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Guidelines for Airport Sound Insulation Programs (2013)

Chapter: Chapter 8 - Green Initiatives

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 8 - Green Initiatives." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Guidelines for Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22519.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 8 - Green Initiatives." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Guidelines for Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22519.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 8 - Green Initiatives." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Guidelines for Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22519.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 8 - Green Initiatives." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Guidelines for Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22519.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 8 - Green Initiatives." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Guidelines for Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22519.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 8 - Green Initiatives." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Guidelines for Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22519.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 8 - Green Initiatives." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Guidelines for Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22519.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 8 - Green Initiatives." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Guidelines for Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22519.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 8 - Green Initiatives." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Guidelines for Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22519.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 8 - Green Initiatives." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Guidelines for Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22519.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 8 - Green Initiatives." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Guidelines for Airport Sound Insulation Programs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22519.
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150 Green Initiatives Issues come and go with the political winds. But in these superficial exchanges, we often lose sight of the real and lasting meaning of the decisions we make and those we defer. The issue of climate change is one that we ignore at our own peril. There may still be disputes about exactly how much we’re contribut- ing to the warming of the earth’s atmosphere and how much is naturally occurring, but what we can be scientifically certain of is that our continued use of fossil fuels is pushing us to a point of no return. And unless we free ourselves from a dependence on these fossil fuels and chart a new course on energy in this country, we are condemning future generations to global catastrophe. — President Barack Obama, 20061 The building sector is responsible for a significant proportion of resource consumption in the United States, including 42% of primary energy use, 72% of electricity consumption, 39% of greenhouse gas emissions, 60% of waste output, and 13.6% of potable water consumption. While sound insulation programs are not, by design, energy efficiency or thermal improvement programs, minimizing sound transmission through the building envelope can simultaneously improve a building’s energy and acoustical performance. Efficiency opportunities applicable to an SIP include using energy-efficient fenestration products, lowering energy usage for ventilation systems, and minimizing air (and therefore thermal) infiltration. SIP efforts are in line with the general market trend toward better-performing buildings. Current and rapidly evolving sustain- ability practices, including recycling and use of green building products, need to be a part of every SIP’s response to environmental and community concerns beyond noise. 8.1 Sustainable Building Design 8.1.1 Federal Mandate Energy efficiency is the fastest, cheapest, and cleanest energy resource we have. Efficiency is not con- servation or deprivation; it is getting what you want for less. Efficiency saves consumers and businesses money on their energy bills, reduces global warming pollution, and keeps American energy dollars here. America has the largest efficiency reserves in the world, and buildings are our largest source of efficiency that is just waiting to be tapped. — Natural Resource Defense Council2 Policy makers at the federal level have long recognized the importance of promoting energy efficiency. Within the U.S. DOE, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is devoted to promoting market transformation in this area. EERE recommends that a residential remodeling project begin with a home energy assessment or home energy audit. The DOE also C H A P T E R 8 1 Barack Obama, Energy Independence and the Safety of Our Planet (speech, April 3, 2006). 2 Natural Resources Defense Council, Energy Facts: Unlocking the Power of Energy Efficiency in Buildings, accessed January 2012, http://www.nrdc.org/energy/unlocking.pdf.

Green Initiatives 151 oversees the Energy Star program and appliance SEER ratings. Weatherization programs and minimum standards for energy efficiency were prominent aspects of the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008. With the publication of the IgCC in March 2012, future federal policy may result in mandatory code requirements for sustainability in commercial and mixed-use or high-rise residential projects. Section 104 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Procurement of Energy Efficient Products, requires that each agency: incorporate into the specifications for all procurements involving energy consuming products and systems, including guide specifications, project specifications, and construction, renovation, and service contracts that include provision of energy consuming products and systems, and into the factors for the evaluation of offers received for the procurement, criteria for energy efficiency that are consistent with the criteria used for Energy Star products and for rating FEMP [Federal Energy Management Program] designated products.3 While this policy focuses on federal procurement for federal properties, using Energy Star practices and products can imbue federally funded SIPs with the same standards the DOE applies to FAA property. Because conservation serves multiple interests, from environmental protection to national security, the U.S. government is leading the way by requiring sustainable construction for fed- eral projects. It is anticipated that sustainable practices will, over time, be increasingly addressed during the standard 3-year code development cycle for national building codes. The extent and timing of any mandatory sustainability practices for construction projects cannot be predicted; however, there is good reason to believe new regulations are inevitable. In the meantime, there are excellent reasons to pursue sustainable outcomes in all projects, regardless of size, because the savings from conservation efforts accrue directly to the property owner as well as to the utility company and the environment. 8.1.2 Financial Incentives Because the demand for power continues to grow, utility and government authorities now offer incentives for energy reduction and alternative power generation in order to reduce expansion of expensive power infrastructures. These incentives for energy efficiency can include rebates, grants, and loans as well as personal, property, sales, and corporate tax credits. The availability of these incentives as offered by federal, state, or local governments or by utility companies varies depending on project type and locality. The first step in achieving a maximally sustainable outcome for an SIP is to identify any local, regional, utility, and federal incentive programs that could apply. Program policy and procedure decisions made during the program start-up phase should be informed by potential benefits from rebates, tax credits, and financial grants. For example, upgrades in ventilation and air con- ditioning can require neighborhood transformer upgrades on the part of the utility. At the time of publication of these guidelines, at least one sound insulation program is taking advantage of energy rebates offered by the utility company to encourage use of efficient equipment. It is recommended as a best practice that other SIPs do so as well. 8.1.3 Development of Sustainable Practices Sustainability in general and energy efficiency in particular are aspects of building design, construction, and operation that are receiving increasing attention. Following the oil embargo 3 42 USC 8259b.

152 Guidelines for Airport Sound Insulation Programs and resulting spike in energy prices of the late 1970s, the discipline of building science increased its focus on the building envelope as a principal factor in energy performance. In the 1960s and 1970s, environmental engineers began exploring ways of designing and building in more sus- tainable ways. These efforts ultimately led to the creation of codes and standards that included sustainability standards. Some of the most widely promulgated codes and standards are dis- cussed in the following. LEED. In 1998 the first United States Green Building Council (USGBC) LEED rating system expanded the scope of sustainability in building design and construction to include site selection, water efficiency, materials and resources, and indoor environmental quality. Designed as a volun- tary incentive-based program, projects are awarded different levels of certification based on total points achieved in all categories of sustainability. As the LEED systems have evolved, the program incorporated an emphasis on achieving a minimum level of energy conservation. Certain juris- dictions and organizations have experimented with establishing LEED as a mandatory standard; however, this does not coincide with the intent of the USGBC’s voluntary approach to sustain- ability. The number and scope of LEED rating systems have expanded to include neighborhood development and existing buildings (see full listing in Section 8.2.2). ICC-700. In 2008 the ICC and the National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) pro- duced an ANSI-approved standard called the National Green Building Standard, establishing criteria for rating the environmental impact of low-rise residential design and construction. Because of the pre-existing commitment with NAHB to develop ICC-700, the ICC could not include low-rise residential construction in the IgCC. IgCC. The ICC, in cooperation with the American Institute of Architects, the Illuminating Engineering Society, and ASTM, developed the IgCC. The USGBC and ASHRAE also became participants and co-sponsors during the development process. The ICC began development of the IgCC in 2009, with an anticipated jurisdiction over commercial and high-rise residential construction. The early public versions of the IgCC underwent code amendment hearings in 2010, and several jurisdictions have adopted the code. In March 2012, the ICC published the IgCC as an integral member of the family of international codes. Adoption of the IgCC over the coming years will mark a fundamental shift in how commercial/institutional buildings are designed, constructed, and renovated. Development of the IgCC significantly furthers the process of market transformation begun by the early innovators of the 1970s and 1980s and by the USGBC’s systems for LEED certification. The requirements of the IgCC follow the format of an LEED checklist, with chapters entitled Site Development and Land Use; Material Resource Conservation and Efficiency; Energy Conserva- tion, Efficiency and Atmospheric Quality; Water Resource Conservation and Efficiency; Indoor Environmental Quality and Comfort; Commissioning, Operation and Maintenance; and Exist- ing Buildings. While the IgCC does not currently include requirements for low-rise residential construction due to the pre-existing development of ICC-700, this may change over the com- ing years as adoption and enforcement of this code becomes more common. Encouraging and incentivizing energy conservation and sustainability has made the development of a mandatory green code a possibility. 8.1.4 Developing Sustainable Sound Insulation Practices With all of the conversation surrounding sustainability in the design and construction indus- try, it is advisable to identify opportunities for effective sound insulation guidelines that incor- porate environmentally aware practices. Application of sustainable practices will depend in part on the extent of work required to achieve effective noise mitigation. The installation of sound

Green Initiatives 153 insulation and new windows and doors for acoustic purposes has implications for the thermal performance of the building envelope. Modifications to the building envelope that result in reduced infiltration and exfiltration must also address moisture migration, space conditioning, and indoor air quality. Project managers should use appropriate sustainable building practices for all aspects of construction. An energy audit of a structure prior to undertaking a sound insulation project will identify noise paths through the building’s exterior envelope (i.e., walls and roof). In addition, the audit can pinpoint air/noise points of infiltration at fireplaces, attic hatches, and wall- or window- mounted air conditioners. The audit can also help determine the efficiency of the existing heating and air conditioning units and associated ductwork to help determine whether repair, modifica- tion, or replacement is advisable. It is possible to position SIPs for incentives from energy effi- ciency programs, for example from utility providers, by developing practices to quantify energy savings from program treatments. 8.2 Energy Rating Programs While building codes represent minimum standards applicable to all construction, rating systems and voluntary standards provide opportunities for experimentation and market transformation. Key stakeholders in SIPs need to be aware of the variety of codes and stan- dards that address energy and environmental performance in order to address concerns raised by program participants and the regulatory authorities that have oversight of SIPs. What fol- lows is a list of the major programs and rating systems most widely used as of the publication of these guidelines. 8.2.1 Energy Star The EPA’s Energy Star program includes requirements for residential renovations, additions, and new construction. A key feature of the Energy Star program is its Complete Thermal Enclo- sure System, which involves air sealing, properly installed insulation, and high-performance windows. Also emphasized are efficient cooling and heating, proper design and quality instal- lation practices, and whole-house mechanical ventilation. A complete water management system is achieved by means of water-managed construction details and proper storage and handling of building materials. Energy-efficient lighting and appliances complete the scope of the program. Compliance is monitored via third-party verification (the Home Energy Rating System, or HERS). As national programs, Energy Star and HERS are the most widely available and consistent systems used to evaluate home energy performance that exceeds code requirements. Energy Star is also the base standard for determining qualification for many of the energy rebates available today. As such, it is a best practice recommendation of these updated guidelines that SIPs create policies and procedures for products and installations that meet Energy Star per- formance criteria. 8.2.2 LEED The USGBC developed the LEED rating system as a readily comprehensible and usable method for integrating and evaluating sustainable principles into building design, construc- tion, and operation. Thirty percent of all LEED-certified projects are government owned, and it is likely that eventually most government-sponsored construction projects will be mandated

154 Guidelines for Airport Sound Insulation Programs to address sustainable practices. The LEED system has evolved to include the following ten systems: 1. LEED for New Construction 2. LEED for Core and Shell 3. LEED for Schools 4. LEED for Retail: New Construction and Major Renovations 5. LEED for Retail: Commercial Interiors 6. LEED for Healthcare 7. LEED for Commercial Interiors 8. LEED for Existing Buildings: Operations and Maintenance 9. LEED for Neighborhood Development 10. LEED for Homes (see Section 8.2.3) Each system offers different levels of certification based on the number of points achieved. The certification levels are Certified, Silver, Gold, and Platinum, indicating the level of commitment to and investment in sustainable construction. Building owners from institutions, private indus- try, and the government have seen the value of LEED in operational cost savings and industry status. Certain businesses and government departments have set standards regarding which level of LEED they will accept in spaces they will rent or build. To achieve LEED certification, a given project must be registered with the USGBC. Certification requires the involvement of at least one LEED-Accredited Professional or LEED Green Associate on the project team. Although it is possible to use the rating systems as a guide to sustainable practices, without the verification of the certification process, quality control cannot be guaranteed. While LEED practices include many aspects of new construction or building maintenance that are beyond the scope of SIPs, several categories are applicable. These include materials and resources, energy and atmosphere, indoor environmental quality, and regional priorities. 8.2.3 LEED for Homes The LEED for Homes rating system was released in January 2008 as part of the LEED rating system. This system awards points for: • Innovation and design process, • Location and linkages, • Sustainable sites, • Water efficiency, • Energy and atmosphere, • Materials and resources, • Indoor environmental quality, and • Awareness and education. As with the other LEED systems, a project can pursue points to achieve the different levels of Certified, Silver, Gold, or Platinum. Inspection with testing is a required part of the cer- tification process. Projects characterized as “substantial gut/rehab” can participate in LEED for Homes as long as they meet all of the program’s prerequisites. In order to qualify as a “substantial gut/rehab,” a project must replace most of the systems and components (e.g., HVAC, windows) and must open up the exterior walls to enable the thermal bypass inspec- tion to be completed. At this point, the normal scope of sound insulation is not robust enough to achieve this certification; however, the concepts in the last four of the eight categories can be applicable

Green Initiatives 155 to forming sustainable practices. Research into these last four categories will provide oppor- tunities for SIPs to implement more sustainable practices. For example, under indoor envi- ronmental quality, LEED certification points are awarded for items that are all applicable to SIPs, including: • Using the Energy Star Indoor Air Package to address indoor air quality and for heat recovery systems, • The provision of outdoor air, • Having air balance testing conducted, and • Providing local exhaust systems. 8.3 Sustainability Codes and Standards The process of responding to new scientific and community environmental concerns begins with innovation and often leads to the development of mandatory codes and standards. For sustainable construction, this process is still under way. Listed in the following are the current industry group documents that are being adopted in model codes of many jurisdictions where SIPs are being implemented. 8.3.1 ICC 700-2008: National Green Building Standard The ICC entered into an agreement with the NAHB to develop ICC-700, which included a proviso preventing the ICC from developing any code or standard that could compete with this document. This National Green Building Standard can be adopted by a jurisdiction to provide criteria for evaluating the environmental impact of design and construction practices for low-rise residential buildings, residential remodeling projects, and site development projects. It provides flexibility for regionally appropriate, best green practices.4 The standard covers “subdivisions, building sites, alterations, additions, renovations, mixed-use residential buildings, and historic buildings.” Points are allocated based on the degree of compliance with each sustainable practice described. Performance level points determine the project’s level of achievement; in ascending order these are bronze, silver, gold, and emerald. Thresholds for specific practices are applied to renovations and additions. The standard is intended to provide a flexible method for achieving environmental performance. 8.3.2 CAL Green: California Green Building Standards Code (Title 24 Part 11) The California Green Building Standards Code (CAL Green) went into effect statewide in January of 2011. It is intended to apply to new construction only, but several jurisdictions have adopted it for use in renovations of existing buildings as well. It is a comprehensive code intended to promote the use of building practices with a reduced negative impact or positive environmen- tal impact. It encourages the use of sustainable construction practices. The provisions are divided between residential and nonresidential construction. The residential requirements are applicable to one- and two-family dwellings and multifamily residential buildings of three stories or fewer. All other building occupancies are considered to be nonresidential. 4 ICC 700, National Green Building Standard, NAHBGreen, accessed January 2012, http://www.nahbgreen.org/NGBS/ default.aspx.

156 Guidelines for Airport Sound Insulation Programs Mandatory measures for residential construction that are applicable to SIPs include: Energy Efficiency • Meet or exceed the 2010 California Energy Code. Material Conservation and Resource Efficiency • Seal penetrations at exterior walls for piping and conduits. • Divert 50% of construction waste from disposal by recycling or salvaging materials. • Provide a building operations and maintenance manual to the owner. Environmental Quality • Fireplaces to be direct vent; wood stoves to meet EPA Phase II emissions limits. • Seal ducts during construction to keep them clean. • Use low VOCs and low toxicity paints and sealants. • Use low-VOC carpeting and floor coverings. • Use particle board, medium-density fireboard, and plywood low in formaldehyde emissions. • In order to prevent mold, do not install building materials exposed to water over an estab- lished moisture content level. • Provide exhaust fans in each toilet room. • Insulate dampers on whole-house exhaust fans. • Size HVAC ducts and mechanical systems appropriately using industry standards. • Use qualified installers and inspectors trained in the discipline in which they are working. CAL Green contains a series of mandatory measures for each of the two occupancy groups listed in the code divisions. In addition, there are additional measures that can be adopted by the local jurisdiction to increase the stringency of the code. For example, the basic energy code requirements of the very stringent California Energy Code meet the mandatory measures of CAL Green. CAL Green’s voluntary measures have two tiers of enhanced requirements. Tier 1 requires a 15% improvement in energy efficiency over the California Energy Code. Tier 2 requires designs to exceed the California Energy Code by 30%. The additional voluntary provisions are intended for adoption by local authorities having juris- diction. They include many innovative items, such as cool-roof reflective membranes, reduced air losses through the use of blower-door tests of envelope tightness, building commissioning of systems for high-performance operations, rainwater capture systems to reduce water use, reduced cement content in concrete through the use of fly ash, use of recycled building materials or mate- rials with a high recycled content, and installation of higher-value MERV (minimum efficiency reporting value) filters to improve indoor air quality. 8.3.3 The IgCC The IgCC was developed as an overlay code, meaning that it is coordinated and consistent with the layout and requirements of the other ICC model codes. It includes provisions for all dimen- sions of sustainability in the format of a code; however, it does not apply to low-rise residential construction (i.e., one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses) due to the prior development of ICC-700 for this purpose. The code is structured with mandatory requirements; however, there are also additional elec- tives that can be chosen either by the adopting jurisdiction or the project team. Each chapter includes a list of these electives. The adopting jurisdiction has the authority to mandate any of these electives (jurisdictional requirements) and also can require from one to 18 project elec- tives be chosen by the project team. These electives add a level of flexibility and regional adapt- ability to the IgCC while allowing for different levels of compliance. The IgCC is the first code to

Green Initiatives 157 incorporate the broad parameters of a sustainable approach to design and construction. While two public versions of the IgCC have been released and several jurisdictions have adopted part or all of these versions, the code is likely to achieve a higher level of visibility with its publication as part of the 2012 family of ICC codes. 8.3.4 ASHRAE 189.1, Standard for the Design of High-Performance, Green Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings ASHRAE’s green building standard was released in 2010 to address enhanced energy efficiency as well as site sustainability, water efficiency, indoor environmental quality, and a building’s impact on the atmosphere and natural resources. Many of these areas of focus provide multiple compliance options. ASHRAE 189.1 is a compliance alternate in the IgCC and is intended to be used in conjunction with: • ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1, Energy-Efficient Design of New Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings, • ASHRAE Standard 62.1, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality, and • ASHRAE 55, Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy. As stated in the standard, the intent is: to provide minimum requirements for the siting, design, construction, and plan for operation of high performance, green buildings to: 1. Balance environmental responsibility, resource efficiency, occupant comfort and wellbeing, and com- munity sensitivity; and 2. Support the goal of development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the abil- ity of future generations to meet their own needs. 8.3.5 Local Municipal Codes Energy requirements in construction are somewhat of a moving target, and many munici- palities are striving to be increasingly energy efficient. Therefore, it is important to review local statutes for stricter requirements than what may be in the state-adopted model code. As an exam- ple, Massachusetts permits its municipalities to adopt “stretch codes” allowing more stringent requirements, by up to 20% above what is called for in the Massachusetts State Building Code: The “stretch code” is an optional appendix to the Massachusetts building energy code that allows cities and towns to choose a more energy-efficient option. This option increases the efficiency requirements in any municipality that adopts it, for all new residential and many new commercial buildings, as well as for those residential additions and renovations that would normally trigger building code requirements.5 This code allows cities and towns to adopt more stringent requirements, by up to 20% above what is called for in the Massachusetts State Building Code. Energy Star compliance has also been incorporated into state energy efficiency programs, such as for residential construction under the Massachusetts Stretch Code. The residential stretch code is based on the pre-existing “Energy Star for Homes” program developed by the federal EPA and Department of Energy, and customized for Massachusetts. This Energy Star pro- gram incorporates the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) which is developed and administered by the national Residential Energy Services Network (RESNET).6 5 Stretch Appendix to the Building Energy Code in Massachusetts Question and Answer (Q&A) – August 2010, City of Boston, accessed January 2012, http://www.cityofboston.gov/Images_Documents/EOEEA%20q_and_a_stretch_code_tcm3-21504.pdf. 6 Stretch Appendix to the Building Energy Code in Massachusetts Question and Answer (Q&A) – August 2010, City of Boston, accessed January 2012, http://www.cityofboston.gov/Images_Documents/EOEEA%20q_and_a_stretch_code_tcm3-21504.pdf.

158 Guidelines for Airport Sound Insulation Programs 8.4 Current Program Practices for Sustainability The central lesson of the science of ecology is the interrelationship of systems and processes. If a building envelope is made airtight for sound attenuation reasons, mechanical ventilation will be required in order to ensure indoor air quality. If mechanical ventilation is added to a build- ing’s systems, heating and air conditioning are required to ensure that indoor conditions remain tenable. If mechanical equipment is mandated for air quality reasons, it should be efficient with beneficial life-cycle prospects, both for economic and environmental reasons. This section identifies sustainability practices currently used in SIPs across the country. Not all programs use all practices. The following lists of strategies should be considered when relevant to the scope of work being performed. 8.4.1 Materials All materials specified for construction projects have sustainability implications. These include all aspects of the life-cycle process as well as actual performance and embodied energy. Attention to the Existing homes undergoing renovation or an addition have two choices when it comes to stretch code compliance. The performance option requires a minimum HERS rating as well as confirmation of performance by means of the Energy Star Thermal Bypass checklist. Energy Star windows, doors, and skylights are required where replacements are made. The prescriptive option references the IECC 2009 model energy code. If the prescriptive option is chosen, then code compliance is required only for the systems being replaced.7 8.3.6 Best Practice Recommendations: Sustainability Codes and Standards 1. Compliance with mandatory codes and standards within a project’s jurisdiction constitutes the minimum responsibility of a property owner. Few jurisdictions currently require mandatory compliance with sustainability codes for all projects. The codes and standards described under Section 8.3 have been implemented as optional, or in order to qualify for incentives such as additional floor area ratio, or for expedited permitting. 2. In some jurisdictions, a sustainable code or standard may have been adopted as a stretch code. This is the case in Maryland, where any jurisdiction may choose to adopt the IgCC as a mandatory code. However, in most jurisdictions, com- pliance with the sustainability codes and standards described previously is not yet required. 3. Determine what incentive programs are available, perform energy audits of exist- ing buildings’ compliance with applicable codes, and provide sound insulation using products and installations that meet Energy Star performance criteria. 7 Stretch Appendix to the Building Energy Code in Massachusetts Question and Answer (Q&A) – August 2010, City of Boston, accessed January 2012, http://www.cityofboston.gov/Images_Documents/EOEEA%20q_and_a_stretch_code_ tcm3-21504.pdf.

Green Initiatives 159 life-cycle implications of a remodeling project will yield both environmental and economic benefits. Currently used practices include: • Reuse building materials, including windows and doors. • Specify insulation made from recyclable materials (minimum 20% post-consumer recycled content with low or no formaldehyde emissions). • Contractor should provide waste management plan with salvage and recycling of demolished products. • Specify materials extracted, manufactured, and produced within a 500-mile radius. • Tropical hardwoods, if produced, must be Forest Stewardship Council certified. 8.4.2 Energy and Atmosphere Sound attenuation through modifications to the building envelope will also improve energy performance. Where HVAC systems are installed or modified, further opportunities exist for efficiency and conservation. Reduced energy costs for the property owner are an obvious benefit. Reduced carbon emissions are an additional social benefit. Currently used practices include: • Use NFRC-labeled windows. • Add insulation to wall cavities around windows. • Add insulation to roofs/ceilings. • Add insulation to crawl spaces, windows, and door jambs. • Increase insulation level to R-30 minimum (above the average of R-15). • Pressure test ducts to identify and repair air leaks. • Install high SEER-rated equipment. • Meet Energy Star with Indoor Air Package requirements. • Provide dedicated outdoor air system with heat recovery. • Use multispeed blowers. • Use programmable thermostats. • Provide acoustic baffles with rigid insulation. • Provide economizers with CO sensors. • Provide ceiling fans. • Provide timer/automatic controls for bathroom exhaust fans. 8.4.3 Indoor Air and Environmental Quality A tighter building envelope results in reduced noise transmission, improved energy perfor- mance, and the potential for indoor air quality problems. The health of building occupants is at stake. Indoor environmental quality must be addressed as part of any SIP. See Chapter 7 for further information. Currently used practices include: • Protect equipment and ducts during construction against entry of foreign matter. • Use environmentally safe products. • Specify low to no VOC materials. • Specify low to no formaldehyde materials. • Place no air handling equipment or return ducts in garage. • Tightly seal shared surfaces between garage and home. 8.4.4 Commissioning and Maintenance Building systems require commissioning and maintenance. Performance cannot be delivered without careful testing, calibration, and ongoing monitoring. Currently used practices include: • Provide operation and maintenance manual(s) and instructions. • Perform systems balancing and testing for air leaks.

160 Guidelines for Airport Sound Insulation Programs • Perform blower-door testing to identify and treat air leaks. • Provide third-party testing of outdoor airflow rate into home. • Provide third-party testing of exhaust airflow rate out of home. • Provide third-party testing of particulates and VOCs before occupancy. • Conduct third-party testing for duct leakage. • Conduct third-party testing of insulation installation. • Meet Energy Star for Homes third-party testing. 8.4.5 Best Practice Recommendations: Program Practices for Sustainability 1. Determine any incentives, rebates, or grants that may be available for efficiency upgrades. 2. Perform a thorough energy audit of the property to determine systems efficiencies and potential areas for improvements. 3. Comply with all applicable codes in the jurisdiction governing the SIP. 4. Provide sound insulation treatments with products and installations that meet Energy Star performance criteria. 5. Identify additional opportunities/strategies from Section 8.4 or from any of the energy rating standards described in this chapter.

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 89: Guidelines for Airport Sound Insulation Programs provides updated guidelines for sound insulation of residential and other noise-sensitive buildings. The report is designed to help airports and others develop and effectively manage aircraft noise insulation projects.

In February 2014 TRB released ACRP Report 105: Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity of Airport Sound Insulation Programs, which complements ACRP Report 89.

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