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1 TCRP Project F-18, âPolicing and Security Practices for Small and Medium-Sized Public Transit Agenciesâ has been directed toward broadening the current state of practice and identifying and responding to the specific challenges and issues associated with the security of small- and medium-sized transit agencies. For the purpose of this report, a small transit agency is defined as serving a population of less than 50,000 people whereas a medium agency serves a population of between 50,000 and 200,000 people. This is an introductory reference document with an anticipated primary user group of transit agency personnel without a security background whose work requires them to address, perform, or supervise security activities as a part of their overall job responsibilities. The F-18 research supports an initial hypothesis that there are significant differences between the security risks, needs, and issues facing smaller agencies when compared to those of large metropolitan transit systems. Police and security problems at small- and medium- sized systems occur with much less frequency or magnitude of severity. A survey of large, medium, and small transit agencies revealed that the smaller the system the less probable it is for the agency to experience significant levels of crime or disorder. Similarly, homeland security- or terrorism-related threats rarely occur on smaller systems. However, serious crime, including violent crime does occur infrequently, on smaller systems. There is also the potential for major security events or crises. Commensurate with the reduced risk that smaller agencies are facing, small- and medium- sized agencies spend less time and resources on security, employ fewer dedicated security personnelâ87% of small-sized transit agencies and 83% of medium-sized transit agencies report having no dedicated security staffâand depend to a much higher degree on obtain- ing assistance from local area police and occasionally contract security forces. Fewer agencies maintain security plans or deploy security countermeasures to minimize risk, with 91% of small agencies indicating no budget or budget under $25,000 set aside for security. Forty-four percent of medium-sized agencies have no security budget and an additional 34% spend less than $25,000 per year. The chapters that follow provide small- and medium-sized agencies with important infor- mation about the security risks that are typically present for transit agencies of similar size and operations. The risk of terrorism and homeland security, crime problems, and order- maintenance issues are all discussed in extensive detail with a concentration on major areas of concern for surface transportation operators. Countermeasures, plans, and strategies are then described for each of the identified areas of concern. Chapter 1 starts with an overview of risk management and distinguishes security risk from the other types of hazard and safety concerns that may impact smaller transit agencies. S U M M A R Y Policing and Security Practices for Small- and Medium-Sized Public Transit Systems
2 Policing and Security Practices for Small- and Medium-Sized Public Transit Systems There is an overview of security and crime occurring in the United States followed by a description of commonly reported incidents occurring in public transit systems. Chapter 2 depicts the critical assets and infrastructure of a typical large, medium, and small transit system. As disclosed in a survey conducted by the research team small- and medium- sized transit agencies generally fall into the category of single service bus-only, or van trans- portation providers. Chapter 3 presents further survey information about small- and medium-sized agencies summarized into comparative tables. For the purpose of this report, a small transit agency is defined as serving a population of less than 50,000 people whereas a medium agency serves a population of between 50,000 and 200,000 people. Data obtained from representative agen- cies is included in individualized small- and medium-sized agency profiles that document (1) agency critical assets, (2) terrorism and homeland security incident occurrences, (3) crime rates for violent offenses as well as lesser property crimes, (4) quality-of-life problems, and (5) countermeasures and other security measures commonly in use to reduce security vulnerabilities. Relative risk analysis is also categorized for each agency type. Chapter 4 provides data tables that compare public transit crime statistics from 30 years ago with current crime rates. There is also a discussion about reporting procedures and gaps in information caused by continuing difficulties in data collection and analysis. Detailed information about security problems specific to small- and medium-sized transit agencies is provided in Chapter 5. Subject areas of coverage include (1) passenger security, (2) employee security, (3) revenue security, (4) transit equipment and property protection, (5) fraud, and (6) homeland security-related threats and vulnerabilities. An in-depth descrip- tion of topics such as robbery, aggravated assault against transit operators, fare evasion, and vandalism of transit properties is highlighted. Chapter 6 begins the discussion of security countermeasures. Options associated with police and security staffing are described along with security force planning models and tools for use by small- and medium-sized transit agencies. In Chapter 7, fundamental aspects of security strategy and countermeasures directly focused toward the specific security risks of small- and medium-sized agencies are discussed in the context of the profiled and identified security problems, issues, and vulnerabilities. These identified security risks include ensuring the protection of (1) vehicles in transit on highways, rural and suburban city, borough, and township streets, or other roadways; (2) infrastructure such as unstaffed bus shelters or bus stops, vehicle storage depots, bus sta- tions, and maintenance facilities necessary to support these conveyances; (3) employees who operate the conveyances; (4) administrative and management staff; and (5) the passengers who use the agencyâs transportation services. Chapter 8 examines security planning objectives and highlights the core components or elements needed to ensure that a comprehensive plan is developed. The survey of small- and medium-sized transit agencies confirmed that just under half of small and two-thirds of medium-sized agencies have previously conducted risk assessments and developed security plans. To assist readers of the this report, the following security planning tools are identified and referenced, including (1) Transportation Security Administration (TSA)/Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Security and Emergency Management Action Items for Transit Agen- cies; (2) TSA Baseline Assessment and Security Enhancement (BASE) Program; (3) The Pub- lic Transportation System Security and Emergency Preparedness Planning Guide; (4) TCRP Report 86: Public Transportation Security, Volume 10, Hazard and Security Plan Workshop: Instructor Guide; and (5) APTA Recommended Practice Series for Security.