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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Extending Science: NASA's Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23624.
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EXTENDING SCIENCE

NASA’s Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process

Committee on NASA Science Mission Extensions

Space Studies Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

A Report of

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Extending Science: NASA's Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23624.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS500 Fifth Street, NWWashington, DC 20001

This report is based on work supported by Contract NNH11CD57B with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the view of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-44878-9
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-44878-6
Digital Object Identifier: 10.17226/23624

Copies of this report are available free of charge from

Space Studies Board
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth Street, NW
Washington, DC 20001

Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2016 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Extending Science—NASA’s Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23624.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Extending Science: NASA's Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23624.
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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

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Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Extending Science: NASA's Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23624.
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Reports document the evidence-based consensus of an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and committee deliberations. Reports are peer reviewed and are approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Extending Science: NASA's Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23624.
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COMMITTEE ON NASA SCIENCE MISSION EXTENSIONS

VICTORIA E. HAMILTON, Southwest Research Institute, Co-Chair

HARVEY D. TANANBAUM, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Co-Chair

ALICE BOWMAN, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory

JOHN R. CASANI, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Retired)

JAMES H. CLEMMONS, The Aerospace Corporation

NEIL GEHRELS, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

FIONA A. HARRISON, California Institute of Technology

MICHAEL D. KING, University of Colorado Boulder

MARGARET G. KIVELSON, University of California, Los Angeles

RAMON E. LOPEZ, The University of Texas at Arlington

AMY MAINZER, Jet Propulsion Laboratory

ALFRED S. McEWEN, University of Arizona

DEBORAH VANE, Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Staff

DWAYNE DAY, Senior Program Officer, Study Director

KATIE DAUD, Research Associate

ANESIA WILKS, Senior Program Assistant

NATHAN BOLL, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow

CHERIE ACHILLES, Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern

CAROLINE JUANG, Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern

MICHAEL H. MOLONEY, Director, Space Studies Board and Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Extending Science: NASA's Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23624.
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SPACE STUDIES BOARD

DAVID N. SPERGEL, Princeton University, Chair

ROBERT D. BRAUN, University of Colorado, Boulder, Vice Chair

JAMES G. ANDERSON, Harvard University

JEFF M. BINGHAM, Consultant

JAY C. BUCKEY, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center

MARY LYNNE DITTMAR, Dittmar Associates, Inc.

JOSEPH FULLER, JR., Futron Corporation

THOMAS R. GAVIN, Jet Propulsion Laboratory

NEIL GEHRELS, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

SARAH GIBSON, National Center for Atmospheric Research

WESLEY T. HUNTRESS, JR., Carnegie Institution of Washington

ANTHONY C. JANETOS, Boston University

CHRYSSA KOUVELIOTOU, The George Washington University

BARBARA SHERWOOD LOLLAR, University of Toronto

ROSALY M. C. LOPES, Jet Propulsion Laboratory

DAVID J. MCCOMAS, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

LARRY PAXTON, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory

SAUL PERLMUTTER, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

ELIOT QUATAERT, University of California, Berkeley

HARLAN E. SPENCE, University of New Hampshire

MARK H. THIEMENS, University of California, San Diego

MEENAKSHI WADHWA, Arizona State University

Staff

MICHAEL H. MOLONEY, Director

CARMELA J. CHAMBERLAIN, Administrative Coordinator

TANJA PILZAK, Manager, Program Operations

CELESTE A. NAYLOR, Information Management Associate

MARGARET KNEMEYER, Financial Officer

SU LIU, Financial Assistant

Limited copies of SSB reports are available free of charge from

Space Studies Board

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001

(202) 334-3477/ssb@nas.edu

www.nationalacademies.org/ssb/ssb.html

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Extending Science: NASA's Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23624.
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Preface

In fall 2014, NASA Associate Administrator for the Science Mission Directorate John Grunsfeld discussed with members of the Space Studies Board the possibility of a study of the value of NASA’s extended science missions and how the agency evaluates mission extension proposals, known as Senior Reviews. NASA’s Astrophysics Division has conducted Senior Reviews on a regular basis since the early 1990s; the agency’s other divisions started following similar procedures afterwards, and they were formally required by the NASA Authorization Act of 2005, which states:

The Administrator shall carry out biennial reviews within each of the Science divisions to assess the cost and benefits of extending the date of the termination of data collection for those missions that have exceeded their planned mission lifetime.

Although that Act (which was reaffirmed in 2010) requires biennial reviews, it does not define how NASA should conduct them, leaving the details to NASA, which has codified its requirements in internal management and other policy documents.

In summer 2015 NASA formally requested that the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine conduct a study on this subject. The Academies established a committee in fall 2015. The committee held an organizing teleconference in December, and its first in-person meeting was held at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C., on February 1-2, 2016. The committee heard from the NASA Associate Administrator for Space Science as well as each of the division directors and other speakers. The committee’s second meeting was held at the Beckman Center in Irvine, California, on March 2-4. At this meeting the committee heard from the former chairs of several Senior Review panels, as well as persons in charge of large and small missions currently in their extended phase. The committee’s third meeting was held at the National Academy of Sciences Building in Washington, D.C., on April 18-20 and was primarily devoted to writing this report, which was delivered to NASA in late August.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Extending Science: NASA's Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23624.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Extending Science: NASA's Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23624.
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Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Robert Barish, University of Illinois,

J. Bernard Blake, The Aerospace Corporation,

Lisa Gaddis, U.S. Geological Survey,

George M. Gloeckler, University of Michigan,

Guosheng Liu, Florida State University,

H. Jay Melosh, Purdue University,

Jon Miller, University of Michigan,

Clive R. Neal, The University of Notre Dame,

Rebecca Oppenheimer, American Museum of Natural History,

Michael Ryschkewitsch, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, and

Xubin Zeng, University of Arizona.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Marcia J. Rieke, University of Arizona, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Extending Science: NASA's Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23624.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Extending Science: NASA's Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23624.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Extending Science: NASA's Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23624.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Extending Science: NASA's Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23624.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Extending Science: NASA's Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23624.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Extending Science: NASA's Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23624.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Extending Science: NASA's Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23624.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Extending Science: NASA's Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23624.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Extending Science: NASA's Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23624.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Extending Science: NASA's Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23624.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Extending Science: NASA's Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23624.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Extending Science: NASA's Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23624.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Extending Science: NASA's Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23624.
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NASA operates a large number of space science missions, approximately three-quarters of which are currently in their extended operations phase. They represent not only a majority of operational space science missions, but a substantial national investment and vital national assets. They are tremendously scientifically productive, making many of the major discoveries that are reported in the media and that rewrite textbooks.

Extending Science – NASA’s Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process evaluates the scientific benefits of missions extensions, the current process for extending missions, the current biennial requirement for senior reviews of mission extensions, the balance between starting new missions and extending operating missions, and potential innovative cost-reduction proposals for extended missions, and makes recommendations based on this review.

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