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Suggested Citation:"Acronym List." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Next Generation Earth System Prediction: Strategies for Subseasonal to Seasonal Forecasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21873.
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Acronym List

3D-Var Three-Dimensional Variational data assimilation
4D-EnVar Four-Dimensional Ensemble-Variational data assimilation
4D-Var Four-Dimensional Variational data assimilation
ABL atmospheric boundary layer
ABOM Australian Bureau of Meteorology
AeroNet Aerosol Robotic Network
AFWA Air Force Weather Agency
AIRS Atmospheric Infrared Sounder
AMDAR Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay
AMMA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis
AMS American Meteorological Society
AMSR-E advanced microwave scanning radiometer
AMSU Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit
AMV atmospheric motion vector
AMY Asian Monsoon Year
ANOVA analysis of variance
AO Atlantic Oscillation
APCC APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) Climate Center
ASCAT Advanced Scatterometer
AUV autonomous underwater vehicle
BSISO Boreal Summer Intraseasonal Oscillation
CBS Commission for Basic Systems
CESM Community Earth System Model
CFS Climate Forecast System
CFSR Climate Forecast System Reanalysis
CFSv2 Climate Forecast System version 2
CIME Common Infrastructure for Modeling the Environment
CliPAS Climate Prediction and its Application to Society
CMC Canadian Meteorological Centre
CMIP Coupled Model Intercomparison Project
COAMPS Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System
Suggested Citation:"Acronym List." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Next Generation Earth System Prediction: Strategies for Subseasonal to Seasonal Forecasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21873.
×
CODAR Coastal Ocean Dynamics Applications Radar
CPC Climate Prediction Center
CPT Climate Process Team
CPTEC Brazil Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Studies
CrIS Crosstrack Infrared Sounder
CYGNSS Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System
DA data assimilation
DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
DEMETER Development of a European Multi-model Ensemble system for seasonal to inTERannual predictions
DHS U.S. Department of Homeland Security
DO Dynamically Orthogonal
DOD U.S. Department of Defense
DOE U.S. Department of Energy
DTRA Defense Threat Reduction Agency
DWH Deepwater Horizon
DYNAMO Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation
ECMWF European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts
ECOSTRESS ECOsystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station
EnKF Ensemble Kalman Filter data assimilation
ENSEMBLES European Commission FP7 project
ENSO El Niño-Southern Oscillation
ERA Interim ECMWF Interim Reanalysis
ESM Earth system model
ESMF Earth System Modeling Framework
ESPC Earth System Modeling Capability
ET-OPSLS Expert Team on Operational Predictions from Subseasonal to Longer-time Scales
EUMETSAT European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites
FNMOC Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center
GATE GARP (Global Atmosphere Research Program) Atlantic Tropical Experiment
GDP Global Drifter Program
GEFS Global Ensemble Forecast System
Suggested Citation:"Acronym List." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Next Generation Earth System Prediction: Strategies for Subseasonal to Seasonal Forecasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21873.
×
GFDL Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory
GHG greenhouse gas
GLDAS Global Land Data Assimilation System
GMM Gaussian Mixture Model
GOES Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite
GPM Global Precipitation Mission
GPS global positioning system
GPS-RO Global Positioning System Radio Occulation
GTH Global Tropics Hazards and Benefits Assessment
HadGEM3 Hadley Centre Global Environment Model version 3
HPC high-performance computing
IASI Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer
ICESat2 Second generation Ice Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite
IFS Integrated Forecast System
IGIM Interagency Group on Integrative Modeling
IMAAC Interagency Modeling and Atmospheric Assessment Center
IMD India Meteorology Department
IOD Indian Ocean Dipole
IOOS Integrated Ocean Observing System
IOP intensive observing period
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IRI International Research Institute for Climate and Society
ISI intraseasonal to interannual
ISS International Space Station
ITCZ Inter Tropical Convergence Zone
JAXA Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
JEDI Joint Effort for Data Assimilation Integration
JMA Japan Meteorological Agency
JPL Jet Propulsion Laboratory
KL Karhunen-Loève
LANL Los Alamos National Laboratory
LDAS Land Data Assimilation System
LES Large-eddy simulation
LIS Land Information System
Suggested Citation:"Acronym List." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Next Generation Earth System Prediction: Strategies for Subseasonal to Seasonal Forecasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21873.
×
LSM land-surface model
MCMC Markov chain Monte Carlo
MERIT Meningitis Environmental Research Information Technologies
MIZ Marginal Ice Zone
MJO Madden-Julian Oscillation
MME multi-model ensemble
MODIS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer
MOS model output statistics
MOSAiC Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate
MPI Message Passing Interface
MPLNet Micro-Pulse Lidar Network
NAM Northern Annular Mode
NAO North Atlantic Oscillation
NARAC National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NASCar Northern Arabian Sea Circulation—autonomous research
NAVGEM NAVy Global Environmental Model
NAVO Naval Oceanographic Office
NCAR National Center for Atmospheric Research
NCEP National Centers for Environmental Prediction
NEMO Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean
NEPTUNE Navy Environmental Prediction sysTem Utilizing the NUMA corE
NGGPS Next Generation Global Prediction System
NISAC National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center
NMME North American Multi-Model Ensemble
NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NRL Naval Research Laboratory
NSF National Science Foundation
NUMA Nonhydrostatic Unified Model of the Atmosphere DG core
NVM non-volatile memory
NWP numerical weather prediction
NWS U.S. National Weather Service
OAR Office of Oceanic & Atmospheric Research
OLR outgoing longwave radiation
ONR Office of Naval Research
OOPS Object Oriented Programming System
Suggested Citation:"Acronym List." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Next Generation Earth System Prediction: Strategies for Subseasonal to Seasonal Forecasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21873.
×
OpenMP Open Multi-Processing
OSSE Observing System Simulation Experiment
PCAST President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology
PDE partial differential equation
PIM processor in memory
PinT parallel in time
PIO Parallel I/O
PNA Pacific North American teleconnection pattern
QBO Quasi-Biennial Oscillation
R2O research to operations
RISA Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments Program
RMM Real-time Multivariate MJO index
RMSE root mean square error
S2S subseasonal to seasonal
SAON Sustaining Arctic Observing Network
SBIR Small Business Innovation Research
SHEBA Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean
SMAP Soil Moisture Active Passive
SMIP-2 Seasonal Prediction Model Intercomparison Project
SMOS Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity
SNOTEL Snowpack Telemetry
SOCRATES Southern Ocean Clouds, Radiation, Aerosol Transport Experimental Study
SPERR Scientific Partnerships Enabling Rapid Response
SPURS-2 Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study 2
SSD Solid State Devices
SSH sea surface height
SSM/I Special Sensor Microwave Imager
SST sea surface temperature
SSW sudden stratospheric warning
SWE snow water equivalent
SWOT Surface Water and Ocean Topography
TAMDAR Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting
TAO/TRITON Tropical Atmosphere Ocean/Triangle Trans-Ocean Buoy Network
TCWB Taiwan Central Weather Bureau
Suggested Citation:"Acronym List." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Next Generation Earth System Prediction: Strategies for Subseasonal to Seasonal Forecasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21873.
×
THORPEX The Observing system Research and Predictability Experiment
TIGGE THORPEX Interactive Grand Global Ensemble
TIROS Television Infrared Observation Satellite
TOGA COARE Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment
TPOS Tropical Pacific Observing System
TRMM Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission
UKMO United Kingdom Met Office
USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture
USGCRP U.S. Global Change Research Program
VAD Velocity Azimuth Display
VES Virtual Earth System
VOCALS-Rex VAMOS (Variability of the American Monsoon Systems) Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment
WCRP World Climate Research Programme
WCS World Climate Service
WERA WavE RAdar
WGNE Working Group on Numerical Experimentation
WHO World Health Organization
WMO World Meteorological Organization
WWRP World Weather Research Programme
XBT Expendable Bathythermograph
YMC Years of the Maritime Continent
YOPP Year of Polar Prediction
YOTC Year of Tropical Convection
Suggested Citation:"Acronym List." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Next Generation Earth System Prediction: Strategies for Subseasonal to Seasonal Forecasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21873.
×
Page 279
Suggested Citation:"Acronym List." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Next Generation Earth System Prediction: Strategies for Subseasonal to Seasonal Forecasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21873.
×
Page 280
Suggested Citation:"Acronym List." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Next Generation Earth System Prediction: Strategies for Subseasonal to Seasonal Forecasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21873.
×
Page 281
Suggested Citation:"Acronym List." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Next Generation Earth System Prediction: Strategies for Subseasonal to Seasonal Forecasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21873.
×
Page 282
Suggested Citation:"Acronym List." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Next Generation Earth System Prediction: Strategies for Subseasonal to Seasonal Forecasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21873.
×
Page 283
Suggested Citation:"Acronym List." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Next Generation Earth System Prediction: Strategies for Subseasonal to Seasonal Forecasts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21873.
×
Page 284
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As the nation’s economic activities, security concerns, and stewardship of natural resources become increasingly complex and globally interrelated, they become ever more sensitive to adverse impacts from weather, climate, and other natural phenomena. For several decades, forecasts with lead times of a few days for weather and other environmental phenomena have yielded valuable information to improve decision-making across all sectors of society. Developing the capability to forecast environmental conditions and disruptive events several weeks and months in advance could dramatically increase the value and benefit of environmental predictions, saving lives, protecting property, increasing economic vitality, protecting the environment, and informing policy choices.

Over the past decade, the ability to forecast weather and climate conditions on subseasonal to seasonal (S2S) timescales, i.e., two to fifty-two weeks in advance, has improved substantially. Although significant progress has been made, much work remains to make S2S predictions skillful enough, as well as optimally tailored and communicated, to enable widespread use. Next Generation Earth System Predictions presents a ten-year U.S. research agenda that increases the nation’s S2S research and modeling capability, advances S2S forecasting, and aids in decision making at medium and extended lead times.

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