TCRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT J-7 CHAIR FRANK T. MARTIN PBS&J, Tallahassee, FL MEMBERS DEBRA W. ALEXANDER Capital Area Transportation Authority, Lansing, MI DWIGHT FERRELL The Ferrell Group, Richardson, TX MARK W. FUHRMANN Metro Transit, Minneapolis, MN ROBERT H. IRWIN British Columbia Transit, Victoria, BC PAUL J. LARROUSSE National Transit Institute, New Brunswick, NJ WADE LAWSON South Jersey Transportation Authority, Atlantic City, NJ DAVID A. LEE Connecticut Transit, Hartford, CT HAYWARD M. SEYMORE, III Laidlaw Transit Services, Inc., University Place, WA PAM WARD Ottumwa Transit Authority, IA JOEL R. WASHINGTON Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, DC FTA LIAISON RITA DAGUILLARD Federal Transit Administration APTA LIAISON DAVID PHELPS American Public Transportation Association TRB LIAISON PETER L. SHAW Transportation Research Board COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF ROBERT J. REILLY, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, Manager, TCRP EILEEN DELANEY, Editor TCRP SYNTHESIS STAFF STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and Information Services JON WILLIAMS, Manager, Synthesis Studies DONNA L. VLASAK, Senior Program Officer DON TIPPMAN, Editor CHERYL Y. KEITH, Senior Secretary ACKNOWLEDGMENTS David Koffmann, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, San Francisco, California, was responsible for collection of the data and preparation of the report. Valuable assistance in the preparation of this synthesis was pro- vided by the Topic Panel, consisting of Howard Benn, Assistant Gen- eral Manager, Customer and Operations Support, Department of Pub- lic Works and Transportation, Montgomery County Transit; Steven A. Billings, Administrator of Transit, Multimodal OperationsâTransit Section, Missouri Department of Transportation; Dr. Liping Fu, Associate Pro- fessor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Waterloo; Todd Hem- ingson, Vice President, Planning and Development, VIA Metropolitan Transit; Greg Hull, American Public Transportation Association; Barbara Lupro, Consultant, Murrieta, California; William Menzies, Manager of Plan- ning and Schedules, Winnipeg Transit System; Peter L. Shaw, Senior Program Officer, Transportation Research Board; Mark Swope, Director of Planning, Kansas City Area Transportation Au- thority; and William Wiggins, Federal Transit Administration. This study was managed by Donna L. Vlasak, Senior Program Officer, who worked with the consultant, the Topic Panel, and the J-7 project committee in the development and review of the report. Assis- tance in project scope development was provided by Jon Williams, Manager, Synthesis Studies. Don Tippman was responsible for edit- ing and production. Cheryl Keith assisted in meeting logistics and distribution of the questionnaire and draft reports. Christopher W. Jenks, Manager, Transit Cooperative Research Program, assisted TCRP staff in project review. Information on current practice was provided by many transit agencies. Their cooperation and assistance was most helpful.