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N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP REPORT 781 A Debris Management Handbook for State and Local DOTs and Departments of Public Works Peter Drenan Shandi Treloar Dewberry Fairfax, VA Subscriber Categories Planning and Forecasting â¢ Security and Emergencies TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2014 www.TRB.org Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration
NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective approach to the solution of many problems facing highway administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of Transportation. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Boardâs recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those who are in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America NCHRP REPORT 781 Project 20-59(37) ISSN 0077-5614 ISBN 978-0-309-30811-3 Library of Congress Control Number 2014952810 Â© 2014 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Front cover image: Â©2014 The Times-Picayune, L.L.C. All rights reserved. Used with permission of NOLA Media Group.
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academyâs purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under NCHRP Project 20-59(37) by Dewberry. Dewberry was the contractor for this study. Research Team Peter Drenan, Principal Investigator Shandi Treloar, Co-Principal Investigator Laurel McGinley, PE, Task Lead Julia Moline, PE, Task Lead Tim Berkhimer, Subject Matter Expert Bob Swan, Subject Matter Expert Hugh Ward, Subject Matter Expert Janna Ward, Subject Matter Expert Juan Nieves, Case Study Liaison Ali Velasco, Case Study Liaison Jennifer Hill, Graphics Survey Organizations Transportation Research Board (TRB) state representatives American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) International City/County Management Association (ICMA) American Public Works Association (APWA) Solid Waste Association of North America (SWANA) International Association of Emergency Managers (IAEM) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 781 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Christopher Hedges, Manager, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Stephan A. Parker, Senior Program Officer Danna Powell, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Scott E. Hitchcock, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 20-59(37) PANEL Area of Special Projects Mark A. Krentz, Topeka, KS (Chair) David L. Bergner, Monte Vista Associates, LLC, Mesa, AZ Nicholas J. Farber, Colorado DOT, Denver, CO Lacy D. Love, Volkert, Inc, Raleigh, NC Amy Benecke McLaren, Peoria County (IL) Highway Department, Peoria, IL David Mendonca, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY Kimberly C. Vasconez, FHWA Liaison Marc Tonnacliff, Federal Aviation Administration Liaison Richard A. Cunard, TRB Liaison
NCHRP Report 781: A Debris Management Handbook for State and Local DOTs and Departments of Public Works provides background and advice to enable a community or agency to better prepare for and respond to disaster-related debris issues. The subjects addressed within the handbook range from development of a plan to final debris disposal and operational closure. It is organized by phase of the debris management cycle, including policy, planning, contracts, segregation, monitoring, site selection, removal, disposal, and reimbursement, as well as hazard-specific considerations. The handbook features several case studies drawing on the experience of local, state, and federal debris managers, offering real-world insight into efficient debris management operations. This handbook will be of interest to community political leaders, state DOTs, local public works agencies, and facili- ties managers. Much of the debris from any incidentâwhether a traffic incident, collapse of aging infra- structure, or major disasters such as a hurricane or tornadoâfalls on or is pushed onto roads. These roads must be cleared rapidly because they are part of the planned network of emer- gency routes to bring in first responders, as well as to provide the necessary mobility to get the injured to appropriate medical care or to shelters. In the aftermath of an incident, it is essen- tial to restore the transportation system and other public utilities as quickly as possible. This involves clearing debris and repairing, replacing, or restoring critical transportation infra- structure. During most incidents with limited scope, local and state DOTs or public works departments are financially responsible for physically clearing debris from roads. However, during catastrophic events that create large quantities of debris, the federal government sup- ports state and local efforts in clearing debris, including what lies in the transportation rights of way. To effectively work with federal programs, state and local DOTs need to be better preparedâin terms of training, resources, and expertiseâto understand their role in debris clearance and to potentially serve as the lead for debris management. In order for states to succeed, they must equip those that do debris removal for routine incidentsâoften the public works departmentsâwith the tools necessary to produce a comprehensive debris manage- ment plan that, for example, meets the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) requirements for reimbursement and federal assistance as outlined in the FEMA Catastrophic Planning Initiative and the National Response Framework. Under NCHRP Project 20-59(37), the research team from Dewberry developed a hand- book with recommended practices and procedures for debris management for local, tribal, and state transportation and public works agencies. The development of this guide involved an extensive amount of research and coordination. The authors conducted detailed reviews of applicable regulations and guidelines from federal agencies involved in disaster debris F O R E W O R D By Stephan A. Parker Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
operations or funding, and consulted individuals working for and with state and local DOTs and DPWs as well as associations, organizations, and firms with experience in debris planning, training, contracting, operations, and monitoring. The research team also con- tacted representatives from several state departments of emergency management, who provided documentation and advice on various aspects of debris operations. Creating the guide involved review and analysis of case studies. The team reviewed, verified, and sum- marized all of the obtained background information to provide a clear picture of issues, problems, guidance, and potential solutions. The literature review yielded over 160 debris management publications, led to the creation of a searchable database and other tools, and informed the background that served as the foundation of the handbook. The review of field experience included a survey of local, state, and federal debris staff and in-depth interviews with experienced debris managers. The knowledge gained from these practitio- ners formed the development of case studies highlighting real-world effective practices and lessons observed. In addition to the handbook, a methodology report and a PowerPoint presentation describing the entire project are available on the TRB website (www.trb.org) by searching for âNCHRP Report 781.â
1 Summary 2 Chapter 1 Introduction 2 Synopsis of Issue 2 Target Audience 2 Why Is Transportation Such a Key Concern After a Debris-Generating Event? 3 Why Did the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Prepare a Debris Management Handbook? 3 How Was the Handbook Prepared? 3 What Does the Handbook Specifically Provide? 4 Chapter 2 Planning 4 Synopsis of Issues 4 Target Audience 4 Why Is Planning for Debris Important? 5 What Planning Documents Should Be Developed? 5 What Is a Good Debris Management Plan? 6 What Is a Good Debris Operational Plan? 8 When Should Debris Plans Be Written? 8 Who Should Be Involved in the Planning Process? 9 How Should the Planning Process Be Performed? 9 Form a Collaborative Planning Team 10 Understand the Situation 11 Determine Goals and Objectives 11 Plan Development 12 Plan Preparation, Review, and Approval Process 12 Plan Implementation and Maintenance 14 Chapter 3 Debris Estimating 14 Synopsis of Issues 14 Target Audience 14 Debris Forecasting 17 Debris Estimating 17 Building and Residences 21 Chapter 4 Policy 21 Synopsis of Issue 21 Target Audience 21 What Is a Debris Policy and What Does It Address? 22 Federal Debris Policies for FEMA, FHWA, and NRCS 24 Why Is It Important to Have a Debris Policy? 25 Who Develops Debris Policies? 25 How to Develop a Debris Policy C O N T E N T S
28 Chapter 5 Contracts 28 Synopsis of Issue 28 Target Audience 29 Why Is Contracting Important? 29 What Is Involved in Debris Contracting? 32 What Are Other Options for Obtaining Debris Services? 33 Who Issues Debris Contracts? 34 When Are Debris Contracts Issued? 35 How to Contract for Debris Management Services 36 Chapter 6 Operational Structure and Organization 36 Synopsis of Issue 36 Target Audience 36 NIMS and the ICS 39 Application of ICS and MACS Concepts to Debris Operations 41 Structure of Debris Operations 42 Chapter 7 Removal 42 Synopsis of Issue 42 Target Audience 42 Why Remove Debris After a Disaster? 43 What Does Debris Removal Involve? 48 When Does Debris Removal Occur? 49 Who Clears and Removes Debris from Public Property and Rights-of-Way? 52 How Is Debris Clearance and Removal Accomplished? 54 DiscussionâAssisting Population Segments with Debris Removal 54 Special Issues 56 Railway Systems 57 Airports 57 Marine Debris Removal 59 Chapter 8 Segregation 59 Synopsis of Issue 59 Target Audience 59 What Is Debris Segregation and Why Is It Important? 60 When Is Debris Segregated? 60 Who Is Responsible for Segregation? 60 How Is Debris Segregated? 67 Chapter 9 Debris Management Site Selection 67 Synopsis of Issues 67 Target Audience 67 Use of DMSs 68 Why Is Site Selection Important? 68 What Goes into Site Selection? 69 Where Should Sites Be Located? 69 When Does Site Selection Occur? 70 Who Selects DMSs? 70 How Does Site Selection Occur? 75 Chapter 10 Monitoring 75 Synopsis of Issue 75 Target Audience
75 What Is Debris Monitoring? 76 Types of Debris Monitors 76 Loading Site 77 Staging and Disposal Site 77 Why Is Debris Monitoring Important? 79 Who Is Qualified to Be a Debris Monitor? 80 How Is Debris Monitoring Accomplished? 81 Recommended Tools for Debris Removal Operations 82 Debris Monitor Job Aids 85 Chapter 11 Reduction and Disposal 85 Synopsis of Issues 85 Target Audience 85 Why Are Debris Reduction and Disposal Important? 87 What Does Debris Reduction and Disposal Include? 87 Chipping and Grinding 88 Recycling 89 Incineration 91 Conversion Technologies 91 Final Disposal 92 Where and When Does Debris Reduction/Disposal Take Place? 92 Who Is Involved in Debris Disposal? 92 Jurisdiction 93 Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) 93 Department of Transportation 93 Other State Agencies 93 Local Fire Department 93 Contractors 93 Landfill Operators 93 Other Jurisdictions 94 Chapter 12 Reimbursement 94 Synopsis of Issue 94 Target Audience 94 What Does Reimbursement Involve? 95 Why Is Reimbursement So Important? 96 When Does Reimbursement Occur? 96 Who Reimburses These Costs? 96 FHWA Emergency Relief Program Eligibility Requirements 96 FHWA Emergency Relief Program Funding 96 MAP-21 Impacts on FHWA Emergency Relief Program Application Process 97 FEMA Public Assistance Program 97 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 97 Natural Resources and Conservation ServiceâEmergency Watershed Protection Program 98 Department of the InteriorâBureau of Indian Affairs 98 How Does an Applicant Get Reimbursed? 100 Chapter 13 Special Considerations 100 Synopsis of Issues 100 Target Audience
100 Special Considerations Definition 100 Environmental Compliance 105 Historic Preservation 106 Valuables/Personal Property 107 Animal Carcasses 111 Human Remains 113 Crime Scene Evidence 116 Chapter 14 More Information 116 Conclusion 116 References and Resources 117 References 120 Additional Resources 124 Acronyms A-1 Appendix A Debris Management Plan Checklist (adapted from FEMA P-604 and Massachusetts Local Debris Management Plan Checklist) B-1 Appendix B Policy Development Checklist C-1 Appendix C Contracting Checklists D-1 Appendix D FHWA Form 1273: Required Contract Provisions Federal-Aid Construction Contracts E-1 Appendix E Curbside Collection Program Checklist F-1 Appendix F Private Property Debris Removal and Demolition Checklist G-1 Appendix G State of Arizona Division of Emergency Management Recovery Section SOP PA, Section 9, Debris Management Disaster Debris Table H-1 Appendix H Debris Monitoring Tools (FEMA) I-1 Appendix I Debris Reduction Information J-1 Appendix J State of Arizona Division of Emergency Management Recovery Section SOP PA, Section 9, Debris Management Reuse and Recycling Markets for Disaster Debris K-1 Appendix K Disaster Cost Tracking Sample L-1 Appendix L USGS Chain of Custody Form M-1 Appendix M North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (NCDENR) Environmental Evaluation Checklist
Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions. N-1 Appendix N Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHEKS) Disposal Options for Large Quantities of Dead Animals O-1 Appendix O Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHEKS) Disposal Options for Small Quantities of Dead Animals CS-1 Local Case Study Lessons from Two Years of Severe Storms CS-5 State Case Study Severe Storms