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I-1 Reduction by Grinding and Chipping â¢ Strong winds and tornadoes present opportunity for a big grinding and chipping operation as the method of debris reduction. The resulting product of the chipping and grinding operation may be used as a landfill product, used as topsoil, or used for residential applications. â¢ Chipping operations are suitable in areas where streets are narrow or in groves of trees where it is cheaper to reduce the vegetation to mulch and then return it to affected areas. â¢ The debris manager should work with local environmental and agricultural groups to see if there is any market for mulch. â¢ When contracting a mulching project the most important consideration is the specification of the size of the mulch. The mulch also must remain free of paper and plastic if used for agricul- tural purposes. The following information is for the use of mulch as an agricultural product: Size: Average size of wood chips is not to exceed four inches in length and one-half inch in diameter. The debris reduction rate for moderately contaminated debris is 100 to 150 cubic yards per hour and when the debris is relatively clean it is 200 to 250 cubic yards per hour. Contaminants: The contamination rate for material other than wood products should be less than ten percent of the mulch. Eliminate plastics completely. Use rake loaders to pick up debris because normal loaders pick up earth, which is part of the contaminant list and harms the chipper. â¢ Chippers are best used in residential areas, orchards, or groves. Trees present a problem if they are pushed to the side of the public right-of-way because of cost associated with transportation. â¢ Grinders are ideal for use at debris staging and reduction sites due to high volume capacity. Due to high capacity of debris a large storage area is needed for a large grinding operation. Sound protection also becomes a very important issue. Reduction by Recycling â¢ Recycling offers an option to reduce debris before it is hauled to the landfill. Recycling is a pub- licly supported function that has economic values for the recovered materials. Metals, wood, and soils are commonly recyclable. A drawback is the impact of recycling on the environment. In areas of agriculture there may be a large amount of fertilizer use. Therefore, use of soil may be limited due to contamination. â¢ Recycling, when chosen, should be by a contractor who specializes in sorting debris. Contract monitoring is a part of a recycling operation because the contractors must comply with local, state, and federal environmental regulations. â¢ Recycling should be given consideration early in a disaster because it may reduce cost of debris removal. The materials capable of being recycled include: â MetalsâMost metals are able to be recycled and do not contain iron. However, trailer frames and other iron containing metals may be included in the recyclable materials. The A P P E N D I X I Debris Reduction Information
I-2 A Debris Management Handbook for State and Local DOTs and Departments of Public Works metals are separated by the use of an electromagnet. The resulting materials can be sold to metal recycling firms. â SoilâSoil recycling operations use large pieces of equipment to pick up soil. The soil is transported to a staging area and reduction sites where it is combined with organic material that will decompose. Large amounts of soil can be recovered if the material is put through a screen system. The resulting soil can be given back to the agricultural community. The soil also may be used for local landfills as cover materials. â WoodâWood debris can be ground or chipped into mulch. â Construction materialâConcrete or other building materials can be used for other pur- poses if there is a need for them. The materials also may be shred to reduce volume then used as a cover for landfills. Residue materialâResidue material that cannot be recycled, such as cloth, rugs, and trash, can be sent to landfills for disposal. From Ohio Department of Public Safety Ohio Emergency Management Agency Debris Management, Sample County Plan Appendices Appendix J: Temporary Debris Storage and Reduction Site Checklist.