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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
×

Index

A

Accounting practice

control system components and, 196-197

engineering/manufacturing knowledge in, 191,193, 200

environmental costs in, 15, 191, 234

environmentally sensitive, 199-200

in international agreements, 113

organizational barriers to environmental sensitivity in, 193-196

public access to information, 194

role of, 193

sustainability accounts in, 234

traditional, 197-199

in waste reduction strategies, 191-193

Air Force Pollution Prevention Program

education/training in, 153-154

funding, 152

green weapon systems, 159-163

incentives for compliance, 154-155

information needs, 163

objectives, 151-153, 163-164

origins, 149-151

ozone-depleting chemicals in, 149, 152, 160

procedural obstacles, 159-160

purchasing procedures, 155-159, 160-163

Antitrust law, 5, 103, 131 n. 12

Automobile industry

catalytic converter technology, 36

current recycling practice, 4, 165-167

environmental regulation for, 169-170

in functionality economy, 16

life cycle analysis, 182t

life cycle analysis and recycling in, 169

mandatory recycling of used autos, 127

plastics recycling, 168

B

Barcelona Convention, 114

Bell Telephone System, 16

Bottle bills, 115

C

Cadmium, 73-74

Carbon dioxide, 8, 37 n.4

economic modeling of future emissions, 66

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
×

in fossil fuel consumption, 40-41, 42-43, 55-56

non-energy production sources, 57 n.1

rate of increase, 123

world fossil fuel emissions, 54

Chemical engineering design paradigms, 218-220, 223-225

Chlorofluorocarbons, 33-34, 37 n.4, 114, 142, 210-211

Chromium

chromated coatings, 209-210

in industrial waste stream, 73-74

Citizen's Clearinghouse for Hazardous Wastes, 120 n.1

Clean Air Act, 43, 102, 104-105, 210

Closed-system material flow, 25-27

Coal energy, 36, 55-56

methane emissions, 42

Coalition of Northeastern Governors, 206

Commerce, Department of, 129

Concurrent engineering, 11, 12

Consumer protection laws, 5

Consumerism, environmental, 140, 165

in government purchasing, 163

in product design process, 173

Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution from Land-Based Sources, 114

Copper, recoverability, 78

Cross-functional teams, 12, 204

D

Defense, Department of, 149, 150-151, 160

Deforestation, 57 n.1

Design for Environment, 14-15

AT&T telephone, case study, 171-177

benefits to industry, 140

in developing nations, 63

in electronics industry, 209, 212-213

goals of, 139, 204, 208

implementation, 139-140, 141-146

in international environmental law, 114

in life cycle analysis, 141, 201

materials flows in, 138-139

matrix system, 141, 142-144, 147

pollution prevention in, 98

product destination and, 171-172

system testing, 146-147

as systems approach, 140-141

vs. pollution prevention, 140

Design for X, 11, 139, 171, 204-205

Developing nations

Design for Environment practices in, 63

energy use in, 46, 49-50

in global energy system evolution, 57, 62-63

technology transfer agreements, 115

transition to energy sustainability, 8, 40

Dissipative loss, 31

Draft Ministerial Declaration for the Second World Climate Conference , 114

E

Earth, evolution as system, 27-28

Economic Summit of Industrialized Nations (1990), 114

Economic theory

case studies in modeling of, 64-65

intergenerational equity in, 91-92

motivation for pollution prevention, 100-107

role of, 61-62

safe minimum standard in, 93-97

sustainability accounts in, 234

utilization-oriented economy, 181-190

valuation in industrial vs. service economy, 178

Educational system

engineering curriculum, 225-226

in industrial ecosystem evolution, 16-17

role in industrial ecology, 230, 237-239

Electrification, 48-49, 55

Electronics industry

chlorofluorocarbons in, 210-211

chromated coatings in, 209-210

Design for Environment in, 209, 212-213

structure, 208

technological development in, 208-209

Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act, 117

Energy, Department of, 129

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
×

Energy flows

in assessing industrial evolution, 6

in closed cycle of materials flows, 26

consumption in industrialized nations, 44-45, 46

fossil fuel, 38

in global economics, 46-47

global system, rational evolution of, 56-57

in industrial metabolism model, 23-25

price shocks, 45-46

primary consumption vs. productivity of consumption, 44-45

productivity trends, 45-47

social opposition to energy consumption, 47-48

transition to sustainability, 6-8, 17-18

Energy technology trends, 48-50

Environmental Protection Agency, 5, 99, 100, 111, 149, 211

regulatory approach, 104, 105-106, 129, 194

Equilibrium models, economic, 61-62

F

Federal Facility Compliance Act, 155

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, 105

Fossil fuels

benefit-pollution comparison, 39-40, 43

consumption in developing nations, 46

dissipative materials flows, 40-43

estimated current consumption, 54

estimated future consumption, 54-55

estimated supply, 50-53, 55

historical social benefits in use of, 43-44

policy questions, 38-39

social opposition to use of, 47-48

terminology, 38

in transition to sustainability, 6-8, 8-39, 55-57

U.S. consumption, 41, 54

use in developing nations, 40

Franklin, Benjamin, 220

G

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 118-119

General Services Administration, 156

Germany, 109, 115, 127, 168, 183, 206, 207

Global warming, 48, 49, 56, 57 n.2

international agreements, 114

Greenhouse gases, 8, 37 n.4, 40-42, 43, 47, 49, 55-56, 57 n.2

H

Hazardous waste

data collection, 70-72

disposal cost, 149, 154-155

lead dross as, 5, 211-212

military, 150-151, 151-152, 154-155

Hydrogen, as energy source, 48, 56

I

Industrial ecology

analytical needs, 233-235

in automobile industry, 170

biological metaphor, 36-37 n.1, 130-131 n.2

definition, 130-131 n.2, 229

economic case studies, 64-65

economic growth requirements and, 90, 91

economic theory for, 61-62, 63-64

government structure and implementation of, 129-130

implementation, 125-126, 138, 230

implications for private sector, 201-207

information needs, 233

international environmental law and, 109-110

metasystem model, 231-233

principles of, 137-138

research topics, 235-237

role of university in, 16-17, 230, 237-239

social barriers to, 124-125

social context of, 9-11

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
×

sustainable development and, 5-6

as systems approach, 3-6, 17-18, 108, 124

technological development in, 229

theoretical framework, 229-230

Industrial ecosystem

assessing materials flows in, 9

barriers to evolution of, 4-5, 18, 124-125, 205-206

biological metaphor, 2, 3, 23, 25

current assessment, 8, 205-206

engineering profession in, 226

evolutionary stages, 6, 8

incentives for corporate participation in improving, 206-207

in natural ecosystem, 28, 123

primary energy consumption vs. productivity in assessing, 44

system boundaries, 1-2

Industrial metabolism, 229

concept, 23-25

energy flows in, 26

materials flows in, 25-28

measures of, 31-35

policy implications of, as holistic perspective, 35-36

research needs, 236

role of, 218

system boundaries, 25

Information needs

Air Force Pollution Prevention Program, 163

for assessment of system sustainability, 34-35

chemical reaction engineering, 224-225

defining environmental preferability, 14

in Design for Environment process, 142-143

environmental accounting, 192, 193, 200

environmental monitoring, 235, 237

environmental policymaking, 130

industrial ecology, 233, 235-237

management information and control systems, 196-197

in materials/processes comparisons, 171

materials recovery in industrial waste flows, 4-5, 18

resource substitutability, 96, 97

technological decision-making, 231-233

university-level research, 17, 233-237

waste streams, 80

Input-output analysis

data sources, 61, 62

role of, 61, 63-64, 65, 233-234

Intergenerational equity, 91-92, 146-147

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 41, 57 n.1 n.2

International environmental law

building consensus for, 111-112

command and control approach in, 110-111

eco-labeling in, 116-117

ecosystems approach in, 116

enforcement mechanisms, 119

environmental assessments in, 117-118

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 118-119

impediments to systems approach in, 118-120

incentives in, 115

industrial ecology and, 109-110

internalizing environmental costs in, 112-113

market-based approaches in, 110-111

on pollution prevention, 114

precautionary principle in, 113-114

recycling and reuse in, 114-115

technology transfer in, 115-116

International implications, 8, 10, 39, 40

energy consumption, 46

resource substitutability, 92-93

U.S. environmental management, 226

J

Japan, 207

energy consumption, 44, 45, 46, 54

environmental governance in, 129-130

L

Landfill operations, 35, 37 n.5

automobile recycling residue in, 166-167

trends, 158-159

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
×

Lead

dross recycling, 5, 211-212

in gasoline, 34

in industrial waste stream, 73-78

in materials flow model, 9

solder alternatives in circuit boards, 146

Legal issues.

See also International environmental law;

Regulatory action

antitrust law, 5, 103, 131 n.12

consumer protection laws, 5

role of law in pollution prevention, 108-109, 120

Life cycle analysis, 13-15

in AT&T telephone design, 171-172

automobile recycling and, 169

implementation, 201-202

materials flows in industrial metabolism, 25-28

research needs, 236

role of, 141, 205, 234

London Declaration of Second North Sea Conference, 114

London Dumping Convention, 116

M

Market forces

in environmental regulation, 9, 10, 36, 47

global energy economies, 46-47

in industrial ecology models, 235

in industrial metabolism model, 23-25

in international environmental law, 110-111

intra-industry cooperation, 4-5, 12, 102-103, 127

materials recovery and, 4-5, 18

paper recycling, 4

reuse vs. recycling, 181-186

selling clean technologies, 226

in social cost vs. resource substitutability model, 94-95, 96

in utilization-oriented economy, 15-16, 128-129, 181-190

in voluntary pollution prevention, 100-104, 108

MARPOL Convention, 116

Material productivity, 9, 34

Materials flows.

See also Recycling;

Waste flows

anthropogenic nutrient fluxes, 28, 29t

in assessing industrial evolution, 6, 8

in assessing sustainability, 31-35

assessment in systems, 9

in automobile manufacturing/recycling, 165-169

in chemical engineering design paradigms, 218-220, 223-225

closed vs. open systems, 25-27

differentiating products in, 138-139

in fossil fuel use, 40-43

four-box model, 26-27

in industrial metabolism, 23-28, 31-35

natural vs. anthropogenic, 123

in sustainable development, 31

in transition to sustainable development, 15-16, 17-18

types of materials in industrial systems, 31-32

zero discharge, 8

Maximum achievable control technology, 105

Mercury, 130

Metal(s)

anthropogenic production, 123

in assessing materials flows, 9

in assessing system sustainability, 31, 34

atmospheric emissions of trace metals, 28, 30t

automobile recyclability, 165-167

emissions in fossil fuel consumption, 42, 54, 55

waste flow data, 72-78, 80-88

waste stream concentrations in recyclability, 78-80

Methane, 123

fossil fuel emissions, 37 n.4, 42

Military hardware

design specifications, 13, 140

green weaponry, 14, 140, 150-151, 159-163

hazardous waste generation and, 150-151, 151-152

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
×

Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, 114, 115, 149, 159, 210

Municipal solid waste

annual U.S. production. 69

automobile recycling residue as percentage of, 166-167

metals in, 74

N

National Hazardous Waste Survey, 70, 71, 72, 80

National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, 106

Natural ecosystem

evolution of Earth as system, 27-28

industrial ecology and, 2, 3, 123

industrial organization as biological organism, 25

Nitrogen oxides, 41, 43, 54

economic modeling of future emissions, 67t

Nuclear energy technologies, 48-49, 54, 56

O

Oil crises, 45, 46, 47, 50

Old growth forests, 95

OPEC, 45

Open-system material flow, 25-27

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

energy use in, 44, 45, 50

environmental accounting, 113

Our Common Future. 65, 90, 228

Ozone-depleting chemicals, military use of, 149, 152, 160

P

Paper/paper products

economic viability of recycling, 4

regulatory control, 105-106

vs. reusable products, 1

Pesticides, 128

Plastics, in automobile recycling, 168

Pollution prevention.

See also Air Force Pollution Prevention Program

atmospheric emissions of trace metals, 28, 30t

chemical engineering design paradigm, 223-225

conceptual development, 98, 137, 201, 222-225

economics of voluntary compliance, 100-104, 108

education/training courses, 153-154, 225-226

engineering design in, 223, 225-226

future needs, 63

industry benefits, 98-99

international law mechanisms, 110-118

intra-industry cooperation, 102-103, 127

as market value, 10

by medium, 35, 105

nitrogen oxides in, 43

regulatory solutions, 107

risk assessment and, 99

role of law in, 108-109, 120

sulfur oxides in, 43

in systems approach, 17-18, 35-36, 137

taxation incentives for, 10-11

via enforcement, 106-107

via permitting, 106-107

vs. historical benefits of fossil fuels, 39-40, 43-44

Pollution Prevention Act, 105, 109

Postconsumer waste, 69, 70-72

Private sector.

See also Accounting practice

benefits of Design for Environment, 140

benefits of pollution prevention for, 98-99

economic motivation for pollution prevention, 100-104

environmental leadership by management, 203

in evolution of industrial ecosystems, 11-13

industrial organization as biological organism, 25

industrial technology and, 201-207

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
×

in international environmental law development, 111-112

intra-industry cooperation, 4-5, 12, 102-103, 127

life cycle assessments in economic decisions, 13-15, 141

motivation of, research needs on, 236- 237

organizational structure of firms, 37 n.8

total environmental cost accounting, 15

in utilization-oriented economy, 15-16, 128-129, 181-183

voluntary initiatives vs. government regulation, 47, 100

Product design/development.

See also Design for Environment

automobile recyclability, 167-170

consumer interest in green products, 140

customer specifications in, 13, 140

engineering education and, 16-17, 225-226

engineering profession in, 217-218

environmental assessment methodology, 172-176

environmental factors in, 11, 12-13

geographic impacts, 146

government intervention, 125

in industrial ecology concept, 126

intergenerational considerations, 146-147

life cycle assessment in, 13-15, 141

participants in, 205

product complexity/materials and, 138-139

supplier management systems in, 12-13, 142, 155-156

telephone, case study, 171-177

total environmental cost in, 15, 125-126

in utilization-oriented economy, 188

Product labeling, 116-117

Productivity of materials, 9, 34

R

Reaction products, 222

Recycling

in Air Force Pollution Prevention Program, 159

in assessing industrial evolution, 6, 8

in assessing system sustainability, 31, 34

assessment of environmental cost in, 172-173

in automobile industry, 165-167

closed loop model, 179-183

complexity of product design and, 138-139

concentration in waste stream and, 78-80, 88

as conclusion of materials flow, 31

information needs, 4, 18

international agreements, 114-115

of lead waste, 73, 74-78, 211-212

liability concept in, 181-186

market force barriers to, 4-5, 18

optimizing use of goods vs., 183-186, 189-190

parts labeling in manufacturing process, 167, 174

plastics, 168

regulatory barriers to, 5, 18

remanufacturing, 129, 132 n.16, 166

take-back regulations, 127-128, 129, 139, 168, 183, 206, 207

telephone, 176

waste flows in systems approach, 3-4, 17-18

Regulatory action

automobile industry and, 169-170

chlorofluorocarbons in electronics industry, 210-211

command-and-control approach, 104, 109, 110-111, 126, 138, 212, 213

in corporate accounting, 194

economics of voluntary pollution prevention and, 101-104, 108

encouraging use vs. production of goods, 128-129

federal approaches, 104-107, 129

government purchasing procedure as, 155-158

hazardous classification of lead dross, 5, 211-212

in holistic perspective, 35-36

indications for, 10, 47, 103-104

in industrial ecology models, 235

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
×

in industrial metabolism perspective, 35-36

market orientation of, 9, 10, 125-126

as obstacle to industrial ecosystem evolution, 5, 10, 18, 47, 209, 212-213

on packaging, 206

product complexity and, 139

product design process, 125

in promoting intra-industry cooperation, 127

prospects, 107

in social cost vs. resource substitutability model, 94-95

state level, 104

structure of government and, 129-130

systems approach in, 126-128, 129-130

take-back regulations for industry, 127-128, 129, 139, 168, 206, 207

technical knowledge in, 212-213

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 5, 71, 106, 131 n.11, 211

Rio Declaration, 113

S

Safe minimum standard, 93-97

Sherwood diagram, 69-70, 78, 88

Service economy, valuation in, 178

Social values

barriers to ecological systems perspective, 124-125

ecological-economic linkages needed in, 124

in industrial ecology, 9-11

opposition to energy consumption, 47-48

pollution vs., in fossil fuel use, 39-40, 43-44

resource substitutability and, in limiting scenarios, 10, 93-97

technological development and, 220-222

Solar energy, 48, 49

Steady-state systems, 26.

See also Sustainable systems

Structural economics, 61, 62, 64

Substitutability of resources, 37 n.7, 91, 92-93

social costs and, in limiting scenarios, 10, 93-97

Sulfur

anthropogenic emissions, 41-42

waste flow of, 32-33

Sulfur oxides, 41, 43, 54

economic modeling of future emissions, 66

Summit of the Arch, 114

Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act, 71

Sustainability

economic modeling, 234

industrial ecology and, 5-6

intergenerational equity calculations, 91-92, 146-147

materials flows in assessment of, 31-35

meaning of, 5, 90-91, 228

research needs, 236

resource substitution for, 90-91, 92-93

technological change for, 228-229

transition to, 6-8, 15-16, 17-18, 38-39, 55-57, 237-239

T

Take-back regulations, 127-128, 129, 139, 168, 183, 206, 207

Taxation

to encourage evolution of industrial ecosystems, 10-11, 126

energy use and, 45-46, 47

Taylor, Frederick, 37 n.8

Technological development

attitudes toward, 220-222

research needs, 237

role of, 228-229

Telephone design, case study of, 171-177

Thoreau, Henry David, 220-221

Total quality management, 11, 12, 205, 211

Toxic Release Inventory, 70, 71

Toxic Substances Control Act, 105

Treaty on European Union, 114

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
×

U

United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, 62, 64, 99, 113-114, 228

Utilization-oriented economy, 181-190

V

Volatile organic compounds, 41, 42, 132 n.18

W

Waste flows.

See also Materials flows

of chlorofluorocarbons, 33

concentration in, and recyclability of metals, 78-80, 88

current estimates, 69

data sources, 70-71, 72, 80

estimating resource values in, 72

fast food industry, 131 n. 10

industrial, 40-41, 71-72

lead in, 9

metals in, 73-78

in military settings, 152, 154-155

recoverable materials in, 69

recycle/reuse loops, 179-183

of sulfur, 32

in systems approach, 3-4

waste reduction strategies, 178-179

Waste sinks, 2

Wetlands, 95

World Charter for Nature, 114

World Commission on Environment and Development, 90, 228

World Energy Council, 41

Z

Zero discharge, 8, 100, 223

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academy of Engineering. 1994. The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2129.
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Page 259
The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems Get This Book
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In the 1970s, the first wave of environmental regulation targeted specific sources of pollutants. In the 1990s, concern is focused not on the ends of pipes or the tops of smokestacks but on sweeping regional and global issues.

This landmark volume explores the new industrial ecology, an emerging framework for making environmental factors an integral part of economic and business decision making. Experts on this new frontier explore concepts and applications, including

  • Bringing international law up to par with many national laws to encourage industrial ecology principles.
  • Integrating environmental costs into accounting systems.
  • Understanding design for environment, industrial "metabolism," and sustainable development and how these concepts will affect the behavior of industrial and service firms.

The volume looks at negative and positive aspects of technology and addresses treatment of waste as a raw material.

This volume will be important to domestic and international policymakers, leaders in business and industry, environmental specialists, and engineers and designers.

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