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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. A Guidebook on Transit-Supportive Roadway Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21929.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. A Guidebook on Transit-Supportive Roadway Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21929.
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T R A N S I T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M TCRP REPORT 183 TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2016 www.TRB.org Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation Subject Areas Pedestrians and Bicyclists • Public Transportation • Operations and Traffic Management A Guidebook on Transit-Supportive Roadway Strategies Paul Ryus Kelly Laustsen Kelly Blume Scott Beaird Kittelson & AssociAtes, inc. Reston, VA Susan Langdon sAvAnt Group, inc. Richardson, TX

TCRP REPORT 183 Project A-39 ISSN 1073-4872 ISBN 978-0-309-37509-2 © 2016 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The nation’s growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Cur- rent systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating prob- lems, adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and introduce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Coopera- tive Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213—Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administration—now the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- solving research. TCRP, modeled after the successful National Coop- erative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), undertakes research and other technical activities in response to the needs of transit ser- vice providers. The scope of TCRP includes various transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooperating organi- zations: FTA; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research organization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identi- fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. The panels prepare project statements (requests for propos- als), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired effect if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminat- ing TCRP results to the intended users of the research: transit agen- cies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, train- ing aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are imple- mented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Published reports of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This guidebook was developed under TCRP Project A-39. Paul Ryus of Kittelson & Associates, Inc. (KAI) was the Principal Investigator. Other authors of the report were Kelly Laustsen, Kelly Blume, and Scott Beaird of KAI and Susan Langdon of Savant Group, Inc. Additional members of the research team were Zachary Bugg, Jon Crisafi, Alexandra Jahnle, Kevin Lee, Eric Lindstrom, Alex Skabardonis, and Tom Urbanik of KAI; Jennifer Butcher, Joshua Smith, and Omar Venzor of Savant Group, Inc.; and Brelend Gowan. Jackie Olsommer and Dorret Oosterhoff of KAI provided administrative assistance. The researchers thank the organizations (listed in the contractor’s final report, which is available as TCRP Web-Only Document 66 at www.trb.org) and their staff members who took the time to participate in interviews during the course of the project. CRP STAFF FOR TCRP REPORT 183 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Stephan A. Parker, Senior Program Officer Megan A. Chamberlain, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Doug English, Editor TCRP PROJECT A-39 PANEL Field of Operations Maurice Palumbo, Golden Gate Bridge Highway and Transportation District, San Rafael, CA (Chair) Billie Louise “Beezy” Bentzen, Accessible Design for the Blind, Berlin, MA Paul T. Casey, Lafayette MPO, Lafayette, LA Xueming “Jimmy” Chen, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA David T. Crout, C-TRAN, Vancouver, WA Todd Hemingson, Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Austin, TX Sean Kennedy, San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency (SFMTA), San Francisco, CA Irin C. Limargo, King County (WA) Metro Transit, Seattle, WA Franklin L. Spielberg, Falls Church, VA James B. Webb, Project Engineering Consultants, West Jordan, UT Dominique Paukowits, FTA Liaison Kyle Bell, APTA Liaison Rich Sampson, Community Transportation Association of America Liaison Richard A. Cunard, TRB Liaison

TCRP Report 183: A Guidebook on Transit-Supportive Roadway Strategies (1) identifies consistent and uniform strategies to improve transportation network efficiency to reduce delay and improve reliability for transit operations on roadways; (2) develops decision- making guidance for operational planning and functional design of transit/traffic opera- tions on roads that provides information on warrants, costs, and impacts of strategies; (3) identifies the components of model institutional structures and intergovernmental agree- ments for successful implementation; and (4) identifies potential changes to the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) and related documents to facilitate implementa- tion of selected strategies. TCRP Report 183 is a resource for transit and roadway agency staff seeking to improve bus speed and reliability on surface streets while addressing the needs of other roadway users, including motorists, bicyclists, and pedestrians. TCRP Project A-39, “Improving Transportation Network Efficiency Through Implemen- tation of Transit-Supportive Roadway Strategies,” conducted an extensive review of transit- preferential treatments used in the United States and internationally, including information on when these treatments are applied and how they are designed. The researchers interviewed a number of transit and roadway agencies to identify lessons observed and effective practices from actual project implementations, with a particular focus on successful techniques for transit agencies, roadway agencies, and project stakeholders to work together toward out- comes that benefit all parties involved. The project presents findings from a series of gap- filling research efforts on (1) innovative international strategies not yet in common use in the United States; (2) a simulation study of the effects of stop location, transit signal priority, and queue jumps on bus and general traffic travel times and travel time variability; (3) an evalu- ation of selected strategies implemented in the Seattle area; and (4) identifying conditions when the delay benefit produced by a strategy at an upstream intersection is lost at the next downstream signal, resulting in no net benefit. Finally, the research report identifies possible changes to the next edition of AASHTO’s Guide for Geometric Design of Transit Facilities on Highways and Streets, based on the findings of this project. This project created three products that are available on the TRB website (www.TRB.org) by searching for “TCRP Report 183”: (1) this guidebook, (2) a research report on the method- ology used to develop the guidebook (TCRP Web-Only Document 66), and (3) a PowerPoint presentation describing the entire project. F O R E W O R D By Stephan A. Parker Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

1 Summary 6 Chapter 1 Introduction 6 1.1 What Is a Transit-Supportive Roadway Strategy? 7 1.2 How to Use This Guidebook 8 1.3 How This Guidebook Was Developed 8 1.4 Terminology 8 1.5 Additional Resources 10 Chapter 2 The Need for Transit-Supportive Roadway Strategies 10 2.1 Challenges Faced by Transit Agencies 11 2.2 Types of Strategies 12 2.3 Success Stories 22 Chapter 3 Ingredients for a Successful Project 22 3.1 Developing Agency Partnerships 26 3.2 Working Within the Policy Environment 29 3.3 Problem Identification and Strategy Development 31 3.4 Working Within the Regulatory Environment 33 3.5 Engaging Project Stakeholders 35 3.6 Implementing the Project 38 3.7 Quantifying the Results 39 3.8 Building on Success 40 Chapter 4 Selecting an Appropriate Strategy 40 4.1 Overview 40 4.2 Potential Selection Criteria 42 4.3 Problems and Potential Strategies 45 4.4 Evaluating Strategies on a Corridor Basis 45 4.5 Strategy Selection Matrix 48 Chapter 5 Bus Operations Strategy Toolbox 48 5.1 Stop Relocation 52 5.2 Stop Consolidation 56 5.3 Route Design 58 5.4 Fare Payment Changes 62 5.5 Vehicle or Equipment Changes 66 Chapter 6 Traffic Control Strategy Toolbox 66 6.1 Movement Restriction Exemption 69 6.2 Turn Restrictions 71 6.3 Yield to Bus 73 6.4 Passive Traffic Signal Timing Adjustments C O N T E N T S

76 6.5 Phase Reservice 78 6.6 Traffic Signal Shadowing 81 6.7 Transit Signal Priority 87 6.8 Transit Signal Faces 89 6.9 Bus-Only Signal Phases 92 6.10 Queue Jumps 99 6.11 Pre-Signals 105 6.12 Traffic Signal Installed Specifically for Buses 108 6.13 Traffic Control Enforcement 111 Chapter 7 Infrastructure Strategy Toolbox 111 7.1 Speed Hump Modifications 113 7.2 Bus Stop Lengthening 115 7.3 Bus Shoulder Use 117 7.4 Red-Colored Pavement 119 7.5 Curb Extensions 122 7.6 Boarding Islands 126 7.7 Bus-Only Links 130 Chapter 8 Bus Lane Toolbox 130 8.1 Bus Lanes (Generally) 134 8.2 Curbside Bus Lane 136 8.3 Shared Bus and Bicycle Lane 138 8.4 Interior (Offset) Bus Lane 140 8.5 Left-Side Bus Lane 141 8.6 Queue Bypass 143 8.7 Median Bus Lane 145 8.8 Contraflow Bus Lane 148 8.9 Reversible Bus Lane 152 Appendix A Understanding Traffic Engineering Practice (for Transit Professionals) 161 Appendix B Understanding Transit Operations (for Transportation Engineers and Planners) 167 Appendix C Managing Bus and Bicycle Interactions 181 Appendix D Request to Experiment Template 188 Appendix E Glossary 195 Acronyms and Abbreviations 196 References 200 Photo and Illustration Credits

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TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Report 183: A Guidebook on Transit-Supportive Roadway Strategies is a resource for transit and roadway agency staff seeking to improve bus speed and reliability on surface streets, while addressing the needs of other roadway users, including motorists, bicyclists, and pedestrians.

The guidebook identifies consistent and uniform strategies to help improve transportation network efficiency to reduce delay and improve reliability for transit operations on roadways; and includes decision-making guidance for operational planning and functional design of transit/traffic operations on roads that provides information on warrants, costs, and impacts of strategies.

The guidebook also identifies the components of model institutional structures and intergovernmental agreements for successful implementation; and highlights potential changes to the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) and related documents to facilitate implementation of selected strategies.

In addition to the report, TCRP Web-Only Document 66: Improving Transportation Network Efficiency Through Implementation of Transit-Supportive Roadway Strategies documents the methodology used to develop the report.

A PowerPoint presentation accompanies the report.

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