while Cohorts 2 and 3 provide a picture of college graduates only one year after graduation

images   Cohorts 2 and 3 are used primarily for cross-cohort comparisons

Key questions study addresses

 

images   What are the career outcomes of women who receive bachelor’s degrees in engineering?

images   How do these career outcomes compare to men who receive bachelor’s degrees in engineering and to women who receive bachelor’s degrees in other “career-oriented” majors (e.g., business and management, education, and health)?

images   What factors help explain these observed career outcomes?

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
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Primary limitations of the B&B data

 

images   Limited number of engineers represented in each survey

images   For example, of the approximately 8,000 in Cohort 1 who responded to all four surveys, fewer than 7% graduated with a degree in engineering

images   Of these, only about 80 are women

images   The online tool that provides access to the data does not permit the pooling of cohorts and limits the ways in which variables can be used and created

Cases for each cohort and survey

 

Engineering graduates responding to the survey
Cohort Survey Year All Male Female
1 1994 640 550 90
1997 625 535 90
2003 575 490 85
All surveys* 520 440 80
2 2001 580 480 100
3 2009 930 750 180

For confidentiality purposes, B&B does not reveal exact sample sizes. Numbers in the table are approximate.

*Includes the base year survey in 1993.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
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Another limitation of the B&B data

 

images   Survey does not allow us to identify those who have progressed to engineering managers and supervisors

images   Rather, individuals are recorded as managers or supervisors, with no information provided on the nature of the work overseen

images   This limitation is most problematic for Cohort 1 since one might expect a sizable number of these graduates to have progressed to manager or supervisor by ten years after graduation

      Methodology

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×

Key career outcomes examined

 

images   Percentage of graduates in the labor force (“labor force participation”)

images   Percentage of employed graduates working in the field of their major (“retention”)

Two types of analyses are utilized:
1.   Descriptive comparisons

 

images   To the extent that the B&B surveys are representative, descriptive comparisons describe the population of individuals receiving undergraduate degrees in engineering in the graduation year under consideration (e.g., 1992-1993)

images   Such statistics are useful in understanding the gender similarities and differences in career outcomes for those with bachelor’s degrees in engineering

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×

Two types of analyses are utilized:
2.   Multiple regression

 

images   Enables us to gain insights into what might explain observed differences in career outcomes

images   Use to examine the relationship between an outcome of interest — e.g., labor force participation — and a variable that is hypothesized to be related to this outcome — e.g., gender — holding constant other factors that may also be related to the outcome — e.g. age, marital status, undergraduate debt

      Results of analysis

      Descriptive comparisons: Labor force participation

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×

Labor force participation

 

images   Upon graduating with a bachelor’s degree, one key decision a graduate makes is whether to join the labor force

images   Those who choose not to join the labor force do so for a variety of reasons, such as attending school, family responsibilities, health problems, and the like

images   This section compares the labor force participation rates (LFPR) of male and female bachelor’s degree recipients at various points after graduation

LFPR by gender for engineering bachelor’s degree recipients, B&B Cohort 1

 

images

*Difference between mole rate and female rate is statistically significant at the 5% level.

Note: The increases in LFPR over time for moles are statically significant at the 5% level.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×

LFPR one year after graduation for female bachelor’s degree recipients, B&B Cohort 1

 

images

LFPR four years after graduation for female bachelor’s degree recipients, B&B Cohort 1

 

images

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×

LFPR ten years after graduation for female bachelor’s degree recipients, B&B Cohort 1

 

images

*Difference between this major and engineering major is statistically significant at the 5% level.

LFPR one year after graduation for female engineering bachelor’s degree recipients, by B&B cohort

 

images

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×

LFPR one year after graduation for male engineering bachelor’s degree recipients, by B&B cohort

 

images

*Difference between this cohort and prior cohort is statistically significant at the 5% level.

LFPR summary of findings

 

images   For engineering bachelor’s degree recipients in Cohort 1, the male LFPR increases with increases in time since graduation; this pattern is not seen for female graduates

images   Moreover, by ten years after graduation, the LFPR for females is more than 10 percentage points lower than the rate for males

images   However, the female LFPR ten years after graduation remains high (~89%)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×

LFPR summary of findings

 

images   For this same cohort, the LFPR for female engineering bachelor’s degree recipients is similar to the rates for female graduates with business/management and health-related majors

images   Across B&B cohorts, the LFPR for male engineering bachelor’s degree recipients one year after graduation increased from Cohort 1 to Cohort 2 and then fell from Cohort 2 to Cohort 3; a similar (but not statisticaliy significant) pattern can be seen for female engineering bachelor’s degree recipients

      Results of analysis

      Descriptive comparisons: Retention

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×

Retention

 

images   For those graduates who choose to be in the labor force, a key decision is whether to work in an occupation that is in the field of their major

images   This section compares the “retention” rates of employed male and female bachelor’s degree recipients at various points after graduation

Employed engineering bachelor’s degree recipients in an engineering/architecture occupation, B&B cohort 1

 

images

*Difference between the male and female figures is statistically significant at the 5% level.

^Difference between the male and female figures is statistically significant at the 10% level.

Note: The decline in the percent retained from four to ten years after graduation is statistically significant at the 5% level for both males and females.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×

Employed female bachelor’s degree recipients working in field of major one year after graduation, B&B cohort 1

 

images

*Difference between this major and engineering major is statistically significant at the 5% level.

Employed female bachelor’s degree recipients working in field of major four years after graduation, B&B cohort 1

 

images

*Difference between this major and engineering major is statistically significant at the 5% level.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×

Employed female bachelor’s degree recipients working in field of major ten years after graduation, B&B cohort 1

 

images

*Difference between this major and engineering major is statistically significant at the 5% level.

Employed female bachelor’s degree recipients working in field of major one year after graduation, by B&B cohort

 

images

^Difference between this and prior cohort is statistically significant at the 10% level.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×

Employed male bachelor’s degree recipients working in field of major one year after graduation, by B&B cohort

 

images

Cohort 3 engineering majors were asked for the primary reason for working outside their degree field

 

Females

images   Job in field not available (47.6%)

images   Change in career interests (16.6%)

images   Job location (12.4%)

images   Pay/promotion opportunities (11%)

images   Working conditions (8.5%)

images   Other factors (4.0%)

images   Family-related reasons (0%)

Males

images   Job in field not available (33.8%)

images   Pay/promotion opportunities (32%)

images   Other factors (25.1%)

images   Change in career interests (4.6%)

images   Job location (4.0%)

images   Working conditions (0.5%)

images   Family-related reasons (0%)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×

Retention summary of findings

 

images   For Cohort 1, the retention rate at each post- graduation follow-up is higher for female engineering bachelor’s degree recipients than male engineering bachelor’s degree recipients, although the difference is not statistically significant ten years after graduation

images   Moreover, for both males and females, there is a statistically significant decline in retention rates between four and ten years after graduation

Retention summary of findings

 

images   Until ten years after graduation, the retention rate for female engineering bachelor’s degree recipients is similar to the rates for education and health- related majors (and higher than that for management/business majors)

images   However, by ten years after graduation, the retention rate for female engineering bachelor’s degree recipients is significantly lower than the rates for education and health-related majors (and comparable to that for management/business majors)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×

Retention summary of findings

 

images   Across cohorts, the percent of female engineering bachelor’s degree recipients “retained” has fallen significantly from one cohort to the next

images   The decline in the retention rate is more than 30 percentage points between Cohort 1 in 1 994 and Cohort 3 in 2009

images   This same pattern of decline is not seen for male engineering bachelor’s degree recipients, although both males and females in Cohort 3 report that the primary reason for working outside their degree field is because a job in their field was not available

      Results of analysis

     Multiple regression results

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×

Logistic regression

 

images   Logistic regression is used when the outcome examined is categorical (e.g., yes/no; high/medium/low)

images   Model predicts the likelihood of an outcome based on a series of explanatory or predictor variables

images   Here two outcomes are modeled for Cohort 1:

images   Likelihood that a graduate is participating in the labor force (“participation”)

images   Likelihood that a graduate is working in the field of their major (“retention”)

Predictors considered

 

images   Gender

images   Age at graduation

images   Ethnicity

images   Undergraduate GPA

images   Undergraduate degree specialty/sub-field

images   Undergraduate debt

images   Undergraduate Carntegie code

images   Parental education

images   Marital status

images   Parental status

images   Citizenship status

images   Spousal employment

images   Spousal income

images   Graduate degree

images   Enrollment status

Not alt predictors are included in the final set of models

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×

Characteristics of engineering bachelor’s degree recipients, B&B Cohort 1

 

Male Female
Age at graduation Average 24.3 23.6
Ethnicity Minority(%) 19.5 26.1
Undergraduate GPA Average 2.97 3.12
Undergraduate debt graduate with debt(%) 52.8 60.0
Average debt($) 10,583 10,534
Parental education High school or less 23.5 23.5
Post-secondary but less taen Bachelor’ degree 17.3 29.3
Bachelor’s degree 29.8 19.1!
Advanced degree 29.5 28.1

! Interpret data with caution because the standard error represent more than 30 percent of the estimate.

Characteristics of engineering bachelor’s degree recipients, B&B Cohort 1

 

Years since graduation
1 year 4 year 10 year
Male Female Male Female Male Female
Marital status Married(%) 28.6 29.3 47.4 51.3 75.0 77.7
*Parental status Has children (%) 11.9 7.0! 19.9 17.0! 53.5 65.3
Spousal employment Employed (%) 89.6 80.4 87.0 66.7 96.5
Spousal income Average($) 16,470 26,822 31,477 28,274 66,655
Graduate degree Has graduate degree (%) 3.6 2.1 17.5 20.2 26.9 27.7
Has graduate degree in engineering, match, or computer since (%) 2.9 1.1 !! 14.4 16.7 ! 15.3 18.0 !
Enrolled in school Enrolled in school (%) 20.8 23.7 18.7 15.2 ! 7.4 8.1 !!

! Interpret data with caution because the standard error represents more than 30 percent of the estimate.

!! Interpret data with caution because the standard error represents more than 50 percent of the estimate.

* For 10 year survey, figure includes only dependent children under the age of 18.

‡ Reporting standards not met.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×

Interpreting regression results

 

images   If “P” is the probability that a graduate is in the labor force (or working in the field of their major), then the odds of the graduate being in the labor force are P/(l-P)

images   E.g., if P = .75, then the odds are .75/.25 = 3

images   Results from these logistic regression models illustrate how a change in a predictor variable changes the odds of a graduate being in the labor force (or working in the field of their major), holding constant all other predictors in the model

Key models examined

 

  Models
Outcome Study population 1 year after graduation 4 year after graduation 10 year after graduation
Males Females Males & Females Males Females Males & Females Males Females Males & Females
Participation Engineering graduates Too few males not in LF Too few female grades Too few males not in LF Too few males not in LF Too few female grades Too few males not in LF Too few males not in LF Too few female grades Too few males not in LF
Engineering & other career-oriented graduates
Retention Engineering graduates Too few female grades Too few female grades Too few female grades
Engineering & other career-oriented graduates N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×

Participation model: Female engineering and other career-oriented graduates, Cohort 1

 

A blank cell indicates that the predictor was not included in the model. A cell highlighted green indicates that the variable is statistically significant at the 10% level. Only a subset of predictors included in the model are shown in the table. Years since graduation
1 year 4 year 10 year
Percentage difference in odds ratio Percentage difference in odds ratio Percentage difference in odds ratio
Age when received bachelor's degree     3%     4%  -1%
White, non-Hispanic (vs. minority) 148%   12% -34%
Has children (vs. no children) -67% -73% -74%
Married (vs. not married)   19%
Married with spouce not employed (vs. not married)  -40%  -36%
Spouce income from work < $50,000 (vs. not married)   18%  -30%
Spouce income from work ≥ $50,000 (vs. not married) -50%
Spouce income from work ≥ $50,000-$100,000 (vs. not married) -83%
Spouce income from work ≥ $100,000 (vs. not married) -93%
Incurred debt in undergrad (vs. no debt) 107% 51%  -10%
Undergraduate GPA is 3.0-3.5 (vs. < 3.0 GPA)  -21% 66%     9%
Undergraduate GPA is 3.5 or higher (vs. < 3.0 GPA)  -19%     7%   12%
Business and management (vs. engineering) 154%   73%  -26%
Education (vs. engineering)   60%   37% -74%
Health professions (vs. engineering)   47%   82%  -34%
Enrolled (vs. not enrolled) -89% -61% 90%
Has graduate degree (vs. no graduate degree)  -44%  -8% 155%

Participation model: Key findings

 

images   Women engineering graduates are generally no more or less likely to be participating in the labor force than graduates in other career-oriented majors

images   Women graduates in engineering and other career-oriented majors:

images   Are less likely to be in the labor force if they have children

images   Are less likely to be in the labor force four years and ten years after graduation if their spouse’s income is relatively high

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×

Participation model: Key findings

 

images   Women graduates in engineering and other career-oriented majors:

images   Are more likely to be in the labor force one year and four years after graduation if they incurred debt in college

images   Are less likely to be in the labor force one year and four years after graduation if they are enrolled in school, but are more likely ten years after graduation

images   Are more likely to be in the labor force ten years after graduation if they have a graduate degree

Retention model: Employed male and female engineering graduates, Cohort 1

 

A blank cell indicates that the predictor was not included in the model. A cell highlighted green indicates that the variable is statistically significant at the 10% level. Only a subset of predictors included in the model are shown in the table. Years since graduation
1 year 4 year 10 year
Percentage difference in odds ratio Percentage difference in odds ratio Percentage difference in odds ratio
Age when received bachelor's degree     1% -1% -3%
White, non-Hispanic (vs. minority)   87%   12%   26%
Has children (vs. no children)    -8%  -13%   19%
Married with spouce employed (vs. married)   43%   17%
Married with spouce not employed (vs. unmarried)   16%   30%
Incurred debt in undergrad (vs. no debt)   10%    -6%    -4%
Undergrad GPA is 3.0-3.5 (vs. < 3.0 GPA)   30%   47%   47%
Undergrad GPA is 3.5 or higher (vs. < 3.0 GPA) 128%   35%   76%
Enrolled (vs. not enrolled) -64%   -31%
Graduate degree in engr/math/cs (vs. no graduate degree)   -12%
Graduate degree in other FOS (vs. no graduate degree) -81%
Female (vs. male)   88%   93%   47%
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×

Retention model: Key findings

 

images   Employed female engineering graduates are not retained in the field of engineering at lower rates than male engineering graduates

images   In fact, female engineering graduates are more likely than male graduates to be working in the field of engineering four years after graduation

Retention model: Key findings

 

images   Employed male and female engineering graduates:

images   Are more likely to be working in the field of engineering one year and ten years after graduation if their undergraduate GPA was 3.5 +

images   Are less likely to be working in the field of engineering ten years after graduation if they have a graduate degree in a non-engineering field

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×

      Implications

Implications

 

images   It’s not about participation in the labor force

images   Female engineering graduates in all three cohorts are participating in the labor force at high rates

images   Retention in engineering appears to be an issue for both male and female graduates

images   Retention for male and female Cohort 1 graduates fell to around 50% by ten years after graduation

images   Male and female Cohort 3 graduates say that the primary reason for working outside engineering is a lock of jobs in their field

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×

Implications

 

images   The retention issue appears to be worsening for women

images   The one-year retention rate for female graduates has fallen dramatically from one cohort to the next (more than 30 percentage points between Cohort 1 in 1994 and Cohort 3 in 2009)

      Appendix

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×

LFPR by gender for business/management bachelor’s degree recipients, B&B Cohort 1

 

images

*Difference is statistically significant at the 5% level.

LFPR by gender for education bachelor’s degree recipients, B&B Cohort 1

 

images

*Difference is statistically significant at the 5% level.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×

LFPR by gender for health-related bachelor’s degree recipients, B&B Cohort 1

 

images

^Difference is statistically significant at the 10% level.

Employed bus/mgmt bachelor’s degree recipients in a bus/mgmt occupation, B&B cohort 1

 

images

*Difference between the mole and female figures is statistically significant at the 5% level.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×

Employed education bachelor’s degree recipients in an education occupation, B&B cohort 1

 

images

*Difference between the male and female figures is statistically significant at the 5% level.

Employed health-related bachelor’s degree recipients in a health occupation, B&B cohort 1

 

images

*Difference between the male and female figures is statistically signifiant at the 5% level.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×

B&B majors and their sub-fields*

 

Engineering

images   Electrical engineering

images   Chemical engineering

images   Civil engineering

images   Mechanical engineering

images   Other engineering

Business/management

images   Accounting

images   Finance

images   Business/Management Systems

images   Management/Business Administration

images   Engineering technology

images   Secretarial Business Support

images   Marketing/Distribution

*As reported in variable list for B&B Cohort 1.

B&B majors and their sub-fields*

 

Education

images   Early childhood education

images   Elementary education

images   Secondary education

images   Special education

images   Physical education

images   Other education

Health**

images   Dental/Medical Tech

images   Community /Mental Health

images   Nurse Assisting

images   Nursing

images   Health/Hospital Administration

images   Audiology

images   Dietetics

*As reported) in variable list for B&B Cohort 1.

**Due to the large number of sub-fields in Health, only a subset are shown.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×

B&B occupational categories*

 

images   Engineering/architecture

images   Eng, architects, software/sys engineers

images   Business/management

images   Business/financial support services

images   Financial services professionals

images   Executive manager

images   Midlevel manager

images   Supervisory, office, and other admin

images   Business - other

images   Managers - other

 

*As reported in variable list for B&B Cohort 1.

 

B&B occupational categories*

 

images   Education

images   K- 12 teachers

images   Instructors other than K- 12

images   Education - other

images   Health (Medical professionals)

images   Medical practice professional

images   Medical licensed professional

images   Medical services

images   Medical - other

 

*As reported in variable list for B&B Cohort 1.

 

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×
Page 61
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×
Page 62
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×
Page 63
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×
Page 64
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×
Page 66
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×
Page 67
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×
Page 68
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×
Page 69
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×
Page 70
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×
Page 71
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×
Page 72
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×
Page 73
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×
Page 74
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×
Page 75
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×
Page 83
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×
Page 85
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×
Page 87
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×
Page 88
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×
Page 89
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×
Page 90
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Presentation Slides on Career Outcomes of Women Engineering Bachelor's Degree Recipients." National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. 2014. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/18810.
×
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Despite decades of government, university, and employer efforts to close the gender gap in engineering, women make up only 11 percent of practicing engineers in the United States. What factors influence women graduates' decisions to enter the engineering workforce and either to stay in or leave the field as their careers progress? Researchers are both tapping existing data and fielding new surveys to help answer these questions.

On April 24, 2013, the National Research Council Committee on Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine held a workshop to explore emerging research and to discuss career pathways and outcomes for women who have received bachelor's degrees in engineering. Participants included academic researchers and representatives from the Department of Labor, National Science Foundation, and Census Bureau, as well as several engineering professional societies. Career Choices of Female Engineers summarizes the presentations and discussions of the workshop.

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