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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Region-Specific Survey Findings ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23486.
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72 APPENDIX D Region-Specific Survey Findings ALASKAN REGION Airports with Sustainable Initiatives Sustainable Projects Of the 71 participating airports in the Alaskan region, only five (7%) have adopted sustainable initiatives. The majority (66, representing 93%) have not adopted sustainable initiatives. The most common sustainable initiative adopted by participating airports in the Alaskan region (four, representing 80%) can be categorized as energy conservation/renewable energy (Figure D1). Other ini­ tiatives pursued by one participating airport each include air quality enhancement/climate change and materials use and solid waste reduction/recycling. Drivers and Outcomes Materials Use and Solid Waste Reduction/Recycling The one participating Alaskan airport with an ini­ tiative in materials use and solid waste reduction/recycling shared only one driver motivating this initia­ tive: addressing global concerns. The outcome for this initiative was identical: addressing global concerns (Figure D2). Air Quality Enhancement/Climate Change The one participating Alaskan airport with an initiative in air quality enhancement/climate change shared only one driver: cost reductions. Likewise, this airport reported an identical outcome: cost reductions (Figure D3). Energy Conservation/Renewable Energy Of those four participating Alaskan airports having adopted an initiative focused on energy conservation or renewable energy, drivers and outcomes varied, although three drivers and outcomes were shared by these airports. The most common drivers were improved sus­ tainability performance, cost reductions, and reduction in maintenance or man hours. Outcomes for these initiatives matched the drivers, which would indicate that these initiatives were successful in producing the intended results (Figure D4). 4 1 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Energy conservation/renewable energy Air quality enhancement/climate change Materials use and solid waste reduction/recycling Number of Responses Ca te go ry Categories of Sustainable Initiatives - Alaskan FIGURE D1 Categories of sustainable initiatives—Alaskan (Source: D. Prather 2016).

73 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Materials Use and Recycling Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D2 Materials use and solid waste reduction/recycling—Alaskan (Source: D. Prather 2016). 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Air Quality Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D3 Air quality enhancement/climate change—Alaskan (Source: D. Prather 2016). 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Energy Conservation/Renewable Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D4 Energy conservation/renewable energy—Alaskan (Source: D. Prather 2016).

74 Airports Without Sustainable Initiatives Airports not yet having pursued sustainable initiatives were asked to indicate agreement or disagreement with several statements reflecting views specifically of environmental sustainability. Results are presented in Figure D5. As indicated, most of the participating Alaska airports believe that environmental sustainability has too long a payback period and costs too much. As a result, and because their airport has little impact on the environment, environmental sustainability is not a priority. Interestingly, most of the airports are familiar with the “triple bottom line,” although this awareness does not translate into airports pursuing sustainable initiatives. CENTRAL REGION Airports with Sustainable Initiatives Of the 16 airports that participated in the survey in the Central region, 13 (81%) have adopted sustainable initiatives. Three (19%) have not. Sustainable Projects The most widely adopted initiative (by 11 participating airports, representing 85%) is categorized as energy conservation/renewable energy. Less common are initiatives categorized as material use and solid waste reduction/recycling (five, representing 38%), water quality protection and water conservation (five, representing 38%), and hazardous materials and waste management/reduction (three, representing 23%) (Figure D6). Drivers and Outcomes Materials Use and Solid Waste Reduction/Recycling The five participating airports having adopted a materials use and solid waste/recycling initiative report identical drivers and outcomes. The drivers were airport management interest or confidence, as well as addressing global concerns. The actual out­ comes reported by these airports were identical to the drivers, meaning the project met the initial goals (Figure D7). Hazardous Materials and Waste Management/Reduction The three participating airports having adopted hazardous materials and waste management/reduction initiatives report two drivers (compliance and 54 65 62 58 58 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 I am familiar with the triple bottom line. Our airport has little impact on the environment. Environmental sustainability is not a priority for us. Environmental sustainability costs too much. Environmental sustainability has too long of a payback period. Number of Responses St at em en t Views on Environmental Sustainability It Depends Disagree Agree FIGURE D5 Views on environmental sustainability—Alaskan (Source: D. Prather 2016).

75 addressing global concerns) and report the same outcomes (compliance and addressing global concerns) (Figure D8). Water Quality Protection and Water Conservation Although five participating airports report adopting of water quality protection and water conservation initiatives, only four of these airports report drivers and outcomes associated with these initiatives. Specifically, drivers include compliance (three, representing 60%) and addressing global concerns (one, representing 20%). Outcomes were identical, meaning these initiatives met goals (Figure D9). Energy Conservation/Renewable Energy The 11 participating airports having adopted energy conservation/ renewable energy initiatives report similar drivers and outcomes. Drivers include improved sustainability performance cost reductions, reduction in maintenance/man hours, and management interest and confi­ dence. The most common driver, reported by 11 participating airports, was cost reductions. In essence, these airports were motivated to pursue emergency conservation/renewable energy projects because of expected reductions in costs. Outcomes were identical, with cost reduction the most commonly reported outcome (reported by nine airports). Apparently, for two airports, the intended cost reductions were not realized (Figure D10). FIGURE D6 Categories of sustainable initiatives—Central (Source: D. Prather 2016). 8 6 155 14 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Economic vitality/operational efficiency Air quality enhancement/climate change Energy conservation/renewable energy Noise abatement Number of Responses Ca te go ry Categories of Sustainable Initiatives - Central 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Materials Use/Recycling Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D7 Materials use and solid waste reduction/recycling—Central (Source: D. Prather 2016).

76 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Hazardous Materials Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D8 Hazardous materials and waste management/reduction—Central (Source: D. Prather 2016). 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Water Quality Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D9 Water quality protection and water conservation—Central (Source: D. Prather 2016). 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Energy Conservation/Renewable Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D10 Energy conservation/renewable energy—Central (Source: D. Prather 2016).

77 Airports Without Sustainable Initiatives Airports not yet having pursued one or more sustainable initiatives were asked to indicate agreement or disagreement with several statements reflecting their beliefs on environmental sustainability. Results are presented in Figure D11. EASTERN REGION Of the 30 participating airports in the Eastern region, fully 28 (representing 93%) have adopted a sustain­ able initiative. Airports with Sustainable Initiatives Sustainable Projects No less than seven sustainable categories were represented by participating airports in the Eastern region. The most common category of sustainable initiative was energy conservation/renewable energy, pursued by 23 (representing 82%) airports. The second most common category was water quality protection and water conservation, pursued by 14 (representing 50%) airports. Additional categories include air quality enhancement/climate change (one, representing 4%), noise abatement (four, representing 14%), land and natural resources management (five, representing 18%), materials use and solid waste reduction (seven, representing 25%), and hazardous materials and waste management/reduction (eight, representing 29%) (Figure D12). Drivers and Outcomes Air Quality Enhancement/Climate Change The one participating airport having pursued an initiative in air quality enhancement/climate change, reported three drivers and three identical outcomes. Drivers and outcomes were improved sustainability performance, reduction in maintenance/man hours, and address­ ing global concerns (Figure D13). Materials Use and Solid Waste Reduction/Recycling Of the participating airports reporting initiatives in materials use and solid waste reduction/recycling, eight reported identical drivers and outcomes: address­ ing global concerns (Figure D14). Land and Natural Resources Management Airports having adopted initiatives in land and natural resources management report compliance as their most common driver, as well as outcome. Other drivers include risk reduction and sensitive environmental receptors. Although compliance, risk reduc­ tion, and protection of environmentally sensitive receptors were reported as outcomes, participating 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 I am familiar with the triple bottom line. Our airport has little impact on the environment. Environmental sustainability is not a priority for us. Environmental sustainability costs too much. Environmental sustainability has too long of a payback period. Number of Responses St at em en t Views on Environmental Sustainability It Depends Disagree Agree FIGURE D11 Views on environmental sustainability—Central (Source: D. Prather 2016).

78 0 1 2 3 4 5 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Air Quality Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D13 Air quality enhancement/climate change—Eastern (Source: D. Prather 2016). 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Materials Use Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D14 Materials use and solid waste reduction/recycling—Eastern (Source: D. Prather 2016). 1 23 4 14 5 7 8 0 5 10 15 20 25 Air quality enhancement/climate change Energy conservation/renewable energy Noise abatement Water quality protection and water… Land and natural resources management Materials use and solid waste… Hazardous materials and waste… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Categories of Sustainable Initiatives - Eastern FIGURE D12 Categories of sustainable initiatives—Eastern (Source: D. Prather 2016).

79 airports also experienced some unexpected outcomes. These outcomes include improved relationships with neighbors and the community, improved tenant and customer relationships, and improved rela­ tionships with environmental organizations. Clearly, these data reveal that pursuing land and natural resources management initiatives can produce unexpected positive benefits to the airport and com­ munity (Figure D15). Hazardous Materials and Waste Management/Reduction Airports having pursued initiatives in hazard­ ous materials and waste management/reduction report three drivers and three identical outcomes. Drivers and outcomes include improved compliance, management confidence, and addressing global concerns (Figure D16). Noise Abatement Only three participating airports shared drivers and outcomes associated with their noise abatement initiatives. Drivers and outcomes were identical: improved relationships with neighbors and community (Figure D17). Water Quality Protection and Water Conservation Participating airports reporting water quality pro­ tection and water conservation initiatives point to four drivers and seven outcomes. Drivers include compliance, cost reductions, risk reduction, and addressing global concerns. In addition to outcomes that were identical to the drivers, these airports reported unexpected outcomes: improved relationships FIGURE D15 Land and natural resources management—Eastern (Source: D. Prather 2016). 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Land and Natural Resources Outcomes Drivers 0 1 2 3 4 5 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Hazardous Materials and Waste Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D16 Hazardous materials and waste management/reduction—Eastern (Source: D. Prather 2016).

80 0 1 2 3 4 5 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Noise Abatement Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D17 Noise abatement—Eastern (Source: D. Prather 2016). FIGURE D18 Water quality protection and water conservation—Eastern (Source: D. Prather 2016). 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Water Quality Outcomes Drivers with neighbors and the community, protection of environmentally sensitive receptors, improved tenant and customer relations, and improved relations with environmental organizations. The data reveal that sustainable initiatives in water quality protection and water conservation produced unexpected positive benefits for the airport and the community (Figure D18). Energy Conservation/Renewable Energy Airports that have pursued energy conservation/renewable energy initiatives report a number of drivers and outcomes. By far, the most common driver reported was cost reductions. Additional drivers include compliance, desire for improved sustainability performance, reduction in maintenance/man hours, and risk reduction. Outcomes were similar to drivers but did include some unexpected benefits. Those unexpected outcomes include improved relationships with neighbors and the community, protection of environmentally sensitive receptors, improved tenant and customer relationships, and improved relations with environmental organizations. Again, the data reveal that energy conservation/renewable energy initiatives can produce unexpected benefits for the airport and community (Figure D19). Airports Without Sustainable Initiatives Airports not yet having pursued sustainable initiatives were asked to indicate their level of agreement or disagreement with several statements reflecting beliefs on environmental sustainability. Responses are presented in Figure D20.

81 GREAT LAKES REGION Of the 31 participating airports from the Great Lakes region, 28 (representing 90%) have implemented sustainable initiatives. Airports with Sustainable Initiatives Sustainable Projects Twenty­eight of the participating airports indicated they have implemented one or more sustainable initia­ tives. The most commonly pursued initiative, reported by 25 of 28 airports (representing 90%), is catego­ rized as energy conservation/renewable energy. Other categories include air quality enhancement/climate change, noise abatement, water quality protection and water conservation, land/property use, pavement management, materials use and solid waste reduction/recycling, hazardous materials and waste manage­ ment/reduction, and buildings/facilities (Figure D21). Drivers and Outcomes Air Quality Enhancement/Climate Change One airport reported a sustainable initiative in air quality enhancement/climate change. This airport reported two drivers with identical outcomes: greater manage­ ment confidence and addressing global concerns (Figure D22). 0 5 10 15 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Energy Conservation/Renewable Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D19 Energy conservation/renewable energy—Eastern (Source: D. Prather 2016). 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 I am familiar with the triple bottom line. Our airport has little impact on the environment. Environmental sustainability is not a priority for us. Environmental sustainability costs too much. Environmental sustainability has too long of a payback period. Number of Responses Ca te go ry Views on Environmental Sustainability It Depends Disagree Agree FIGURE D20 Views on environmental sustainability—Eastern (Source: D. Prather 2016).

82 1 25 1 17 1 1 10 11 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Air quality enhancement/climate change Energy conservation/renewable energy Noise abatement Water quality protection and water… Land/property use Pavement management Materials use and solid waste… Hazardous materials and waste… Buildings/facilities Number of Responses Ca te go ry Categories of Sustainable Initiatives - Great Lakes FIGURE D21 Categories of sustainable initiatives—Great Lakes (Source: D. Prather 2016). 0 1 2 3 4 5 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Air Quality Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D22 Air quality enhancement/climate change—Great Lakes (Source: D. Prather 2016). Pavement Management One participating airport reported a pavement management initiative, and one driver and an identical outcome associated with this initiative: improved sustainability performance (Figure D23). Materials Use and Solid Waste Reduction/Recycling Ten participating airports report sustainable ini­ tiatives in materials use and solid waste reduction/recycling. These airports report two drivers and two identical outcomes: improved sustainability performance and addressing global concerns (Figure D24). Land and Natural Resources Management The one airport with a sustainable initiative in land and natu­ ral resources management reported one driver and identical outcome. Addressing global concerns both motivated this airport and yielded the outcome they desired (Figure D25). Land/Property Use The one airport reporting a land/property use initiative identifies one driver and an identical outcome: addressing global concerns (Figure D26). Buildings/Facilities The one airport reporting a buildings/facilities sustainable initiative reports one driver and an identical outcome: improved sustainability performance (Figure D27).

83 0 1 2 3 4 5 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Pavement Management Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D23 Pavement management—Great Lakes (Source: D. Prather 2016). 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Materials Use/Recycling Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D24 Materials use and solid waste reduction/recycling—Great Lakes (Source: D. Prather 2016). 0 1 2 3 4 5 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Land and Natural Resources Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D25 Land and natural resources management—Great Lakes (Source: D. Prather 2016).

84 Hazardous Materials and Waste Management/Reduction The 11 participating airports in the Great Lakes region having adopted a hazardous materials and waste management/reduction initiative report two drivers and identical outcomes. Drivers and outcomes are compliance and addressing global concerns (Figure D28). Noise Abatement The one participating airport having pursued a noise abatement initiative reports that the driver was to ensure improved relations with the community and the outcome verifies the program has met its goal of enhancing relations with the community (Figure D29). Water Quality Protection and Water Conservation Seventeen participating airports have pursued sus­ tainable initiatives in the area of water quality protection and water conservation. Drivers and outcomes, although several, are identical at these airports. Drivers motivating airports in this area include compli­ ance, improved sustainability performance, cost reductions, and addressing global concerns. Outcomes are identical. It is important to note that compliance is the main driver for water quality protection and water conservation (Figure D30). Energy Conservation/Renewable Energy The most frequently mentioned of sustainable initiatives among airports in the Great Lakes region, the energy conservation/renewable energy category, has common drivers and outcomes. Drivers include improved sustainability performance, cost reductions, reduction in maintenance/ man hours, and addressing global concerns. Outcomes are identical (Figure D31). 0 1 2 3 4 5 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Land and Property Use Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D26 Land and property use—Great Lakes (Source: D. Prather 2016). Drivers and Outcomes - Buildings/Facilities Outcomes Drivers 0 1 2 3 4 5 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry FIGURE D27 Buildings/facilities—Great Lakes (Source: D. Prather 2016).

85 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Hazardous Materials Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D28 Hazardous materials and waste management/reduction—Great Lakes (Source: D. Prather 2016). 0 1 2 3 4 5 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Noise Abatement Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D29 Noise abatement—Great Lakes (Source: D. Prather 2016). 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011121314151617 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Water Quality Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D30 Water quality protection and water conservation—Great Lakes (Source: D. Prather 2016).

86 Airports Without Sustainable Initiatives Airports not yet having pursued one or more sustainable initiatives were asked to indicate their level of agree­ ment or disagreement with several statements reflecting beliefs on environmental sustainability. Responses are presented in Figure D32. NEW ENGLAND REGION Eleven airports in the New England region participated in the survey. Airports with Sustainable Initiatives Most of the airports in the New England region (10, representing 91%) indicate they have adopted sustain­ able initiatives. Sustainable Projects There are six categories of sustainability initiatives reported by participating airports in the New England region. The two most common categories are water quality protection and water conservation and energy 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Energy Conservation/Renewable Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D31 Energy conservation/renewable energy—Great Lakes (Source: D. Prather 2016). 0 1 2 3 4 I am familiar with the triple bottom line. Our airport has little impact on the environment. Environmental sustainability is not a priority for us. Environmental sustainability costs too much. Environmental sustainability has too long of a payback period. Number of Responses St at em en t Views on Environmental Sustainability It Depends Disagree Agree FIGURE D32 Views on environmental sustainability—Great Lakes (Source: D. Prather 2016).

87 conservation/renewable energy. Additional categories include buildings/facilities, hazardous materials and waste management/reduction, materials use and solid waste reduction/recycling, and economic vitality/ operational efficiency (Figure D33). Drivers and Outcomes Economic Vitality/Operational Efficiency Airports having adopted initiatives in the category of eco­ nomic vitality/operational efficiency report only two drivers and identical outcomes. Improved sustain­ ability performance and cost reduction were both drivers and outcomes for projects in this category (Figure D34). Materials Use and Solid Waste Reduction/Recycling Airports with sustainable initiatives in the category of materials use and solid waste reduction/recycling report only one driver and an identical outcome. The only driver and outcome reported was addressing global concerns (Figure D35). Buildings/Facilities Airports having pursued sustainable initiatives in the category of buildings/facilities report two drivers and outcomes, which are identical. Improved sustainability performance and cost reduction are the reported drivers and outcomes (Figure D36). Hazardous Materials and Waste Management/Reduction Two drivers were reported by airports with hazardous materials and waste management/reduction initiatives. Greater management confidence and addressing global concerns were the two drivers and outcomes reported (Figure D37). 2 7 7 5 2 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Economic vitality/operational efficiency Energy conservation/renewable energy Water quality protection and water… Materials use and solid waste… Hazardous materials and waste… Buildings/facilities Number of Responses Ca te go ry Categories of Sustainable Initiatives - New England FIGURE D33 Categories of sustainable initiatives—New England (Source: D. Prather 2016). 0 1 2 3 4 5 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Economic Vitality Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D34 Economic vitality/operational efficiency—New England (Source: D. Prather 2016).

88 0 1 2 3 4 5 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Materials Use/Recycling Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D35 Materials use and solid waste reduction/recycling—New England (Source: D. Prather 2016). 0 1 2 3 4 5 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Buildings/Facilities Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D36 Buildings/facilities—New England (Source: D. Prather 2016). 0 1 2 3 4 5 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Hazardous Materials Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D37 Hazardous materials and waste management/reduction—New England (Source: D. Prather 2016).

89 Water Quality Protection and Water Conservation Airports with sustainable initiatives in the category of water quality protection and water conservation reported three drivers and identical outcomes. The most commonly reported driver is compliance. Less common are improved sustainability performance and cost reduction (Figure D38). Energy Conservation/Renewable Energy Airports with sustainable initiatives in the category of energy conservation/renewable energy report drivers and outcomes in the areas of cost reduction, improved sus­ tainability performance, reduction in maintenance/man hours, and addressing global concerns. As was common in other categories, drivers and outcomes are identical for this category (Figure D39). Airports Without Sustainable Initiatives Those airports that have not yet pursued a sustainable initiative were asked to indicate their agreement or disagreement with several statements reflecting beliefs on environmental sustainability. Responses are presented in Figure D40. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Water Quality Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D38 Water quality protection and water conservation—New England (Source: D. Prather 2016). 0 1 2 3 4 5 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Energy Conservation/Renewable Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D39 Energy conservation/renewable energy—New England (Source: D. Prather 2016).

90 NORTHWEST MOUNTAIN REGION Twenty­two airports in the Northwest Mountain region participated in the study. Most (17, representing 78%) have adopted sustainable initiatives. Airports with Sustainable Initiatives Sustainable Projects Participating airports located in the Northwest Mountain region report eight categories of sustainable initiatives. The most common is the category of energy conservation/renewable energy. Additional cat­ egories of sustainable initiatives include hazardous materials and waste management/reduction, materials use and solid waste reduction/recycling, land and natural resources management, water quality protection and water conservation, noise abatement, air quality enhancement/climate change, and economic vitality/ operational efficiency (Figure D41). Drivers and Outcomes Economic Vitality/Operational Efficiency Only one driver and an identical outcome was shared by air­ ports for projects categorized as economic vitality/operational efficiency. This driver and outcome was cost reduction (Figure D42). 0 1 2 I am familiar with the triple bottom line. Our airport has little impact on the environment. Environmental sustainability is not a priority for us. Environmental sustainability costs too much. Environmental sustainability has too long of a payback period. Number of Responses St at em en t Views on Environmental Sustainability It Depends Disagree Agree FIGURE D40 Views on environmental sustainability—New England (Source: D. Prather 2016). 1 1 16 1 5 1 3 1 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Economic vitality/operational efficiency Energy conservation/renewable energy Water quality protection and water… Materials use and solid waste… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Categories of Sustainable Initiatives - Northwest Mountain FIGURE D41 Categories of sustainable initiatives—Northwest Mountain (Source: D. Prather 2016).

91 0 1 2 3 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Economic Vitality Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D42 Economic vitality/operational efficiency—Northwest Mountain (Source: D. Prather 2016). Air Quality Enhancement/Climate Change According to airports, the pursuit of air quality enhancement/ climate change initiatives was driven by the need to address global concerns. Likewise, projects in the category addressed global concerns as their outcome (Figure D43). Materials Use and Solid Waste Reduction/Recycling Airports with sustainable initiatives in the category of materials use and solid waste reduction/recycling report one driver and an identical outcome: address­ ing global concerns (Figure D44). Land and Natural Resources Management Airports with initiatives in the category of land and natural resources management report two drivers with identical outcomes: improved compliance and addressing global concerns (Figure D45). Land/Property Use Airports with one or more initiatives in the category of land/property use reported one driver and an identical outcome: addressing global concerns (Figure D46). Hazardous Materials and Waste Management/Reduction Similar to other sustainable initiatives in the Northwest Mountain region, those related to hazardous materials and waste management/reduction have one driver and an identical outcome: addressing global concerns (Figure D47). Noise Abatement As is common with noise abatement programs, airports pursue initiatives in this category to reduce the noise impact to the local area and improve community relationships. Participating 0 1 2 3 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Air Quality Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D43 Air quality enhancement/climate change—Northwest Mountain (Source: D. Prather 2016).

92 0 1 2 3 4 5 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Materials Use Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D44 Materials use and solid waste reduction/recycling—Northwest Mountain (Source: D. Prather 2016). 0 1 2 3 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Land and Natural Resources Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D45 Land and natural resources management—Northwest Mountain (Source: D. Prather 2016). 0 1 2 3 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Land and Property Use Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D46 Land/property use—Northwest Mountain (Source: D. Prather 2016).

93 airports in the Northwest Mountain region reported the same driver and the identical outcome, which suggests that noise abatement programs are successful at improving community relations (Figure D48). Water Quality Protection and Water Conservation Airports pursuing initiatives in the water quality pro­ tection and water conservation category report four drivers and outcomes. These drivers and outcomes are identical, meaning that projects were successful at producing the outcomes that initially motivated the airport to pursue the projects. These drivers and outcomes include improved compliance, improved sustainability performance, cost reduction, and addressing global concerns (Figure D49). Energy Conservation/Renewable Energy Participating airports pursuing energy conservation/renewable energy initiatives report five categories of drivers and three categories of outcomes. Drivers include improved sustainability performance, cost reductions, reductions in maintenance/man hours, risk reduc­ tions, and increase in revenue. Outcomes include improved sustainability performance, cost reductions, and reduction in maintenance/man hours. It appears from the data that risk reduction and revenue increase, although initially serving as a motivator, did not actually result from the project. Some of these airports reported their projects were so new, they had not yet seen outcomes, which partially explains the discrep­ ancy between drivers and outcomes reported in the data (Figure D50). Airports Without Sustainable Initiatives Airports not yet having pursued sustainable initiatives were presented several statements that reflect beliefs about environmental sustainability. When asked to indicate their level of agreement or disagree­ ment with these statements, responses were received as presented in Figure D51. 0 1 2 3 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Hazardous Materials Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D47 Hazardous materials and waste management/reduction—Northwest Mountain (Source: D. Prather 2016). 0 1 2 3 4 5 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Noise Abatement Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D48 Noise abatement—Northwest Mountain (Source: D. Prather 2016).

94 0 1 2 3 4 5 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Water Quality Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D49 Water quality protection and water conservation—Northwest Mountain (Source: D. Prather 2016). 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Energy Conservation/Renewable Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D50 Energy conservation/renewable energy—Northwest Mountain (Source: D. Prather 2016). 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 I am familiar with the triple bottom line. Our airport has little impact on the environment. Environmental sustainability is not a priority for us. Environmental sustainability costs too much. Environmental sustainability has too long of a payback period. Number of Responses St at em en t Views on Environmental Sustainability It Depends Disagree Agree FIGURE D51 Views on environmental sustainability—Northwest Mountain (Source: D. Prather 2016).

95 SOUTHERN REGION There were 48 participating airports from the Southern region. Airports with Sustainable Initiatives Sustainable Projects Thirty­six of the 48 participating airports have adopted one or more sustainable initiatives. Airports report sustainable initiatives in eight categories. Although the most common is energy conservation/renewable energy, other categories include economic vitality/operational efficiency, noise abatement, water quality pro­ tection and water conservation, land and natural resources management, land/property use, materials use and solid waste reduction/recycling, and hazardous materials and waste management/reduction (Figure D52). Drivers and Outcomes Economic Vitality/Operational Efficiency Airports with sustainable initiatives in the economic vitality/ operational efficiency category report two drivers and identical outcomes: improved sustainability perfor­ mance and cost reductions (Figure D53). 4 27 2 14 4 2 15 3 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Economic vitality/operational efficiency Energy conservation/renewable energy Noise abatement Water quality protection and water… Land and natural resources management Land/property use Materials use and solid waste… Hazardous materials and waste… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Categories of Sustainable Initiatives - Southern FIGURE D52 Categories of sustainable initiatives—Southern (Source: D. Prather 2016). Drivers and Outcomes - Economic Vitality 0 1 2 3 4 5 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D53 Economic vitality/operational efficiency—Southern (Source: D. Prather 2016).

96 Materials Use and Solid Waste Reduction/Recycling Airports with one or more initiatives in materials use and solid waste reduction/recycling report two drivers and identical outcomes: greater management confidence and addressing global concerns (Figure D54). Land and Natural Resources Management Airports with at least one initiative in the category of land and natural resources management report two drivers and identical outcomes. These two drivers and outcomes were improved compliance and addressing global concerns (Figure D55). Land/Property Use Airports with one or more initiatives in the category of land/property use report two drivers and identical outcomes. These drivers and outcomes are protection of environmentally sensitive receptors and addressing global concerns (Figure D56). Hazardous Materials and Waste Management/Reduction Airports that have pursued sustain­able initiatives in the category of hazardous materials and waste management/reduction report two drivers and identical outcomes: improved compliance and addressing global concerns (Figure D57). Noise Abatement Airports with at least one sustainable initiative in the category of noise abatement report one driver and identical outcome: improved relationships with the community (Figure D58). Water Quality Protection and Water Conservation Airports with sustainable initiatives in water qual­ ity protection and water conservation report several drivers with identical outcomes. The most common driver and outcome was compliance. Additional drivers and outcomes include improved sustainability performance, cost reductions, and addressing global concerns (Figure D59). 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Materials Use/Recycling Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D54 Materials use and solid waste reduction/recycling—Southern (Source: D. Prather 2016). 0 1 2 3 4 5 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Land and Natural Resources Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D55 Land use and natural resources management—Southern (Source: D. Prather 2016).

97 0 1 2 3 4 5 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Land/Property Use Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D56 Land/property use—Southern (Source: D. Prather 2016). 0 1 2 3 4 5 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Hazardous Materials Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D57 Hazardous materials and waste management/reduction—Southern (Source: D. Prather 2016). 0 1 2 3 4 5 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Noise Abatement Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D58 Noise abatement—Southern (Source: D. Prather 2016).

98 Energy Conservation/Renewable Energy Airports with at least one sustainable initiative in the category of energy conservation/renewable energy report three drivers with identical outcomes. These drivers and outcomes are improved sustainability performance, cost reductions, and reduction in maintenance/ man hours (Figure D60). Airports Without Sustainable Initiatives For those airports not yet having pursued at least one sustainable initiative, they were asked to indicate their agreement or disagreement with several statements reflecting beliefs of environmental sustainability. Responses are presented in Figure D61. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Water Quality Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D59 Water quality protection and water conservation—Southern (Source: D. Prather 2016). 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed Officials Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Energy Conservation/Renewable Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D60 Energy conservation/renewable energy—Southern (Source: D. Prather 2016).

99 0 2 4 6 8 10 I am familiar with the triple bottom line. Our airport has little impact on the environment. Environmental sustainability is not a priority for us. Environmental sustainability costs too much. Environmental sustainability has too long of a payback period. Number of Responses St at em en t Views on Environmental Sustainability It Depends Disagree Agree FIGURE D61 Views on environmental sustainability—Southern (Source: D. Prather 2016). SOUTHWEST REGION Of the 37 participating airports in the Southwest region, 22 (60%) have pursued one or more sustainable initiatives. Airports with Sustainable Initiatives Sustainable Projects Most commonly, airports report one or more initiatives in the category of energy conservation/renewable energy. Other categories of sustainable initiatives include noise abatement, water quality protection and water conservation, land and natural resources management, pavement management, materials use and solid waste reduction/recycling, and hazardous materials and waste management/reduction (Figure D62). 19 1 7 2 2 2 6 2 0 5 10 15 20 Energy conservation/renewable energy Noise abatement Water quality protection and water… Land and natural resources management Land/property use Pavement management Materials use and solid waste… Hazardous materials and waste… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Categories of Sustainable Initiatives - Southwest FIGURE D62 Categories of sustainable initiatives—Southwest (Source: D. Prather 2016).

100 Drivers and Outcomes Pavement Management Sustainable initiatives reported by airports in the area of pavement management have only two associated drivers and identical outcomes. These drivers and outcomes are addressing global concerns and risk reduction (Figure D63). Materials Use and Solid Waste Reduction/Recycling Airports with one or more initiatives in the category of materials use and solid waste reduction/recycling reported only one driver and identical out come. Address­ ing global concerns served as both a motivator and outcome for these airports (Figure D64). Land and Natural Resources Management Airports with one or more initiatives in the category of land and natural resources management report two drivers and identical outcomes. These drivers and outcomes are addressing global concerns and management confidence (Figure D65). Hazardous Materials and Waste Management/Reduction Airports with one or more initiatives in the category of hazardous materials and waste management/reduction report two drivers and identical out­ comes. These drivers and outcomes are compliance concerns and addressing global concerns (Figure D66). Noise Abatement Airports reporting one or more initiatives in the category of noise abatement report the one driver and identical outcome that is common among all regions—neighbors and community (Figure D67). 0 1 2 3 4 5 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Pavement Management Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D63 Pavement management—Southwest (Source: D. Prather 2016). 0 1 2 3 4 5 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Materials Use/Recycling Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D64 Materials use and solid waste reduction/recycling—Southwest (Source: D. Prather 2016).

101 0 1 2 3 4 5 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Land and Natural Resources Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D65 Land and natural resources management—Southwest (Source: D.Prather 2016). 0 1 2 3 4 5 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Hazardous Materials Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D66 Hazardous materials and waste management/reduction—Southwest (Source: D. Prather 2016). 0 1 2 3 4 5 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Noise Abatement Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D67 Noise abatement—Southwest (Source: D. Prather 2016).

102 Water Quality Protection and Water Conservation Airports reporting one or more initiatives in the category of water quality protection and water conservation reported several drivers and identical outcomes. The most commonly reported driver and outcome was compliance. Additional drivers and outcomes were addressing global concerns, cost reductions, and improved sustainability performance (Figure D68). Energy Conservation/Renewable Energy Airports with one or more sustainable initiatives in the category of energy conservation/renewable energy reported several drivers and identical outcomes. Most commonly reported was the driver and outcome of cost reductions. Additional drivers and outcomes reported include addressing global concerns, reduction in maintenance/man hours, and improved sus­ tainability performance (Figure D69). Airports Without Sustainable Initiatives Airports not yet having pursued at least one sustainable initiative were presented several statements reflecting beliefs on environmental sustainability. Their agreement or disagreement with these statements are presented in Figure D70. 0 1 2 3 4 5 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Water Quality Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D68 Water quality protection and water conservation—Southwest (Source: D. Prather 2016). 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Energy Conservation/Renewable Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D69 Energy conservation/renewable energy—Southwest (Source: D. Prather 2016).

103 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 I am familiar with the triple bottom line. Our airport has little impact on the environment. Environmental sustainability is not a priority for us. Environmental sustainability costs too much. Environmental sustainability has too long of a payback period. Number of Responses St at em en t Views on Environmental Sustainability It Depends Disagree Agree FIGURE D70 Views on environmental sustainability—Southwest (Source: D. Prather 2016). WESTERN PACIFIC REGION Airports with Sustainable Initiatives Twenty­five participating airports in the Western Pacific region (representing 81%) have adopted at least one sustainable initiative. Sustainable Projects Participating airports in this region report having pursued sustainable initiatives in no less than 10 categories. The two most common categories are energy conservation/renewable energy and material use and solid waste reduction/recycling. Other categories include economic vitality/operational efficiency, air quality enhance­ ment/climate change, noise abatement, water quality protection and water conservation, land and natural resources management, pavement management, hazardous materials waste management/reduction, and buildings/facilities (Figure D71). Drivers and Outcomes Economic Vitality/Operational Efficiency Airports reporting one or more sustainable initiatives in the cat­ egory of economic vitality/operational efficiency reported three drivers and identical outcomes (Figure D72). 1 1 19 5 9 4 2 14 3 2 0 5 10 15 20 Economic vitality/operational efficiency Energy conservation/renewable energy Water quality protection and water… Pavement management Hazardous materials and waste… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Categories of Sustainable Initiatives - Western Pacific FIGURE D71 Categories of sustainable initiatives—Western Pacific (Source: D. Prather 2016).

104 Air Quality Enhancement/Climate Change Airports with sustainable initiatives in the category of air qual­ ity enhancement/climate change report only one driver and identical outcome. Addressing global concerns was the driver and outcome reported (Figure D73). Pavement Management Airports with one or more sustainable initiatives in the category of pavement man­ agement report only one driver and identical outcome—improved sustainability performance (Figure D74). Materials Use and Solid Waste Reduction/Recycling Airports reporting one or more initiatives in the category of materials use and solid waste reduction/recycling reported several drivers and outcomes. The most commonly reported driver was addressing global concerns. These airports reported an identi­ cal outcome of addressing global concerns. Additional drivers and outcome include desire for improved sustainability performance, and revenue increases. Interestingly, cost reduction was reported as a driver but not an outcome (Figure D75). Land and Natural Resources Management Airports reporting one or more initiatives in the category of land and natural resources management reported multiple drivers and outcomes. Areas where drivers and outcomes were identical include addressing global concerns, management confidence, neighbors and com­ munity, reduction in maintenance/man hours, cost reductions, improved sustainability performance, and compliance. Risk reduction was reported as an outcome but had not been reported as a driver (Figure D76). 0 1 2 3 4 5 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Economic Vitality Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D72 Economic vitality/operational efficiency—Western Pacific (Source: D. Prather 2016). 0 1 2 3 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Air Quality Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D73 Air quality enhancement/climate change—Western Pacific (Source: D. Prather 2016).

105 0 1 2 3 4 5 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Pavement Management Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D74 Pavement management—Western Pacific (Source: D. Prather 2016). 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Materials Use Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D75 Materials use and solid waste reduction/recycling—Western Pacific (Source: D. Prather 2016). 0 1 2 3 4 5 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Land and Natural Resources Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D76 Land and natural resources management—Western Pacific (Source: D. Prather 2016).

106 Buildings/Facilities Airports with sustainable initiatives in the category of buildings/facilities report only one driver and identical outcome—improved sustainability performance (Figure D77). Hazardous Materials and Waste Management/Reduction Airports with one or more initiatives in the category of hazardous materials and waste management/reduction report two drivers and identical out­ comes. Addressing global concerns was most commonly reported, but compliance concerns were reported as well (Figure D78). Noise Abatement Airports reporting one or more initiatives in the category of noise abatement reported the common driver and identical outcome—neighbors and community. However, these airports also reported a driver of risk reduction. This driver was not realized as an outcome, however (Figure D79). Water Quality Protection and Water Conservation Airports reporting one or more initiatives in the category of water quality protection and water conservation reported multiple drivers and outcomes. Drivers include compliance concerns, desire for improved sustainability performance, cost reductions, neighbors and community, and addressing global concerns. Outcomes include improved compliance, improved sustainability performance, cost reduction, improved relationships with neighbors and commu­ nity, greater management confidence, addressing global concerns, and improved employee relation ships. 0 1 2 3 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Buildings/Facilities Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D77 Buildings/facilities—Western Pacific (Source: D. Prather 2016). 0 1 2 3 4 5 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Hazardous Materials Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D78 Hazardous materials and waste management/reduction—Western Pacific (Source: D. Prather 2016).

107 0 1 2 3 4 5 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Noise Abatement Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D79 Noise abatement—Western Pacific (Source: D. Prather 2016). 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Water Quality Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D80 Water quality protection and water conservation—Western Pacific (Source: D. Prather 2016). Interestingly, improved employee relations and management confidence were reported as unexpected outcomes (Figure D80). Energy Conservation/Renewable Energy Airports reporting one or more sustainable initiatives in the category of energy conservation/renewable energy reported multiple drivers and outcomes. The most commonly reported driver and identical outcome was cost reductions. Additional drivers and outcomes are compliance concerns, desire for improved sustainability performance, reduction in maintenance/man hours, neighbors and community, revenue increases, and addressing global concerns. Drivers that did not have corresponding outcomes include improved relations with environmental organizations, improved tenant and customer interest relations, protection of sensitive environmental receptors, airport manage­ ment confidence, and confidence of elected or appointed officials (Figure D81). Airports Without Sustainable Initiatives Those airports not having reported pursuing any sustainable initiatives were presented several statements reflecting environmental beliefs and asked to indicate their agreement or disagreement. Results are pre­ sented in Figure D82.

108 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Compliance Improved Sustainability Performance Cost Reductions Reduction in Maintenance/Man Hours Neighbors and Community Leadership in Industry Management Confidence Confidence of Elected and Appointed… Risk Reduction Protection of Environmentally Sensitive… Revenue Increases Addressing Global Concerns Improved Tenant and Customer Relations Improved Employee Relations Improved Relations with Environmental… Number of Responses Ca te go ry Drivers and Outcomes - Energy Conservation/Renewable Outcomes Drivers FIGURE D81 Energy conservation/renewable energy—Western Pacific (Source: D. Prather 2016). 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 I am familiar with the triple bottom line. Our airport has little impact on the environment. Environmental sustainability is not a priority for us. Environmental sustainability costs too much. Environmental sustainability has too long of a payback period. Number of Responses St at em en t Views on Environmental Sustainability It Depends Disagree Agree FIGURE D82 Views on environmental sustainability—Western Pacific (Source: D. Prather 2016).

Abbreviations and acronyms used without definitions in TRB publications: A4A Airlines for America AAAE American Association of Airport Executives AASHO American Association of State Highway Officials AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ACI–NA Airports Council International–North America ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program ADA Americans with Disabilities Act APTA American Public Transportation Association ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials ATA American Trucking Associations CTAA Community Transportation Association of America CTBSSP Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program DHS Department of Homeland Security DOE Department of Energy EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAA Federal Aviation Administration FAST Fixing America’s Surface Transportation Act (2015) FHWA Federal Highway Administration FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration FRA Federal Railroad Administration FTA Federal Transit Administration HMCRP Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 ITE Institute of Transportation Engineers MAP-21 Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (2012) NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAO National Association of State Aviation Officials NCFRP National Cooperative Freight Research Program NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NTSB National Transportation Safety Board PHMSA Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration RITA Research and Innovative Technology Administration SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SAFETEA-LU Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (2005) TCRP Transit Cooperative Research Program TDC Transit Development Corporation TEA-21 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (1998) TRB Transportation Research Board TSA Transportation Security Administration U.S.DOT United States Department of Transportation

NO N-PRO FIT O RG . U.S. PO STAG E PA ID CO LUM BIA, M D PER M IT NO . 88 TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 5 0 0 F ifth S tre e t, N W W a s h in g to n , D C 2 0 0 0 1 A D D R ESS SER VICE R EQ UESTED ISBN 978-0-309-27218-6 9 7 8 0 3 0 9 2 7 2 1 8 6 9 0 0 0 0 Airport Sustainability Practices— Drivers and Outcom es for Sm all Com m ercial and General Aviation Airports ACRP Synthesis 69 TRB

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TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 69: Airport Sustainability Practices—Drivers and Outcomes for Small Commercial and General Aviation Airports explores drivers and outcomes of green initiatives undertaken at small commercial and general aviation airports. Drivers could include financial viability, staffing considerations, or other social or environmental factors.

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