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12 C H A P T E R 2 Figure 2.1 and Table 2.1 depict the critical assets and infrastructure of a typical large transit system. Depending on the size and operating characteristics of the agency, the listing of these assets can be quite complex. At one end of the continuum is multimodal transit systems consist- ing of multiple types of services: commuter rail, light rail, city bus, perhaps trolley, and paratransit and specialty transportation services. These types of systems tend to have significant infrastruc- ture including numerous stations; stops and intermodal facilities; administrative buildings and operations centers; maintenance yards; garages and vehicle storage depots; bridges, tunnels, right- of-way support assets, including electrical and communications substations, repair shops, and various types of rolling stock, rail cars, trains, buses, vans, autos, ferries, trucks, etc. At the other end of the spectrum are singular service transportation providers who generally are limited to bus-only or automotive and van types of conveyances. These smaller types of agen- cies have minimal infrastructure with few fixed assets. Often any major station stops serviced by this group are either leased or co-located within multimodal transit centers. Repair and mainte- nance support services are leased; there are no rights-of-way, tunnels or bridges and in general terms it can be stated that the sole critical assets needing security protection for these small systems are their vehicles and the passengers they transport. Obviously the absence of critical assets reduces the requirements for security. If there are no major stations to protect, or rights- of-way, tunnels, bridges, or maintenance facilities to worry about, the agencyâs responsibilities are basically limited to what happens on their vehicles to their staff and passengers. Of course this may in some cases be an oversimplification of the problem because of the existence of bus stops, transit shelters, or perhaps even public rest rooms, which may also fall under the direct control of the agency. Ninety-three (93%) percent of the small- and medium-sized transit agencies surveyed during this project fall into the category of single service bus-only, or van transportation providers. The exceptions were 3 medium-sized agencies who indicated having both train and bus service, and 14 who included trolleybus. Virtually all of the bus agencies also reported that they were running paratransit. See Figures 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, and 2.5. The assets needing protection for both small and medium-sized agencies are remarkably similar, consisting principally of rolling stock and the passengers and employees on board tran- sit agency vehicles. Simply put, the activities occurring on board vehicles requires the great- est attention from a crime control standpoint. Although ostensibly the security of passengers waiting at bus stops would add to these concerns, typically crime, at these locations, would be the direct responsibility of local police. Parking lots would also usually represent an area of security vulnerability; however, these as well are rarely within the area of responsibility of small- or medium-sized transit agencies. Along with buses and paratransit vehicles, the protection of any administrative facilities, owned stations, bus storage depots or facilities, or other properties Small- and Medium-Sized Transit Agency Security Environment
Small- and Medium-Sized Transit Agency Security Environment 13 occupied by agency personnel represents the usual extent of security responsibility for smaller agencies. Small-Sized Agencies Table 2.2 lists the types of agency infrastructure assets that were considered in the survey of small-sized transit agencies conducted during this research project. Small agencies typically (1) occupied one administrative building/facility (90%); (2) maintained one bus garage or repair facility (82%); (3) operated through one or fewer passenger terminals (82%); operated through one or fewer intermodal facilities (100%); and owned virtually no elevated structures, tunnels, bridges, or subways, private rights-of-way, or substations. The data collected do not include rolling stock. Medium-Sized Agencies Table 2.3 lists the types of agency infrastructure assets that were considered in the survey of medium-sized transit agencies conducted during this research project. Medium-sized agencies typically (1) occupied one administrative building/facility (80%); (2) maintained one bus garage or repair facility (79%); (3) operated through one or fewer passenger terminals (77%); operated through one or fewer intermodal facilities (90%); and owned some elevated structures, tunnels, bridges, or subways, private rights-of-way, or substations. The data collected do not include rolling stock. Figure 2.1. Public transit agency infrastructure assets (Rabkin 2004).
14 Policing and Security Practices for Small- and Medium-Sized Public Transit Systems Transit Agency Assets 1. Transit Staonsâfacilies used for boarding and alighng of transit passengers, and fare collecon; they can be below-grade, at-grade, or elevated. Their high profile, large volumes of pedestrian traffic, and central locaons integrated with surrounding uses, make them more likely targets for terrorist aÂack. 2. Transit Stopsâusually smaller and more open than transit staons. They are typically on public land, where passengers can board buses and light rail vehicles; these include everything from elaborate shelters to mere signposts. Transit agencies oÂ en lack control over these sites, which, combined with their high level of accessibility, makes them difficult to secure against aÂack. 3. Administrave Facilies and Operaons Control Centers (OCCs)âused for the operaons and administraon of the transit system and may be co-located on a site with non-transit uses. Although most administrave facilies are not open to the public and can therefore maintain stricter access control, they have a crical role in the transit system and have value as strategic targets. 4. Vehicle Maintenance Faciliesâused for the repair and storage of transit vehicles; they include vehicle garages, yards, and repair facilies. They oÂ en contain a large number of assets to be protected, including some high-risk elements such as fuel storage areas or containers. Maintenance facilies can be designed to allow transit vehicles and maintenance staff to enter and exit freely, while prevenng access by unauthorized vehicles and people. 5. Elevated Structuresâall above-grade bridges and track structures, including pedestrian bridges and overpasses. Their high visibility and structural complexity present parcular challenges to securing them against terrorist aÂack. 6. Tunnelsâused for the passage of transit vehicles underground and, in limited cases, underwater. They are more secure when designed to prevent unauthorized access from passenger plaÂorms and at-grade entrances, while allowing transit vehicles to pass freely. Proper design can also facilitate evacuaon in an emergency. 7. Right-of-Way, Track, and Signalsâincludes all land and equipment dedicated to the movement of transit vehicles between staons. Like tunnels, a design goal is to allow transit vehicle movement while prevenng access by unauthorized people or vehicles. 8. Remote and Unmanned Structuresâall other physical assets. This category includes power substaons, communicaons relays, and the like, which are not necessarily located on rights-of- way or in staons. These may be owned or controlled by other agencies or companies. Design features that take into account their remote locaons and lack of consistent or connuous staff presence can improve their security. Table 2.1. Transit agency assets. Bus Rail Paratransit Trolleybus Other Figure 2.2. Small- and medium-sized transit agencies service type.
Small- and Medium-Sized Transit Agency Security Environment 15 Figure 2.3. Service type. 1 to 10 11 to 25 26 to 50 51 to 75 Figure 2.5. Fleet sizeâparatransit. Fleet Size - Bus 1 to 10 11 to 25 26 to 50 51 to 75 76 to 150 Over 150 Unsure Figure 2.4. Fleet sizeâbus.
16 Policing and Security Practices for Small- and Medium-Sized Public Transit Systems Asset Type Number of Assets 0 1 2-6 7-12 Administrave Buildings/Facilies 8 83 12 0 Maintenance Facilies (Rail Yard and Bus Garage) 10 79 7 0 Passenger Terminals/Staons 14 39 14 2 Intermodal Centers 18 27 4 1 Elevated Structures Yes (8) Tunnels, Bridges, and Subways Yes (7) Private Right-of- Way Yes (5) Substaons Yes (2) Table 2.3. Number of agency infrastructure assets for medium-sized transit systems. Asset Type Number of Assets 0 1 2-6 7-12 Administrave Buildings/Facilies 1 58 5 0 Maintenance Facilies (Rail Yard and Bus Garage) 6 40 3 0 Passenger Terminals/Staons 10 18 3 3 Intermodal Centers 10 12 0 0 Elevated Structures Yes (1) Tunnels, Bridges, and Subways No Private Right-of- Way Yes (2) Substaons No Table 2.2. Types of agency infrastructure assets for small-sized transit systems.