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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. National Security Space Defense and Protection: Public Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23594.
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National Security
Space Defense
and Protection

_______________

Public Report

Committee on National Security Space Defense and Protection

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

A Report of

Images

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, DC

www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. National Security Space Defense and Protection: Public Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23594.
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This activity was supported by Contract 2014-14041100003-0004 between the Office of the Director of National Intelligence and the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, or conclusions expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the view of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. National Security Space Defense and Protection: Public Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23594.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. National Security Space Defense and Protection: Public Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23594.
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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president.

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The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.

Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. National Security Space Defense and Protection: Public Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23594.
×

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Reports document the evidence-based consensus of an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and committee deliberations. Reports are peer reviewed and are approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

Proceedings chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other convening event. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and have not been endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. National Security Space Defense and Protection: Public Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23594.
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COMMITTEE ON NATIONAL SECURITY SPACE DEFENSE AND PROTECTION

JAMES O. ELLIS, JR., U.S. Navy (retired), Stanford University, Co-Chair

MARTIN C. FAGA, MITRE Corporation (retired), Co-Chair

ALLISON ASTORINO-COURTOIS, National Security Innovations, Inc.

OWEN C. BROWN, SAIC

VINCENT W.S. CHAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MICHAEL D. GRIFFIN, Schafer Corporation

RAYMOND JEANLOZ, University of California at Berkeley

DAVID A. KOPLOW, Georgetown University

L. ROGER MASON, JR., Noblis

JOHN A. MONTGOMERY, Naval Research Laboratory

SCOTT PACE, George Washington University

THOMAS E. ROMESSER, Independent Consultant

WILLIAM L. SHELTON, U.S. Air Force (retired)

BOB THOMSON, Independent Consultant

DAVID M. VAN WIE, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory

DEBORAH L. WESTPHAL, Toffler Associates

Staff

JOAN FULLER, Board Director

ALAN H. SHAW, Deputy Board Director

CARTER W. FORD, Study Director

DIXIE GORDON, Information Officer

MARGUERITE E. SCHNEIDER, Administrative Coordinator

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. National Security Space Defense and Protection: Public Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23594.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. National Security Space Defense and Protection: Public Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23594.
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Preface

As part of the Fiscal Year 2014 National Defense Authorization Act, Congress directed the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) and the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) to contract with the National Research Council (NRC) to undertake a study on U.S. national security space defense and protection.1 Somewhat at the same time, ODNI and OSD undertook a series of related initiatives, including the Space Strategic Portfolio Review (SPR), the congressionally directed Space Protection Strategy (SPS), and the Space Security and Defense Program (SSDP). In January 2015, the NRC approved the study terms of reference (TOR) and appointed a committee of experts to do the following:2

  1. Review the range of options available to address threats to space systems, in terms of deterring hostile actions, defeating hostile actions, and surviving hostile actions.3

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1 For more information, see P.L. 113-66, December 26, 2013. Available at https://www.congress.gov/113/plaws/pub166/PLAW-113pub166.pdf. Accessed June 8, 2015.

2Appendix A provides biographies of the committee members. The committee includes experts with experience in academia, government, and industry, combined with many years in U.S. combatant commands and major commands, intelligence community, space law, spacecraft survivability, systems engineering, system architecting, space operations, space acquisition, cyberdefense, strategic deterrence, and high-altitude electromagnetic pulse.

3 “System” is defined for purposes of this report as “a functionality, physically, and/or behaviorally related group of regularly interacting or interdependent elements; that group of elements forming a unified whole.” “Space systems,” in turn, are defined as “all of the devices and organizations forming the space network.”

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. National Security Space Defense and Protection: Public Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23594.
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  1. Assess potential strategies and plans to counter such threats, including resilience, reconstitution, disaggregation, and other appropriate concepts.
  2. Assess existing and planned architectures, warfighter requirements, technology development, systems, workforce, or other factors related to addressing such threats.
  3. Recommend architectures, capabilities, and courses of action to address such threats and actions to address affordability, technology risk, and other potential barriers or limiting factors in implementing such courses of action.

STUDY METHODOLOGY AND CAVEATS

The committee held eight meetings, beginning in February 2015 and ending in October 2015, to collect information and draft findings and recommendations.4 With the understanding of Congress, OSD, and ODNI, the authoring committee produced two stand-alone classified reports to address the TOR and delivered them to the sponsors in August 2015 and December 2015, respectively. Collectively, the committee provided 30 findings and 18 recommendations to the sponsors. The requirement to report initial findings and recommendations to key stakeholders no later than August 15, 2015, essentially divided this study into two overlapping phases: phase one, February-August 2015, which addressed TOR items 1 and 2; and phase two, July-December 2015, which addresses TOR items 3 and 4. Report 2 contained analysis, findings, and recommendations that complemented those found in Report 1. The committee was granted rich access to documents and officials involved with intelligence collection, policy and planning, strategy, budgetary processes, and organizational realignments and assignments. In addition, the committee invited industry and federally funded research and development centers to participate at a 1-day session in April 2015, in conjunction with its third full committee meeting.

Importantly, no independent modeling or analysis was completed by the committee; rather, the information gathered from interviews, documents, and briefings, together with the expertise and experience of committee members, served as the bases for the committee’s work. This unclassified summary, while admittedly brief due to government classification requirements, reflects the unclassified content of both classified reports. This unclassified summary is primarily a policy discussion. The reasons behind this focus are twofold. First, the system technologies themselves, the overall system architectures, and the operational aspects to their employment are predominantly classified at very high levels. Second, the committee observes that, as the summary states, there are major national policy issues that need to be addressed in order for the nation to formulate a wise and coherent approach to space defense and protection. On a macro level, two primary themes emerged from

___________________

4Appendix B provides a listing of invited speakers for both phases of the study.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. National Security Space Defense and Protection: Public Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23594.
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this study regarding potential solutions to the threats facing U.S. space assets. First, the state of organization and coordination among various government activities is evolving and necessarily so. Second, there is an urgent need to create relevant national policies to guide the creation of responses to these threats; this includes educating the public so that it can understand and participate in potential solutions in whatever capacity makes sense.

ORGANIZATION OF THE REPORT

Chapter 1 provides an overall context for the report and explains how space is no longer a domain exclusively for national security. It discusses commercial trends at a high level that will help shape the future in space. Chapter 2 then describes measures for preserving national security space-enabled capabilities, including system protection measures, deterrence, and potential international avenues, such as regimes.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. National Security Space Defense and Protection: Public Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23594.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. National Security Space Defense and Protection: Public Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23594.
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Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Rita R. Colwell, Johns Hopkins University and University of Maryland,

Gurudas Ganguli, Naval Research Laboratory,

Anita K. Jones, University of Virginia,

Paul G. Kaminski, Technovation, Inc.,

Donald A. Lewis, The Aerospace Corporation,

Lester L. Lyles, U.S. Air Force (retired),

Grant Stokes, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, and

Peter J. Weinberger, Google, Inc.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by John Stenbit, U.S. Department of Defense

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. National Security Space Defense and Protection: Public Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23594.
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(retired), who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. National Security Space Defense and Protection: Public Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23594.
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Acronyms

A2AD

antiaccess area denial

AJ

antijam

AoA

analysis of alternatives

ASAT

antisatellite

CAGR

compound annual growth rate

COMSAT

communications satellite

DoD

Department of Defense

EHF

extremely high frequency

EMP

electromagnetic pulse

GEO

geostationary/geosychronous (orbit)

GPS

Global Positioning System

IC

Intelligence Community

ISR

intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance

LEO

low Earth orbit

MILSATCOM

military satellite communications

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. National Security Space Defense and Protection: Public Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23594.
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NRC

National Research Council

NSS

national security space

ODNI

Office of the Director for National Intelligence

OPLAN

operational plan

OSD

Office of the Secretary of Defense

PNT

position, navigation, and timing

RF

radio frequency

SATCOM

satellite communications

SBIR

space-based infrared

SIGINT

signals intelligence

SPR

Space Strategic Portfolio Review

SPS

Space Protection Strategy

SSD

Space Security and Defense Program

TOR

terms of reference

TTP

tactic, technique, and procedure

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. National Security Space Defense and Protection: Public Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23594.
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It is not yet 60 years since the first artificial satellite was placed into Earth orbit. In just over a half century, mankind has gone from no presence in outer space to a condition of high dependence on orbiting satellites. These sensors, receivers, transmitters, and other such devices, as well as the satellites that carry them, are components of complex space systems that include terrestrial elements, electronic links between and among components, organizations to provide the management, care and feeding, and launch systems that put satellites into orbit. In many instances, these space systems connect with and otherwise interact with terrestrial systems; for example, a very long list of Earth-based systems cannot function properly without information from the Global Positioning System (GPS).

Space systems are fundamental to the information business, and the modern world is an information-driven one. In addition to navigation (and associated timing), space systems provide communications and imagery and other Earth-sensing functions. Among these systems are many that support military, intelligence, and other national security functions of the United States and many other nations. Some of these are unique government, national security systems; however, functions to support national security are also provided by commercial and civil-government space systems.


The importance of space systems to the United States and its allies and potential adversaries raises major policy issues. National Security Space Defense and Protection reviews the range of options available to address threats to space systems, in terms of deterring hostile actions, defeating hostile actions, and surviving hostile actions, and assesses potential strategies and plans to counter such threats. This report recommends architectures, capabilities, and courses of action to address such threats and actions to address affordability, technology risk, and other potential barriers or limiting factors in implementing such courses of action.

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