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Extending Science: NASA's Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process (2016)

Chapter: Appendix E: Biographies of Committee Members and Staff

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographies of Committee Members and Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Extending Science: NASA's Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23624.
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E

Biographies of Committee Members and Staff

COMMITTEE

VICTORIA E. HAMILTON, Co-Chair, is a section manager in the Department of Space Studies at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in Boulder, Colorado. Dr. Hamilton has extensive experience with laboratory spectroscopy and Mars data analysis; she was an affiliate of the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer science team, is the deputy principal investigator (PI) of the THEMIS instrument on 2001 Mars Odyssey, and was a participating scientist on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. She is also a science team co-investigator and deputy instrument scientist on the OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission. She has published on laboratory mineral and meteorite spectroscopy, numerical modeling of infrared spectra, martian surface composition, martian atmospheric aerosol composition, and surface thermophysical properties. Dr. Hamilton has built, operated, and managed a NASA-supported spectroscopy laboratory equipped with three spectrometers for measuring visible, near infrared, and thermal infrared properties of rocks, minerals, and meteorites in reflectance and emission. She has received the NASA Group Achievement Award for the MSL Science Office Development and Operations Team in 2013. She received her Ph.D. in geology from Arizona State University. She was a member of the Committee on Cost Growth in NASA Earth and Space Science Missions of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine as well as a member of the Mars Architecture Review Committee for the Committee for Planetary Exploration.

HARVEY D. TANANBAUM, Co-Chair, is senior astrophysicist at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Dr. Tananbaum is a pioneer of X-ray astronomy and was on the team that discovered stellar systems containing neutron stars and black holes and X-rays from quasars and clusters of galaxies. He has also been deeply involved in the development of the Chandra X-ray Observatory, from its conception to its birth. He has worked at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory since 1973. Dr. Tananbaum has earned the NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal, the NASA Public Service Award, and the NASA Medal for Outstanding Leadership, as well as the Bruno Rossi Prize of the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomical Society (AAS). Dr. Tananbaum earned his Ph.D. in physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in 2005, and has served on the Space Studies Board. As well, he has served on a number of National Academies studies, including the Committee on an Assessment of Balance in NASA’s Science Programs, the Committee on the Scientific Context for Space Exploration, and the Committee on Physics of the Universe.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographies of Committee Members and Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Extending Science: NASA's Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23624.
×

ALICE BOWMAN is a member of the principal professional staff at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), serving both as the supervisor of APL’s Space Mission Operations Group and as Mission Operations Manager (MOM) for NASA’s New Horizons Mission. Ms. Bowman supervises approximately 40 staff members who operate deep-space and Earth-orbiting spacecraft that are gathering data and making key observations for NASA’s Planetary Science and Heliophysics divisions. Ms. Bowman has also served as the New Horizons MOM since the mission’s inception in the early 2000s; in this role she leads the team that commands and controls the New Horizons spacecraft, which made a historic close flyby of Pluto and its family of moons on July 14, 2015, and continues deeper into the solar system’s distant Kuiper Belt region. Ms. Bowman has professional experience in national defense space operations, systems engineering, program management, engineering management, space systems, space instrument development and deployment, infrared detector development, and mission operations. Ms. Bowman earned her B.A. in physics and chemistry from the University of Virginia. She is a member of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the International SpaceOps Committee, serving as a co-chair on the workshop subcommittee.

JOHN R. CASANI is a consultant who is retired from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). He has managed major flight projects, including Voyager, Galileo, and Cassini, and is a recipient of several NASA awards, including the Distinguished Service Medal. He received the AIAA Space System Award, the von Karman Lectureship, the National Space Club Astronauts Engineer Award, the AAS Space Flight Award, and the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum’s Lifetime Achievement Award. He held senior project positions on many of the Mariner missions to Mars and Venus, and in 1970 he became project manager of Mariner 6 and 7. Later, Dr. Casani managed NASA’s Voyager mission to the outer planets, the Galileo mission to Jupiter, and the Cassini mission to Saturn, as well as the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter mission. He is an honorary fellow of the AIAA, a member of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), and a recipient of the NAE Founder’s Award. Dr. Casani holds a B.S. in electrical engineering, an honorary D.Sc. from the University of Pennsylvania, and an honorary degree in aerospace engineering from the University of Rome, Italy. He has previously served on the National Academies’ NASA Technology Roadmap: Entry, Descent, and Landing Panel and the Planetary Science Decadal Survey: Giant Planet Panel.

JAMES H. CLEMMONS is the principal director of the Space Science Applications Laboratory at the Aerospace Corporation. In his 18 years at Aerospace, Dr. Clemmons has led development of more than 20 scientific instruments and flown on sounding rockets and satellites to investigate a variety of phenomena in Earth’s magnetosphere as well as its ionosphere-thermosphere-mesosphere system. He is the author of numerous publications, including studies of observations conducted with the Freja satellite and other missions characterizing electric, magnetic, and plasma phenomena in the space environment. Before joining Aerospace, he worked at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the Swedish Institute for Space Physics, and the Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics on related research. He has participated in several NASA advisory groups and is the recipient of several awards by NASA and the Aerospace Corporation. Dr. Clemmons is a member of the American Geophysical Union (AGU), the American Physical Society (APS), and the American Chemical Society. He was a Fulbright Scholar and a resident associate of the National Research Council. Dr. Clemmons received B.S. degrees in physics and chemistry from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, and an M.S. and Ph.D. in physics from the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Clemmons previously served on the National Academies’ Panel on Atmosphere-Ionosphere-Magnetosphere Interactions.

NEIL GEHRELS is the chief of the Astroparticle Physics Laboratory at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. He is also a professor of astronomy at the University of Maryland, College Park, and an adjunct professor of astronomy and astrophysics at Pennsylvania State University. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the NAS. Dr. Gehrels is the PI of the NASA Swift satellite observing gamma-ray burst and supernova explosions. He is a deputy project scientist for Fermi, project scientist for WFIRST, and previous project scientist for the Compton Observatory (1991-2000). He has organized nine major conferences and been an editor on the proceedings books, has more than 500 articles in science journals and popular science magazines, and has given

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographies of Committee Members and Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Extending Science: NASA's Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23624.
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many invited talks. He has been on 20 working groups and committees in various positions. He served as chair of the Astronomy Section of the NAS, past chair of the AAS High Energy Astrophysics Division, past chair of the APS Division of Astrophysics, and past chair of the COSPAR (Committee on Space Research) Commission E. Numerous awards have been bestowed upon Dr. Gehrels, including the COSPAR Massey Award in 2012, SPIE Goddard Award 2009, NAS Draper Medal in 2009, AAS Bruno Rossi Prize in 2007, Popular Science Magazine’s Best of What’s New Award for Swift satellite research in 2006, and NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal in 2005. Dr. Gehrels received his B.S. in physics and music from the University of Arizona and his Ph.D. from the California Institute of Technology. He serves on the National Academies’ U.S. National Committee for the International Astronomical Union.

FIONA A. HARRISON is the Benjamin M. Rosen Professor of Physics and Astronomy in the Space Radiation Laboratory and the Kent and Joyce Kresa Leadership Chair, Division of Physics and Mathematics at the California Institute of Technology. She is the PI of NASA’s Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), a small explorer-class mission launched in 2012. Dr. Harrison’s primary research interests are in experimental and observational high-energy astrophysics. In addition, she has an active observational program in gamma-ray, X-ray, and optical observations of gamma-ray bursts, active galaxies, and neutron stars. She was awarded the Robert A. Millikan Prize Fellowship in Experimental Physics in 1993 and the Presidential Early Career Award in 2000. She was named one of America’s Best Leaders by U.S. News and the Kennedy School of Government in 2008, and received the NASA Outstanding Public Leadership Medal in 2013. She received her Ph.D. in physics from the University of California, Berkeley. She was elected to the NAS in 2014, is a member on the Division Committee on Engineering and Physical Sciences, was a member on the Space Studies Board, and chaired the Committee on an Assessment of the Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (AFTA) Mission Concepts.

MICHAEL D. KING is senior research scientist in the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics at the University of Colorado, Boulder. Dr. King is the science team leader for the MODIS instrument that flies on the Aqua and Terra satellites. Before joining the University of Colorado, he worked as a physical scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, where he served as project scientist of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) and later senior project scientist of NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS). His research experience includes conceiving, developing, and operating multispectral scanning radiometers from a number of aircraft platforms in field experiments ranging from arctic stratus clouds to smoke from the Kuwait oil fires and biomass burning in Brazil and southern Africa. Dr. King is also interested in surface reflectance properties of natural surfaces as well as aerosol optical and microphysical properties. Earlier, he developed the Cloud Absorption Radiometer for studying the absorption properties of optically thick clouds as well as the bidirectional reflectance properties of many natural surfaces. Dr. King is a fellow of the AGU, the American Meteorological Society (AMS), the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), and is a recipient of the Verner E. Suomi Award of the AMS for fundamental contributions to remote sensing and radiative transfer, and the Space Systems Award of the AIAA for NASA’s Earth Observing System. He received his M.S. and Ph.D. in atmospheric sciences from the University of Arizona. He was elected to the NAE in 2003 and is currently a member of the National Academies’ Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space. He previously served on the Committee on a Framework for Analyzing the Needs for Continuity of NASA-Sustained Remote Sensing Observations of the Earth from Space, the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, and the Climate Research Committee.

MARGARET G. KIVELSON is professor of space physics, emerita, at the University of California, Los Angeles, in the Department of Earth and Space Sciences as well as at the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics at the University of California, Los Angeles. She is also research professor at the University of Michigan. Dr. Kivelson’s scientific interests are magnetospheric plasma physics of Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn, interaction of flowing plasmas with planets and moons, and ultralow frequency waves. She is a co-investigator on the THEMIS and Europa missions and a collaborator on the fluxgate magnetometer on Cassini. She is the recipient of the Alfven Medal of the European Geophysical Union and the Fleming Medal of the AGU. She earned her Ph.D. for physics from Radcliffe

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographies of Committee Members and Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Extending Science: NASA's Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23624.
×

College. She was elected a member of the NAS in 1999 and has served on the Plasma Science Committee, the 2014 NAS Nominating Committee, the Committee on Women in the Academy, and numerous other committees.

RAMON E. LOPEZ is a professor of physics at the University of Texas, Arlington. His research focuses on solar wind-magnetosphere coupling, magnetospheric storms and substorms, and space weather prediction. Dr. Lopez is also working in the areas of teacher education, national science education standards, and physics education research. Dr. Lopez is a fellow of the APS and the AAAS. He received his Ph.D. in space physics from Rice University. His previous National Academies’ service includes membership on the Committee on Solar and Space Physics, Committee on a Decadal Strategy for Solar and Space Physics (Heliophysics), the Committee on Strategic Guidance for NSF’s Support of the Atmospheric Sciences, and the Committee on Solar and Space Physics.

AMY MAINZER is a senior research scientist at JPL in the astrophysics division. She has been employed as a scientist at JPL since 2003. At JPL, she serves as the PI for the NEOWISE mission, which is a NASA spacecraft dedicated to observing near-Earth asteroids and comets using a thermal infrared space telescope. As the NEOWISE PI, her research focuses on characterizing the population of asteroids and comets through statistical measurements of their sizes, orbits, albedos, and rotational states. The mission began life as the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), and its original purpose was to carry out an all-sky survey at four infrared wavelengths from 3 to 22 microns. After a nearly 3-year hibernation phase, the survey was restarted using its 3 and 4 micron channels and renamed NEOWISE. Dr. Mainzer served as the deputy project scientist for the WISE mission; her responsibilities included flowing down top-level science requirements to the WISE payload components, interpreting payload verification test data, and designing the in-orbit checkout procedures. In 2012 she received the NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement medal for her work on near-Earth objects and the NASA Exceptional Achievement medal in 2011 for her work on NEOWISE. Prior to joining JPL, Dr. Mainzer worked as a systems engineer at the Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center in Palo Alto. She was responsible for the design, construction, testing, and in-orbit checkout of the Spitzer Space Telescope’s fine guidance sensor. This instrument has been in continuous use since Spitzer’s launch in 2003, including during the original Spitzer prime mission and the Warm Mission that began in 2008. Dr. Mainzer is also the principal investigator of a NASA Discovery mission proposal, the Near-Earth Object Camera. This proposal was awarded technology development funding in 2011 to mature 10 micron HgCdTe megapixel detectors. Additionally, she served on the National Academies’ Committee to Assess Near Earth Object Hazards and Mitigation Strategies, and she is a member of the NASA Planetary Science Subcommittee. She was a member of the NASA Small Bodies Assessment Group Steering Committee from 2011 to 2013.

ALFRED S. McEWEN is professor for the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory at the University of Arizona (UA). He has studied planetary surfaces for more than 25 years, including time at the U.S. Geological Survey prior to joining UA in 1996. Current research interests include volcanology, cratering, slope processes, and remote sensing of planetary surfaces. His experience with spacecraft science experiments includes service as a member of the Voyager imaging team at Neptune; a Galileo interdisciplinary scientist associated with the Solid State Imaging team; a Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem team member; a Mars Observer/Mars Global Surveyor participating scientist for the Mars Orbital Camera; a member of the Clementine advisory committee and science team; a participating scientist on Mars Odyssey THEMIS; a PI of High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter; a co-investigator on Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC); a principal investigator for the High resolution Stereo Color Imager (HiSCI) on the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter; a co-investigator on TGO/CaSSIS; and a deputy PI for the Europa Imaging System on the still unnamed Europa mission. He was awarded NASA’s distinguished public service medal in 2011 and AGU’s Whipple award in 2015. He has a Ph.D. for planetary geology from Arizona State University. Prior National Academies studies include the 2003 Planetary Science Decadal Survey (chair of large satellites panel, 2001-2002) and COSPAR (2008-2010).

DEBORAH G. VANE is deputy program manager at JPL in the Office of Operating Earth Science Missions. She is also the project manager of the NASA CloudSat Mission. At JPL, Ms. Vane manages a portfolio of 13 Earth

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographies of Committee Members and Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Extending Science: NASA's Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23624.
×

science missions/experiments operating in Earth orbit with a combined annual budget of over $70 million dollars. She oversees the JPL bi-annual Earth Science Senior Review proposal process for mission-operation extensions. She also manages the CloudSat mission that was launched, and she has submitted CloudSat proposals to the senior review multiple times. Her involvement in CloudSat began as the proposal manager in 1998. She has also served as the deputy PI; and she has served as project manager since the launch. She has been co-author on a number of journal articles on the application of CloudSat data to clouds and climate, atmospheric radiation, and applications to hurricane intensity estimation. Ms. Vane has over 35 years of experience at JPL in a variety of technical, management, and scientific roles. Previously, she was a member of the Mars Viking Mission Lander Imaging Team and was scientific assistant to the JPL chief scientist. Ms. Vane received the NASA Individual Award for Exceptional Achievement as deputy PI and project manager for the CloudSat mission, and she has received several group achievement awards. She earned her B.S. in physics from the University of Colorado.

STAFF

DWAYNE A. DAY, Study Director, a senior program officer for the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB), has a Ph.D. in political science from the George Washington University. Dr. Day joined the Academies as a program officer for the Space Studies Board (SSB). He served as an investigator for the Columbia Accident Investigation Board in 2003, was on the staff of the Congressional Budget Office, and worked for the Space Policy Institute at the George Washington University. He has also performed consulting for the Science and Technology Policy Institute of the Institute for Defense Analysis, and the U.S. Air Force. He is the author of Lightning Rod, A History of the Air Force Chief Scientist, and editor of several books, including a history of the CORONA reconnaissance satellite program. He has held Guggenheim and Verville fellowships at the National Air and Space Museum, and was an associate editor of the German spaceflight magazine Raumfahrt Concrete, in addition to writing for such publications as Novosti Kosmonavtiki (Russia), Spaceflight, and Space Chronicle (United Kingdom), and the Washington Post. He has served as study director for over a dozen Academies reports, including 3-D Printing in Space (2013), NASA’s Strategic Direction and the Need for a National Consensus (2012), Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022 (2011), Preparing for the High Frontier-The Role and Training of NASA Astronauts in the Post-Space Shuttle Era (2011), Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies (2010), Grading NASA’s Solar System Exploration Program: A Midterm Review (2008), and Opening New Frontiers in Space: Choices for the Next New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity (2008).

NATHAN BOLL served as the 2016 Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow for the SSB. Mr. Boll is a graduate fellow at the Space Policy Institute of George Washington University where he is completing an M.A. in international science and technology policy at the Elliott School of International Affairs. His current focus is on building international and intergovernmental cooperation toward the exploration and development of outer space. He holds an M.S. in space science and a graduate certificate in science, technology, and public policy from the University of Michigan, as well as a B.S. in mathematics from the University of Montana Western. His research has included environmental analysis of Venus and Mars and the development of the CYGNSS satellite constellation. Mr. Boll has recently served in various divisions of NASA, including the Office of International and Interagency Relations and the Office of Education Infrastructure Division at NASA Headquarters, the NASA Space Academy, the Multidisciplinary Aeronautics Research Team Initiative programs at the Glenn Research Center, and the Planetary Science Division of JPL.

KATIE DAUD is a research associate for the SSB and the ASEB. Previously, she worked at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum’s Center for Earth and Planetary Studies as a planetary scientist. Ms. Daud was a triple major at Bloomsburg University, receiving a B.S. in planetary science and Earth science and a B.A. in political science.

MICHAEL MOLONEY is the director for Space and Aeronautics at the SSB and the ASEB of the National Academies. Since joining the ASEB/SSB, Dr. Moloney has overseen the production of more than 40 reports, including

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographies of Committee Members and Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Extending Science: NASA's Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23624.
×

four decadal surveys—in astronomy and astrophysics, planetary science, life and microgravity science, and solar and space physics—a review of the goals and direction of the U.S. human exploration program, a prioritization of NASA space technology roadmaps, as well as reports on issues such as NASA’s Strategic Direction, orbital debris, the future of NASA’s astronaut corps, and NASA’s flight research program. Before joining the SSB and ASEB in 2010, Dr. Moloney was associate director of the Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA) and study director for the decadal survey for astronomy and astrophysics (Astro2010). Since joining the Academies in 2001, Dr. Moloney has served as a study director at the National Materials Advisory Board, the BPA, the Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design, and the Center for Economic, Governance, and International Studies. Dr. Moloney has served as study director or senior staff for a series of reports on subject matters as varied as quantum physics, nanotechnology, cosmology, the operation of the nation’s helium reserve, new anti-counterfeiting technologies for currency, corrosion science, and nuclear fusion. In addition to his professional experience at the National Academies, Dr. Moloney has more than 7 years’ experience as a foreign-service officer for the Irish government—including serving at the Irish Embassy in Washington and the Irish Mission to the United Nations in New York. A physicist, Dr. Moloney did his Ph.D. work at Trinity College Dublin in Ireland. He received his undergraduate degree in experimental physics at University College Dublin, where he was awarded the Nevin Medal for Physics.

ANESIA WILKS joined the SSB as a program assistant in 2013. Ms. Wilks brings experience working in the National Academies conference management office as well as other administrative positions in the D.C. metropolitan area. She has a B.A. in psychology, magna cum laude, from Trinity University in Washington, D.C.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographies of Committee Members and Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Extending Science: NASA's Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23624.
×
Page 75
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographies of Committee Members and Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Extending Science: NASA's Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23624.
×
Page 76
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographies of Committee Members and Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Extending Science: NASA's Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23624.
×
Page 77
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographies of Committee Members and Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Extending Science: NASA's Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23624.
×
Page 78
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographies of Committee Members and Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Extending Science: NASA's Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23624.
×
Page 79
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographies of Committee Members and Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Extending Science: NASA's Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23624.
×
Page 80
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NASA operates a large number of space science missions, approximately three-quarters of which are currently in their extended operations phase. They represent not only a majority of operational space science missions, but a substantial national investment and vital national assets. They are tremendously scientifically productive, making many of the major discoveries that are reported in the media and that rewrite textbooks.

Extending Science – NASA’s Space Science Mission Extensions and the Senior Review Process evaluates the scientific benefits of missions extensions, the current process for extending missions, the current biennial requirement for senior reviews of mission extensions, the balance between starting new missions and extending operating missions, and potential innovative cost-reduction proposals for extended missions, and makes recommendations based on this review.

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