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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Sustainable Guidelines and Resources ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Sustainable Guidelines and Resources ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Sustainable Guidelines and Resources ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Sustainable Guidelines and Resources ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Sustainable Guidelines and Resources ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Sustainable Guidelines and Resources ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Sustainable Guidelines and Resources ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Sustainable Guidelines and Resources ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Sustainable Guidelines and Resources ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Sustainable Guidelines and Resources ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Sustainable Guidelines and Resources ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Sustainable Guidelines and Resources ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

60 APPENDIX C Sustainable Guidelines and Resources For airports with a desire to pursue sustainability initiatives, it can be confusing to determine which set of guidelines to adopt. Rather than “reinventing the wheel,” airports should adapt existing guidelines to guide their sustainability efforts. Even if planning to utilize only airport-specific guidance, the airport staff will realize there are several significant sources of airport sustainability guidance available. FAA REPORT ON THE SUSTAINABLE MASTER PLAN PILOT PROGRAM AND LESSONS LEARNED The airport sustainability planning pilot program led the FAA to publish, in December 2012, a Report on the Sustainable Master Plan Pilot Program and Lessons Learned. This report presents lessons learned from airports participating in the pilot program. To encourage participation in sustainability planning efforts, airports should “(a) involve staff from all areas in brainstorming, (b) meet regularly to obtain feedback, (c) gain airport board approval of the sustainability mission statement, (d) describe rationale and benefits of sustainability early in the process, and (e) publish annual sustainability reports” (FAA 2012, p. 3). Although the diversity of sustainable initiatives that may be pursued by airports may lead one to think there is little commonality in airport sustainability, the FAA has grouped the various initiatives into ten common sustainability categories. Additionally, the FAA has proposed sample sustainability initiatives based on actual experience among airports in the sustainable master plan pilot program: • Energy Reduction – Install occupancy sensors to turn off lighting when rooms are unoccupied. – Future non-insulated airport buildings such as T-hangars will incorporate applicable energy effi- cient standards. • Planned Development • Construction Methods • Waste Management and Recycling • Water Quality and Conservation • Air Quality • Emissions Reduction – Encourage FBO to install vapor recovery technology to recover evaporative hydrocarbons to prevent them from escaping into the atmosphere. – Develop online rideshare board to facilitate ridesharing to airport, especially among college students. • Airport Connectivity • Land Use • Natural Resources Management Notable sustainability targets, goals, and initiatives, as spelled out in the FAA (2012, pp. 9–11) report, include: • Make sustainability a significant part of future airport branding and marketing. • Develop online rideshare board to facilitate ridesharing to airport, especially among college students. • Effectively communicate all airport sustainability initiatives to airport employees, tenants, users and the community. • Maximize water use efficiency within buildings and reduce potable water consumption sitewide. • All new airport construction projects will exceed the guidelines outlined in the local Best Man- agement Practices (BMP) Manual for construction and postconstruction. • When selecting trees for new plantings, no species shall exceed 10% of the total tree population. • Implement targeted strategies intended to significantly reduce water use without negatively affecting existing day-to-day airport operations. • Maintain existing tree canopy cover (32%) in terminal entry road and parking areas. • Provide a system of sidewalks, pedestrian paths and trails to connect uses throughout the airport. Identify opportunities to connect to the City/County trail system. • No net loss of wetlands. • Provide incentives to airport staff, tenants, users and the public to encourage the usage of alternative fuel vehicles. • Continue to track noise complaints and formalize record keeping.

61 • Proactively work with the City and County to promote compatible land uses for properties adjacent the airport. Provide incentives to attract “green” businesses and industries. • Communicate and actively engage with local and regional transit authorities to advance multiple transit connection opportunities. • Future non-insulated airport buildings such as T-hangars will incorporate applicable energy efficient standards. • Prioritize projects/opportunities that improve airport connectivity, including a multi-modal airport station, commercial barge, and non-aeronautical development on airport property. • Install occupancy sensors to turn off lighting when rooms are unoccupied. • Consider designing storm water storage and conveyance systems to withstand heavier rainfall and more frequent flooding. • Incorporate skylighting to increase natural daylight and reduce heating costs during the winter. For hangars, skylighting design will need to account for liability issues associated with severe weather including hail storms that may damage planes and associated equipment. • Develop a wetland mitigation bank to ensure no net loss of wetlands as a result of future airport development. • Reduce energy consumption through use of alternative fuel options for vehicles and aircraft. • An Air Quality Management Plan could be developed as part of an Airport Master Plan update or Airport Improvement Program. Following LEED indoor air quality principles, an indoor air quality management plan would specify practices for HVAC operation, housekeeping, maintenance, as well as minimizing pollutants associated with renovations, painting, and pest control. • When deemed cost-effective, consider conversion of airport fleet vehicles to alternative fuels. • Encourage FBOs to install vapor recovery technology to recover evaporative hydrocarbons to pre- vent them from escaping into the atmosphere. • Provide easily accessible recycling receptacles throughout the airport. Provide signs within these areas that clearly identify what can and cannot be recycled. • Follow LEED indoor air quality principles by installing ductwork products that can be easily cleaned or those that protect against mold/fiber shredding. • Avoid using fertilizers and chemicals for landscape maintenance. • Reduce APU usage by providing 400 Hz electricity and preconditioned air at gates during passenger boarding and deplanement. This feature could be incorporated into future passenger terminal designs (to serve airline aircraft). • Partner with local schools, colleges and other educational groups to help promote and advance the airport’s sustainability initiatives. • Develop preferred car rental parking and/or lot locations for car rental fleets that offer low-emissions vehicles. • Create Design and Construction Standards consistent with achieving LEED Silver or higher for all new construction and major renovations by January 1, 2012. • Encourage aircraft to use single-engine taxi procedures to reduce aircraft engine usage, save fuel, and reduce aircraft taxi emissions. This practice has a secondary benefit of reducing noise. • Specify green construction equipment and methods by 2015. • As electric cars become more prevalent in the future, charging stations could be provided in air- port parking areas. The charging stations could be solar-powered to reduce operational costs to the airport. • Reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 2% of the 2008 level for each of the next 40 years, achieving an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. • Issue a Request for Proposal for a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) for a solar energy system. • Divert 75% of the waste stream generated from offices and terminal by 2015; establish intermediate goals to facilitate reaching this goal. • Use natural gas instead of oil. • Reduce dependence on fossil fuels to the maximum extent practicable and use clean and renewable energy sources. • When designing new buildings, the airport should consider incorporation of green roofs. • Minimize and reuse construction waste wherever possible. • Purchase renewable/alternative energy generated off-site. • Dispose 100% of used de-icing fluid within a 25-mi radius of the airport by 2015. • Shut down airfield lighting during nighttime, off-peak hours. • Use only environmentally friendly or green products at airport facilities. • Install solar-powered signage for the airfield and airport buildings and/or security lights. • Provide efficient and consolidated public parking facilities at the airport. Consider additional long- term parking options to reduce trips generated by drop-off and pick-up of passengers. • Require regular sustainability progress reports during construction projects (either quarterly or at certain construction progress milestones). Data should be collected based on pre-established sustain- ability performance metrics. • Reduce percentage of drop-off/pick-up activity by 15% so that it is not the primary means of trans- portation to the airport by passengers. • Establish an aggressive land acquisition program that seeks to prevent residential encroachment, preserve wetlands and green spaces, and allow for future airport development (FAA 2012).

62 ACRP REPORT 119: PROTOTYPE AIRPORT SUSTAINABILITY RATING SYSTEM— CHARACTERISTICS, VIABILITY, AND IMPLEMENTATION OPTIONS In ACRP Report 119, Lurie et al. (2014) present a prototype airport sustainability rating system. Designed to gauge airport sustainability performance via a Decision Tool, this rating system is intended to assist airports in “evaluating and selecting best practices for airport sustainability” (p. 1). The report proposes eight categories of sustainability initiatives, further divided into 50 sustainability activities: 1. Energy and Climate – Terminal Building – Overall Airport Energy Use – Renewable Energy Use – Terminal Building Emission Reductions – Overall Airport Emission Reductions – Other Indirect Emissions Reductions – Climate Change Adaptation 2. Transportation – Fleet Vehicle Fuel Economy – Airside Equipment Fuel Use – Alternative Fuel Vehicles – Alternative Passenger Transportation – Alternative Employee Commute 3. Economic Performance – Socially Responsible Financial Investments – Airport Financial Viability – Risk Management – Regional Economic Contributions 4. Design and Materials – Sustainable Design and Operations – Material Selection – Construction Waste Diversion – Construction Impacts Mitigation – Sustainable Site Selection – Local Sourcing – Recycled and Bio-based Content – Low-Toxicity Materials – Environmentally Preferable Purchasing 5. Engagement and Leadership – Airport-Wide Stakeholder Engagement – Public Outreach – Community Stewardship – Integrated Sustainability Management – Airport User Engagement and Outreach – Tenant and Vendor Sustainability 6. Water and Waste – Potable Water Conservation – Waste Reduction – Waste Diversion 7. Natural Resources – Landscape and Grounds – Wildlife and Habitat Protection – Pervious Surface – Airside Storm Water Quality – Wildlife Hazard Management – Heat Island Reduction 8. Human Well-Being – Airport Noise Compatibility – Workplace Air Quality – Light Pollution – Chemicals and Hazardous Materials – Passenger Experience – Employee Development – Labor Relations – Diversity and Equal Opportunity – Occupational Health and Safety – Universal Design (p. 3).

63 ACRP REPORT 43: GUIDEBOOK OF PRACTICES FOR IMPROVING ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE AT SMALL AIRPORTS Published in 2011, ACRP Report 43, although not the most current of available guidance, is especially useful for its focus on environmental initiatives at small airports. Although environmental performance is one aspect of sustainability, the report categorizes environmental initiatives into the following areas: • Air Quality • Emergency Planning and Response, to include spill prevention, pesticides, underground storage tanks, and hazardous materials transport • Noise • Planning and Development, to include fish, wildlife, and plants • Waste Management • Water Resources • Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The lengthy report does present a comprehensive inventory of sustainable practices that small airports may pursue, which provides staff of small airports great ideas of feasible sustainable initiatives. For those seeking ideas as to the various types of sustainable initiative, this report is an extremely useful resource. Sustainable initiatives identified in the report that are either no cost or low cost (less than $10,000) are presented here. Readers are encouraged to consult ACRP Report 43 for more detailed guidance on these and other initiatives. • Air quality – Schedule deliveries efficiently – Provide commercial vehicle holding area – Encourage rental car facility use of “ready and return” systems – Use a single engine during aircraft taxi – Conduct routine maintenance of equipment and facilities – Encourage airlines and pilots to de-rate aircraft takeoffs, rather than using maximum thrust during the entire takeoff and departure phase – Limit power-back and/or reverse thrust during flight procedures – Institute trip reduction measures – Optimize roadway network, to minimize stop-and-go traffic – Direct aircraft exhaust away from surrounding sensitive areas – Prohibit burning of landscape waste – Install vapor recovery technology for fuel storage and transfer facilities – Implement low-smoke fire training, using propane, for example – Encourage most effective practices for solvent use – Provide alternative transportation during construction – Use low-emitting construction materials and equipment – Alter project construction schedule to accommodate adverse meteorological conditions – Minimize fugitive dust emissions during construction – Prepare an airport-wide greenhouse gas emissions inventory – Establish emissions limits or ceilings – Coordinate with air agencies on plans and timelines affecting the airport – Prevent mold and asbestos – Evaluate the effectiveness of building ventilation systems – Review maintenance and janitorial programs to eliminate toxic agents in favor of environmen- tally friendly choices – Implement strategies to limit tobacco smoke exposure indoors and adjacent to entryways – Develop an indoor air quality management plan • Emergency planning and response – Develop a database of bulk storage containers – Develop and implement a storage tank management plan – Develop an airport spill prevention, control, and countermeasure policy – Establish a spill reduction training program – Establish airport-wide procedures – Implement a leak detection inspection program for bulk storage containers – Isolate oil storage areas – Maintain spill control kits – Develop a chemical storage policy – Maintain a chemicals database – Isolate chemical/hazardous material storage – Reduce herbicide/pesticide use – Utilize low-toxicity pesticides/herbicides – Develop and implement a hazardous material storage tank management plan

64 • Noise – Establish a noise complaint system – Produce a “Fly Quiet” report – Establish a community noise roundtable – Track noise complaints through a geographic information system (GIS) – Implement a preferential runway use system – Identify aircraft engine run-up areas – Implement a voluntary curfew or voluntary restraint from flying – Discourage use of reverse thrust – Establish real estate disclosures • Planning and development – Implement green buildings construction and design/Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Standards (LEED) – Redevelop previously developed sites – Proactively evaluate environmental resource conditions – Partner with municipalities to develop compatible land uses – Local/Regional transit coordination/cooperation – Develop a noise and land use compatibility policy – Develop on-site cultural resources management plan – Develop an on-site unanticipated discovery plan – Develop a public involvement program for master planning – Develop a scoping plan – Develop a plan for conducting public hearings, workshops, and meetings – Adopt a sustainability communication plan – Establish a recycling education program – Showcase airport initiatives – Report annual energy consumption – Construct an observation area – Develop an on-site conservation area for species of concern – Choose non-wildlife attractant plants – Conduct long-term vegetation management – Avoid the creation of natural open water features on or near airfield sites that attract wildlife – Manage vegetation to maintain rare and non-hazardous wildlife habitat – Plant nitrogen-fixing vegetation – Join in partnerships with environmental nonprofit organizations – Review environmental documents prepared by property owner – Perform environmental property assessments – Perform detailed review of property transfer deed as it pertains to remediation for environmental contamination – Perform evaluation of environmental remediation closure level and future use of land – Implement procedures and practices to prevent environmental contamination, prevent contamina- tion from spreading, or remediate site • Waste management – Encourage onboard recycling programs for airlines – Coordinate recycling collection infrastructure with hauler capabilities – Establish a food donation program – Establish a food waste composting program – Require the use of compostable or reusable tableware – Implement incentives to minimize plastics – Develop recycling and waste reduction competitions between different airport departments – Minimize removal of trees or vegetation and reuse – Recycle hot-drained or crushed non–terne-plated used oil filters – Product substitution for materials that result in a hazardous waste when disposed – Utilize vendors that reclaim products – Conduct a Polychlorinated Biphenyls Audit – Institute a universal waste handling and disposal policy – Recycle used oil – Utilize used oil for heating purposes • Water resources – Encourage tenant proactive anti-icing to reduce aircraft deicing fluid usage after winter weather events – Monitor tenant aircraft deicer usage – Utilize low toxicity/low biochemical oxygen demand deicing materials – Reduce potable water used in irrigation systems by limiting irrigation frequency and duration – Use high-pressure nozzles in car washes and for aircraft washing – Protect drinking water supply – Strategically locate construction traffic areas, construction lay-down areas, and stockpiles – Develop and maintain a soil erosion and sediment control plan

65 – Conduct independent inspections of construction-related storm water best management practices – Provide general aviation (GA) tenants with sump fuel disposal containers – Store materials and waste in areas sheltered from rain and runoff – Perform outdoor maintenance and store equipment in a designated paved area – Develop a storm water management master plan – Provide training and access to storm water pollution prevention plan – Use other properties for regional storm water infiltration – Reduce the amount of impervious surface – Reuse cut grass instead of applying fertilizer – Protect topsoil – Reduce flow velocities in storm water conveyance systems – Install energy-efficient water aerators to maintain water quality • Energy efficiency and renewable energy – Implement transit-first policy for employees, passengers, and other airport users – Provide transit use incentives to employees – Utilize energy-efficient lighting – Work with airlines to group flights into a given part of the concourse during nonpeak hours – Utilize prefabricated equipment – Track energy use – Track sustainability elements in construction projects – Utilize contractors with sustainability experience – Include environmental clauses in lease agreements – Establish an environmentally preferable purchasing program – Encourage use of local vendors/suppliers – Specify environmentally preferable materials – Purchase environmentally preferable supplies for administration activities – Encourage vendors to purchase environmentally preferable products – Purchase and install recycled furniture – Purchase and install furniture systems that are Greenguard certified – Reuse materials or use materials with recycled content, sourced locally/regionally, and/or made of rapidly renewable resources, certified wood, or salvaged materials – Create and follow a sustainable vision/mission statement – Develop or adopt sustainable design guidelines – Establish a sustainability team/committee – Integrate all airport departments in sustainability planning – Establish a “sustainable meetings” policy – Encourage staff to pursue Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Accreditation – Establish annual objectives and targets that include quantification on nonmonetary benefits (McGormley et al. 2011). Also helpful is the chapter two content on establishing an effective environmental program. As McGormley et al. (2011) explain: Establishing an effective environmental program can be accomplished within the typical capabilities, financial resources, and environmental expertise of most small airports. With a clear vision, proper organization, and persistence, small airports can implement effective environmental programs as diverse as those at much larger facilities. However, taking on too much and expecting perfection at the onset will almost certainly result in frustration and disappointment (p. 7). Although the comment by McGormley et al. (2011) specifically references environmental programs, these words of wisdom are appropriate to small airports pursuing sustainability planning in general. Indeed, “a clear vision, proper organization, and persistence” are beneficial for any sustainability initiative. McGormley et al. (2011) recommend the “Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA)” cycle as a proper way to establish an effective environmental program (Figure C1). Associated with ISO 14001, the PDCA cycle is rather simplistic at its heart. First, the “Plan” phase requires the airport to define the overall environmental program. This phase requires the airport to (a) pre- pare a clear environmental policy, (b) identify applicable environmental laws and regulations, (c) establish environmental objectives, and (d) assign and communicate program roles and responsibilities (McGormley et al. 2011, pp. 7–8). Specifically regarding environmental objectives, McGormley et al. (2011) state that implementation strategies and performance measures must also be developed for each environmental objective. One example they provide is: Objective: Minimize landfilled waste. Implementation Strategy: Institute a recycling program targeting readily separable and recyclable waste streams.

66 Performance Measure: Capture and recycle 80% of cardboard and 90% of office paper within two years of program implementation (McGormley et al. 2011, p. 9). Second, the “Do” phase “represents the culmination of environmental program planning efforts” (McGormley et al. 2011, p. 10). Clearly, without this phase, sustainability is nothing more than a discus- sion. However, by fully implementing the “Do” phase, airports will begin to realize benefits from their sustainability efforts. This phase also includes regulatory compliance and training of personnel. Third, the “Check” phase “provides airports the opportunity to monitor environmental program perfor- mance and assess if observed results align with the environmental policy, achieve program objectives, and meet internal and external airport stakeholder expectations” (McGormley et al. 2011, p. 11). An effective “Check” phase requires (a) monitoring environmental program performance, and (b) tracking a changing regulatory landscape (McGormley et al. 2011, pp. 11–12). Finally, the “Act” phase “provides airports the opportunity to assess elements within their environ- mental programs that may require improvement (e.g., identified as gaps during the “Check” phase)” (McGormley et al. 2011, pp. 11–12). By assessing where problems originate and being dedicated to “improve the deficient environmental program components,” the airport can ensure an effective “Act” phase of the PDCA cycle (McGormley et al. 2011, p. 12). GRI SUSTAINABILITY REPORTING GUIDELINES & AIRPORT OPERATORS SECTOR SUPPLEMENT The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) is an organization that “promotes the use of sustainability reporting as a way for organizations to become more sustainable and contribute to sustainable development” (GRI n.d., para. 1). GRI attempts to provide a “trusted and credible framework for sustainability reporting that can be used by organizations of any size, sector, or location” (GRI 2011, p. 6). In 2011, GRI published the Sustainability Reporting Guidelines & Airport Operators Sector Supplement to provide airport-specific guidance on sustainability. This resource is designed to aid airport operators in producing sustainability reports. Although not small airport focused, this resource is beneficial for staff of small airports in devel- oping a sustainability report. As explained by GRI (n.d., p. 9), “Sustainability reporting is the practice of measuring, disclosing, and being accountable to internal and external stakeholders for organizational performance towards the goal of sustainable development.” Clearly, the EONS approach of Economic viability, Operational efficiency, Natural Resource Conservation and Social responsibility (EONS) compels the airport operator to disclose to stakeholders their degree of “organizational performance towards the goal of sustainable development” (GRI n.d., p. 9). ADVISORY CIRCULAR 150/5050-8, ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR AIRPORT SPONSORS Issued in 2007, AC 150/5050-8 promotes the concept and provides guidance for the development of Environmental Management Systems (EMS). Although specifically intended for public-use large and medium hub airports, this AC provides guidance of benefit to all airports. This AC provides guidance to airport sponsors in developing an EMS. According to the AC, “an EMS must satisfy one of the recognized standards if an airport sponsor is seeking” (FAA 2007, p. 1). Plan Do Check Act FIGURE C1 Plan-Do-Check- Act cycle (Source: D. Prather 2016).

67 An EMS is a strategic management framework that is based on the Plan-Do-Check-Act model and allows airports to address environmental issues. By assisting airports in “balancing environmental per- formance with business objectives through a process of continual improvement, [i]t has resulted in significant savings and cost avoidance for many organizations, including airport sponsor” (FAA 2007, p. 1). Benefits for an airport adopting an EMS include (a) improved regulatory compliance, (b) improved environmental performance, (c) increased efficiency and accountability, (d) reduced costs and liability, (e) increased employee awareness of environmental responsibilities, and (f) improved community relations (FAA 2007, p. 3). According to the FAA (2007), the five components of an EMS are: 1. Senior management commitment to an environmental policy. 2. Identification of significant environmental aspects of the organization. 3. Establishment of implementation plans. 4. Verification of the status of environmental management programs and compliance with applicable regulations. 5. Review of audit results and EMS performance with senior management (pp. 2–3). The FAA (2007) advises airports to take the following steps in developing an EMS: • Identify aspects and impacts from airport activities, products, and services. • Identify the airport’s significant environmental aspects. • Conduct a review of legal requirements. • Develop objectives and targets. • Set up a formal program (p. 4). Finally, implementation requires careful consideration. As with all plans, if not implemented properly, success cannot be ensured. The FAA suggests considering (a) roles, responsibilities, and competency; (b) training and awareness; (c) internal and external communications; (d) document control; (e) opera- tional controls. ISO 14000 The International Organization for Standardization (ISO), headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, is com- posed of 160 national standards institutes whose role is to provide standards for “all three dimensions of sustainable development: economic, environmental, and societal” (International Standard for Standard- ization 2009, p. 1). As ISO (2007) explains: ISO standards for business, government and society as a whole make a positive contribution to the world we live in. They ensure vital features such as quality, ecology, safety, economy, reliability, compatibility, interoper- ability, conformity, efficiency and effectiveness. They facilitate trade, spread knowledge, and share technological advances and good management practice. Specifically as these standards apply to airports, ISO 14001 has been developed. As shared by ISO (2007), ISO 14001 is “the world’s most recognized framework for environmental management systems (EMS)— implemented from Argentina to Zimbabwe—that helps organizations both to manage better the impact of their activities on the environment and to demonstrate sound environmental management” (p. 6). ISO 14001 contains a step-by-step checklist for organizations to use in assessing their environmental performance. This checklist can serve as a useful roadmap for an airport in developing an EMS. Although the EPA points out that “ISO 14001 is not a technical standard and as such does not in any way replace technical requirements embodied in statutes or regulations,” the agency does promote ISO 14001, stating “if implemented properly, [ISO 14001] could serve as a valuable tool to help organizations improve their environmental performance, increase the use of pollution prevention, and improve compli- ance” (EPA n.d., para. 3). ISO 14001 has the following requirements: • A policy statement which includes commitments to prevention of pollution, continual improvement of the EMS leading to improvements in overall environmental performance, and compliance with all applicable statutory and regulatory requirements. • Identification of all aspects of the community organization’s activities, products, and services that could have a significant impact on the environment, including those that are not regulated. • Setting performance objectives and targets for the management system which link back to the three commitments established in the community or organization’s policy (i.e., prevention of pollution, continual improvement, and compliance).

68 • Implementing the EMS to meet these objectives. This includes activities such as training of employees, establishing work instructions and practices, and establishing the actual metrics by which the objectives and targets will be measured. • Establishing a program to periodically audit the operation of the EMS. • Checking and taking corrective and preventive actions when deviations from the EMS occur, includ- ing periodically evaluating the organization’s compliance with applicable regulatory requirements. • Undertaking periodic reviews of the EMS by top management to ensure its continuing performance and making adjustments to it, as necessary (EPA n.d.b, para. 4). SUSTAINABLE AVIATION RESOURCE GUIDE Produced by the SAGA, the Sustainable Aviation Resource Guide has been developed to provide guid- ance to airports in the development of a sustainability program. According to SAGA (n.d.), the guide is intended to serve as a “comprehensive resource of options for airport operators to use in evaluating and selecting the sustainable practices that may be applicable within the unique circumstances of each airport” (p. 4). SAGA (n.d.) is quick to point out, however, that “every sustainability program will be unique and that an airport operator should modify and scale this approach based on its specific operating environment and resources” (p. 13). The approach proposed by SAGA includes the following steps: • Adopt a consensus-based definition to sustainability, to include building a diverse sustainability team of engaged stakeholders at all levels within the organization, as well as external to the organization. A diverse group that represents all levels and departments within an airport combined with out- side stakeholders such as tenants, community groups, sustainability experts, and members of the national and global aviation industry will bring varied perspectives, authority for action, opportuni- ties for collaboration, and momentum to a sustainability program (SAGA n.d., p. 15). See Figure C2 (SAGA n.d., p. 16). • Consider other sustainability initiatives at the local, regional, and worldwide level and the manner by which the airport’s sustainability initiatives interconnect with these. According to SAGA (n.d.), “An airport operator may consider collaborating with these groups to broaden the overall perspective of their program, pool resources and expertise, receive guidance, and capture and share information that may assist in decision-making regarding the selection of sustainability activities” (p. 24). • Consider developing a management system to plan, implement, improve, and maintain a sustain- ability program. According to SAGA (n.d.), “A management system outlines specific steps, provides a decision making structure and can be used to develop processes and tools that are coordinated with existing business and environmental practices” (p. 18). Whether a sustainability management sys- tem is unique to the airport’s sustainability efforts (i.e., stand-alone) or integrated within an existing management system (i.e., environmental management system), such a system provides structure and efficiency to the process. • Establish vision and guiding principles. It is important to develop a “sustainability vision and set of guiding principles for the airport that will serve as the foundation for future sustainability initiatives” (SAGA n.d., p. 21). • Determine focus areas and strategic goals. Focus areas “will reflect the issues that are most important for the specific airport” (SAGA n.d., p. 21). FIGURE C2 Various roles from strategy to action (Source: SAGA n.d.).

69 • Conduct initial assessment. “An evaluation of current conditions, programs, important contextual fac- tors establishes a baseline upon which further actions can be selected” (SAGA n.d., pp. 21–22). • Identify and rank opportunities. Opportunities that advance the airport’s sustainability program can be identified through discussions with stakeholders and review of other resources, such as this ACRP Synthesis report. • Refine goals. Based on findings up to this point, it is helpful to revise strategic goals and focus areas to account for any gaps. • Select actions and set targets. During this step, opportunities for action are selected for implementa- tion. Measurement metrics and targets are also established. • Develop action and monitoring plans. This step requires the development of action plans as well as monitoring plans in an effort to “streamline resources, determine roles and responsibilities, and establish accountability for achieving progress” (SAGA n.d., p. 23). • Implement initiatives. As SAGA (n.d.) explains: Implementation may include the development or revision of guidance documents, procedures, stan- dards, specifications, or best management practices. Actions may be initiated during the RFP/RFQ stage, pre- bid or pre-design stage, construction activities, operation and maintenance, or procurement. Implementation may also include the achievement of LEED® certification (p. 23). • Monitor performance. Previously identified metrics can be used to measure performance toward achieving established goals. • Evaluate program. As SAGA (n.d.) explains: The progress reports can be analyzed to determine gaps in the sustainability initiatives and the impact of the sustainability program, including cost savings. These feedback loops can be combined with the financial plan and budget and growth strategy to appropriately plan for future sustainability activities and business performance (p. 23). • Communicate progress. It is important to share achievements with stakeholders, including the non- aviation community (SAGA n.d., pp. 21–24). See Figure C3 for a graphic of the entire process. ACRP SYNTHESIS 21: AIRPORT ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND COST REDUCTION ACRP Synthesis 21 provides guidelines on planning specifically for energy efficiency. This planning is necessary “to determine the scope of the project, the cost of the project, funding sources, and potential payback or rebates” (Lau et al. 2010, p. 5). Areas of consideration include: • Ways to identify energy efficiency projects – Collect and analyze data with audits and meters – Perform an operations assessment – Review energy bills – Start early – Reach for “low hanging fruit” – Leverage commissioning efforts – Use existing standards to guide energy efficient design • Strategies to plan energy efficiency projects – Ensure success—Incorporate improvements into projects and plans – Energy management plan – Test-drive strategies with demonstration projects – Look to other terminals in your region for practices – Designate an energy advocate(s) on project teams – Pass it on—Generate tenant improvement planning standards – Future proofing – Seek out existing documents and programs • Funding sources for planning – Dedicated sustainability budget – Planning as part of consultant services – Utility programs, rebates, and incentives (Lau et al. 2010). Tracking Sustainability Objectives According to SAGA (n.d.), “As sustainability becomes a larger part of our global business landscape, one emerging trend is that many organizations are setting sustainability goals and targets without a coordi- nated approach or a system to measure and report on their successes” (p. 13). Indeed, it is important for an airport to track the success of a sustainable initiative. This requires the development of metrics. Whether in the form of decision trees, reports, checklists, or report cards, the method used to track achievement of

70 sustainable objectives is not as important as performing the actual tracking of objectives. This concept, although new to some, is no different than an airport tracking the success of an airport marketing plan, for example. Without tracking the success of the various components of the advertising mix, for example, the airport will have difficulty gauging the benefits of each advertising dollar. It would be important to know, for instance, whether a billboard or television ad was more effective in meeting the advertising objectives. The same is true for sustainability initiatives. According to SAGA (n.d.), “metrics are useful for establishing baselines, identifying trends, predict- ing problems, assessing options, setting performance goals or targets, and evaluating a particular project or airport organization/enterprise” (p. 11). The FAA (2012) explains that, “Any tracking method should identify the metrics that will be used to analyze future performance” (p. 7). Common metrics should be adopted so that progress may be measured. Careful consideration should be given to the selection of metrics. The initial drivers for the sustainability initiative should be considered, as should the projected outcomes. Sample drivers may include price per square foot, monthly electricity costs, cost per enplaned passenger, etc. FIGURE C3 SAGA approach (Source: SAGA n.d.).

71 According to the Sustainable Aviation Guidance Alliance (SAGA) website: The use of airport-specific sustainability guidelines and metrics will assist an airport operator in tracking, mea- suring, and reducing water and energy use, waste, reliance on non-renewable materials, and air and greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions related to airport administration, planning, design, construction, operations and main- tenance. An airport operator may develop and mandate the use of sustainability guidelines that include perfor- mance standards that consistently encourage or require more techniques that reduce GHG emissions, water and energy use, waste, etc. for various types of projects (e.g., capital, tenant, horizontal, vertical, etc.) (n.d., para. 1). Although there are multiple types of metrics that may be adopted by an airport, Lurie et al. (2014) believe that the GRI’s Airport Operators Sector Supplement (AOSS) and ACRP Report 19A: Resource Guide to Airport Performance Indicators resources are most appropriate for airports. Although there are many dif- ferent metrics an airport may adopt, depending on the project, the most common set of metrics include the rating system developed by U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) and the set of sustainability metrics by the GRI. The LEED program developed by the USGBC refers to Leadership in Energy and Environ- mental Design. This program is a sustainable building certification program that recognizes environ- mentally friendly construction and buildings that have met certain standards. LEED certification can be earned at four levels (Certified, Silver, Gold, and Platinum), with points earned based on meeting certain prerequisites (USGBC n.d.). It is important to note, however, that “in the airport context, LEED is not all inclusive, in that it may not cover the many different types of capital projects at an airport or maintenance activities, nor does it effectively measure sustainable airports operations or administration” (SAGA n.d., p. 11). In the end, each airport must develop metrics for specific sustainable initiatives implemented. Whether following industry guidance or developing a unique metric, it must make sense to airport staff and effectively measure the outcomes of the sustainability initiative. Sustainability Reporting According to GRI (2011), “Sustainability reporting is the practice of measuring, disclosing, and being accountable to internal and external stakeholders for organizational performance towards the goal of sus- tainable development” (p. 9). It is important for stakeholders to understand not only the sustainability initia- tives undertaken but also the airport’s progress toward meeting sustainability goals. As GRI (2011) explains, “Sustainability reporting is a living process and tool, and does not begin or end with a printed or online publication. Reporting should fit into a broader process for setting organizational strategy, implementing action plans, and assessing outcomes” (p. 12). “A sustainability report should provide a balanced and reasonable representation of the sustainability performance of a reporting organization—including both positive and negative contributions” (GRI 2011, p. 9). Such reports are useful for (a) benchmarking, to assess performance with respect to standards; (b) demonstrating how the airport is actively pursuing sustainable initiatives that benefit airport economic viability, airport operational efficiency, natural resources, and society (EONS); and (c) comparing perfor- mance internally and to peer airports (GRI 2011). “A sustainability report refers to a single, consolidated disclosure that provides a reasonable and balanced presentation of performance over a fixed time period” (GRI 2011, p. 51). The reporting framework developed by GRI “is designed for use by organizations of any size, sector, or location” (GRI 2011, p. 9). “Organizations should define a consistent and periodic cycle for issuing a report” (GRI 2011, p. 51). This may be annually, biannually, or some other cycle the airport decides upon. Sample Sustainability Drivers Drivers for pursuing sustainable initiatives, according to SAGA (n.d.), include: • Worldwide awareness and a global economy • Airline industry financial pressures • Rising energy costs • Green and environmental mandates • Resource conservation • Aging infrastructure • Facility life-cycle costs • Enabling technologies. Drivers, however, are often as varied as the sustainable initiatives themselves.

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TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 69: Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports explores drivers and outcomes of green initiatives undertaken at small commercial and general aviation airports. Drivers could include financial viability, staffing considerations, or other social or environmental factors.

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