National Academies Press: OpenBook

Airport Climate Adaptation and Resilience (2012)

Chapter: Appendix E - Survey

« Previous: Appendix D - Survey Respondents and Survey Method
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Airport Climate Adaptation and Resilience. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22773.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Airport Climate Adaptation and Resilience. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22773.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Airport Climate Adaptation and Resilience. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22773.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Airport Climate Adaptation and Resilience. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22773.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Airport Climate Adaptation and Resilience. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22773.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Airport Climate Adaptation and Resilience. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22773.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Airport Climate Adaptation and Resilience. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22773.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Airport Climate Adaptation and Resilience. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22773.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Survey." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Airport Climate Adaptation and Resilience. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22773.
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71 APPendix e Survey AirPort ClimAte AdAPtAtion And reSilienCe Survey introduction The Transportation Research Board is preparing a synthesis on Airport Climate Adaptation and Resilience. This is being done for the Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP), an industry-driven, applied research program that develops near-term, practical solu- tions to problems faced by airport operators. ACRP is administered by TRB and sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration. The goal of this TRB study is to identify current plans and practices for managing climate risks at airports and to synthesize them into a single reference for airport directors, their staffs, and other aviation stakeholders responsible for the national aviation system. The final report will be available to responding airports at no charge. This survey questionnaire is being distributed to people with personal knowledge and experience in managing risks at airports. If you are not the appropriate person at your airport to complete this survey, please forward it to the correct person. If the airport you are associated with has not addressed climate change risks, your response may be short but it will still be very important to this study and its ultimate audience. Please compete and submit this survey questionnaire by June 24, 2011. If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to contact our principal investigator Chris Baglin, Christine.Baglin@ppc.com, 703-748-7547. Confidentiality: All answers provided by survey respondents will be treated as confidential and aggregated with other responses in the reporting. Thank you very much for participating in this survey! Questionnaire instructions To view and print the entire questionnaire, Click on the following link and print using “control p.” http://surveygizmolibrary. s3.amazonaws.com/library/64484/Airport_ Climate_ Adaptation_ and_ Resilience_ Survey.pdf. To save your partial answers, or to forward a partially completed questionnaire to another party, click on the “Save and Continue Later” link in the upper right hand corner of your screen. A link to the partially completed questionnaire will be e-mailed to you from SurveyGizmo. To return to the questionnaire later, open the e-mail from SurveyGizmo and click on the link. To invite a colleague to complete part of the survey, simply click on the “Save and Continue” link and enter your colleague’s e-mail address. Please note that the questionnaire can be saved and passed around multiple times, but respondents must use the link emailed from SurveyGizmo. To view and print your answers before submitting the survey, click forward to the page following question 28. Print using “control p.” To submit the survey, click on “Submit” on the last page. Personal information Please enter the date (MM/DD/YYYY).* ________________________________ Please enter your contact information. First Name*: Last Name*: Title*: Agency/Organization*: IATA code of subject airport*:

72 Street Address*: Suite: City*: State*: Zip Code*: Country*: E-mail Address*: Phone Number*: Mobile Phone: URL: Section A: Key Questions 1) Do you think airport disruptions due to weather are becoming more frequent or more intense?* ( ) Yes ( ) No 2) Is your airport considering ways to address specifically more frequent or intense disruptions from weather?* If you answer “No” to this question, you will be brought to the end of the survey. You will be able to come back to this question by selecting the “Back” button at the end of the page. ( ) Yes ( ) No We are interested in knowing the reasons for airport decisions in this area. If your airport is not taking measures to manage more frequent or intense disruptions from weather, why not? Please check all that apply.* [ ] N/A (The airport is taking measures to manage more frequent or intense disruptions from weather) [ ] Low awareness of the issues and risks [ ] It doesn’t fit my or anyone else’s job description [ ] Not identified as a priority of the leadership [ ] No directives at or above the national level (e.g., no FAA directive) [ ] No directives from other authorities [ ] No guidance [ ] Funding not sufficient [ ] Other reason (please state): [ ] Don’t know Section B: Weather disruption Weather and Weather-Related Disruption Damage and disruption can be caused either directly by weather, or by changes in the natural environment caused by weather; for example, increased wildland fire. We are interested in examining all disruptions in this survey. The term “weather-related disruptions” captures all kinds of damage and disruption, including those caused directly and indirectly by weather. Examples of weather and changes in the natural environment caused by weather: • Flood • Pollution caused by flooding • Visibility issues caused by increased wildland fire • Storm

73 • Hurricanes • Tornadoes • Snow • Heatwaves • Other, including drought. 3) In 2010, did weather cause PHYSICAL DAMAGE to the following at your airport?* Please see discussion in the left panel, and check all that apply in the list below. [ ] Runways [ ] Taxiways [ ] Holding aprons [ ] Lighting, marking, and signing of runways [ ] Navigational aids [ ] Visual approach aids [ ] Commercial passenger terminal facilities [ ] General aviation facilities [ ] Cargo facilities [ ] Aircraft rescue and fire-fighting stations [ ] Airport administrative areas [ ] Airport maintenance facilities [ ] Airline maintenance hangars [ ] Flight kitchens [ ] Aircraft fuel storage [ ] Heating and cooling systems [ ] FAA facilities [ ] On-airport access roads [ ] Circulation and service roads [ ] Parking and curb space [ ] Storm water drainage [ ] Open channel drainage [ ] Water detention structures, such as dams and levees [ ] Deicing-related control systems [ ] Industrial waste disposal systems/pollution control systems [ ] Water distribution systems [ ] Sanitary systems [ ] Gas distribution systems [ ] Other fuel distribution systems [ ] Electrical distribution systems [ ] Landscaping [ ] Other: [ ] None 4) In 2010, did weather lead to any of the following DISRUPTIONS in airport operations at your airport? Please check all that apply.* [ ] Scheduling disruption [ ] Cut-off access to airport (passengers, suppliers, staff) [ ] Closure of runway/taxi-way [ ] Pollution control and spill events [ ] Internal building flooding [ ] Loss of services

74 [ ] Disease epidemic/pandemic [ ] Loss of water/energy/information and telecommunications technology supply [ ] Structural integrity/maintenance of runway and other assets [ ] Rolling black-outs [ ] Partial airport evacuation/closure [ ] Other: [ ] None [ ] Cannot answer question 5) In 2010, did weather-related disruptions cause any of the following effects at your airport? Please check all that apply.* [ ] Security issues associated with partial closure/evacuation [ ] Increased costs or lost revenue [ ] Re-allocation of funding and human resources [ ] Increased coordination with local and regional stakeholders [ ] Coordination with airport service providers [ ] Regulatory violation [ ] Emergency response procedure [ ] Construction project delays [ ] Injury or harm to health or safety of staff or passengers (indirectly caused by weather) [ ] Other: [ ] None [ ] Cannot answer question 6) Do you believe the airport can manage current weather variability adequately?* ( ) Yes ( ) No 7) Does the airport use any of the following resources to prevent, reduce, or otherwise address threats from weather? Please check all that apply.* [ ] Federal grants in aid (U.S.) [ ] State grants in aid (U.S.) [ ] Private financing [ ] Third party development [ ] Passenger facility charge [ ] Customer facility charge [ ] General obligation bonds [ ] Revenue bonds [ ] Special facility revenue bonds [ ] Industrial development bonds [ ] Local funds [ ] Line item in budget [ ] FAA/AIP (U.S.) [ ] FAA Special Grants (U.S.) [ ] Voluntary Airport Low Emissions program (U.S.) [ ] Support from the Airport Sustainability and Sustainable Master Plan program (U.S.) [ ] State/DOT (U.S.) [ ] None [ ] Other:

75 Please state the other resources used:* 8) Please indicate the groups of external partners or stakeholders with which you are working to strategically address weather disruptions and related impacts. Please check all that apply.* [ ] Airport to Airport Mutual Aid Programs (such as the Airport Disaster Operations Groups) [ ] Regional community emergency plans [ ] Regional planning authority [ ] Municipal/state/provincial planning groups, other than a regional planning authority [ ] Local fire department [ ] Air rescue and firefighting, other than local fire department [ ] Other state or provincial agencies [ ] Other local government [ ] Federal or national government [ ] Consultants [ ] Suppliers [ ] Reliever airports [ ] Airlines/carriers [ ] Businesses [ ] Other (please state): [ ] None 9) Does the airport keep records of increased or extraordinary maintenance caused by weather events?* ( ) Yes ( ) No ( ) I don’t know Section C: Climate Awareness 10) Are you familiar with the way the climate is projected to change in your airport’s region?* If you answer “No” to this question, you will be brought to the end of the survey. You will be able to come back to this question by selecting the “Back” button at the end of the page. ( ) Yes ( ) No Section d: Climate Change 11) Based on your personal knowledge and/or judgment, please indicate A. if in 2010 your airport experienced a “major disruption” from weather (or events in the natural environment caused by weather) affecting the following: an airport airside operations area (AOA), landside operating area, intermodal transport system, and/or the local area/region in which the airport is located. and B. if you expect that by 2030, your airport will experience more frequent/more damaging “major disruptions” in these areas. Regarding A, if you have answers in the affirmative, please place a check in all relevant boxes associated with such event, for 2010. Regarding B, please place a check in the column for 2030 if you expect to see an INCREASE in the disruption described. A “major disruption” means one that is unexpected or unusually large based on the historical record.

76 12) Have you noticed any gradual change in weather patterns in recent years that affect airport operations?* ( ) Yes ( ) No Please expand on your response (optional): 13) On a scale of 1 to 5, with 0 being Not Concerned and 5 being Extremely Concerned, are you concerned about the impacts that climate change could have on the airport’s operation?* ( ) 0—Cannot answer question ( ) 1—Not concerned ( ) 2—Somewhat concerned ( ) 3—Concerned ( ) 4—Very concerned ( ) 5—Extremely concerned 14) On a scale of 1 to 5, with 0 being Unsatisfied and 5 being Fully Satisfied, are you satisfied with the climate science infor- mation your airport has available to use in future planning?* ( ) 0—Cannot answer question ( ) 1—Unsatisfied Airside 2010 Airside 2030 Landside 2010 Landside 2030 Intermodal Transport System 2010 Intermodal Transport System 2030 Local and Regional Area 2010 Local and Regional Area 2010 N/A Tornado Hurricane High-intensity storm Ligthning Fog/poor visibility High winds Variable wind direction Inundation from sea level rise Storm surge River flood Flash flood Increased wave action in flooding Changes in the precipitation mix Snow (no drifting) Snow (with drifting) Ice (surfaces) Ice (loading) Heat wave Drought Dust storm Wild fire (encroachment) Wild fire (visibility issues) Increase in noxious species

77 ( ) 2—Somewhat satisfied ( ) 3—Usually satisfied ( ) 4—Satisfied ( ) 5—Fully satisfied ( ) Don’t know If you are not fully satisfied with current information (for example, score other than 5 in the question above), what addi- tional information or services related to climate change would you find helpful for future planning? If you are unable to answer the question please state “cannot answer.”* 15) The following are potential risks from the impacts of future climate change identified at a major airport. Based on per- sonal knowledge, please indicate the risk(s) that your airport has addressed in planning:* [ ] Risk of physical damage, including damage from increased flooding, subsidence, and/or heat. [ ] Risk associated with future climate change effects in the performance of infrastructure over time, caused by incremental or short-term fluctuations in climate. [ ] Disruptions to air traffic due to increases in extreme weather or events in the natural environment caused by climate changes. [ ] Risk to sustained water supplies, including risks to water supply infrastructure at the airport site. [ ] Risk to the grid and energy supply infrastructure, plus risks to back-up systems. [ ] Risk to infrastructure supporting information and telecommunications technology, including radar infrastructure. [ ] Construction schedule risk due to increased disruptions from weather or other events in the natural environment caused by climate changes. [ ] Passenger access risk, including transportation disruptions to road, rail, and underground networks and stations. [ ] Risk to the efficiency or success of airport security operations from increased disruptions from weather or other events in the natural environment caused by climate changes. [ ] Risk to terminal buildings that would affect passenger comfort, health and safety or passenger-focused commercial operations. [ ] Pollution control problems arising from increased flooding or other climate impacts. [ ] Risk to the health and safety of airport employees and the direct employees of suppliers on site (where there may be repu- tational impacts for airport owner), such as heat illness. [ ] Risk to the provision of services by contractors, sub-contractors, partners, or service providers critical to airport operations. [ ] Risk to the airport’s operation from the follow on effects of climate impacts at other U.S. and international airports (e.g., schedule problems, etc.). [ ] Risk to the medium and/or long-term financial factors that are of interest to insurers or investors, including those related to the potential acquisition or sale of assets or sites (e.g., a potential lower sale price for “high-risk” assets, higher insurance premiums, etc.). [ ] Disruption to the airport’s operations arising from the increased allocation of resources away from normal operations to activities required for the airport’s role in emergency response or logistics planning exercises. [ ] Risk to funding opportunities, given the uncertainty over future conditions that may affect the need for or the feasibility of a project. [ ] Negative impacts on the region caused by disruption at the airport. [ ] Other: [ ] N/A 16) To your knowledge, does your airport conduct planning for climate risk(s), such as those risks described in the question above?* ( ) Yes ( ) No Please describe any actual projects that respond to the risk(s). State “none” or “don’t know” if that is the case. 17) Has the airport integrated analysis of projected climate change impacts and/or related future risks into any of the following?* [ ] Master plan in development [ ] Approved master plans [ ] Capital improvement plans

78 [ ] Design standards for physical assets [ ] Supply contracts [ ] Budget development [ ] Security planning [ ] Disaster management and emergency response [ ] Early warning systems [ ] Organizational decision making [ ] N/A, I have personal knowledge that the airport does not integrate current and/or future climate change considerations into guidance and protocols. [ ] Don’t know [ ] Other (please state): 18) Please indicate the climate change projections or similar resources that your airport is using. State “none” or “don’t know” if that is the case.* 19) Please indicate which of the following tools or resources your airport uses when considering climate change in planning and/or airport operations. Please check all that apply.* [ ] Climate education or training [ ] Climate impact and/or vulnerability assessment [ ] Scenario planning [ ] Airport Enterprise Risk Management process [ ] Airport authority risk processes [ ] Municipal risk managers and processes [ ] Full inventory of infrastructure/assets, including quality assessment [ ] None [ ] Other (please state): 20) Do you feel emergency planning processes are a satisfactory method for addressing future climate change risks?* ( ) Yes ( ) No 21) Do you feel irregular operations planning processes are a satisfactory method for addressing future climate change risks?* ( ) Yes ( ) No 22) If your airport is conducting planning for future climate change risks, what triggered consideration of climate change? Please check all that apply.* [ ] Required climate change analysis or reporting in a federal/national, state, local, or other governmental program. Please specify (optional): [ ] Weather events and/or disruptions [ ] Employee professional judgment [ ] Awareness raised by efforts on climate change mitigation (e.g., carbon emissions reduction) [ ] Insurance requirements [ ] Bonding requirements [ ] Master plan forecasts [ ] Master plan work, not including forecasts [ ] Issues emerging from emergency response plans [ ] N/A [ ] Other:

79 23) Which of the following expenditure categories do you think future climate change risks should be addressed through?* ( ) Capital expenditures ( ) Operational expenditures ( ) Both ( ) Neither 24) If your airport has activities underway that are relevant to the subject of this survey, would you like to provide more information at this time?* ( ) Yes ( ) No Please list the activities relevant to the subject of this survey* In follow-up to this survey, are you willing to have yourself or a relevant person at your airport take part in a 15–20 min- ute phone interview?* ( ) Yes ( ) No 25) Are you willing to provide information that might be used as a case example for the report? (Information will remain anonymous unless written consent is provided.)* ( ) Yes ( ) No 26) Do you know of other airports and/or individuals at airports reviewing climate change impacts, uncertainties, or adap- tation options?* ( ) Yes ( ) No If yes, please provide names and contact details, if appropriate. Please include name, position, e-mail address, and telephone number if possible. 27) Please indicate whether you would like a link to the report when published.* ( ) Yes ( ) No If yes, please provide your preferred e-mail address:* ____________________________________________ response review Survey Answers Thank you for your assistance through your completion of this survey. Your responses will help provide valuable insights into current climate change adaptation at airports. If you have any questions regarding the survey, please contact Chris Baglin, Christine.Baglin@ppc.com, 703.748.7547. You also can mail any documentation that you might feel will be helpful to this study to the following address: Christine Baglin Project Performance Corporation, Part of the AEA group 1760 Old Meadow Road McLean, VA 22102 USA

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 33: Airport Climate Adaptation and Resilience reviews the range of risks to airports from projected climate change and the emerging approaches for handling them.

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