National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: Appendix B Study Approach
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Systematic Reviews." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24625.
×

Appendix C

Systematic Reviews

THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF CANNABIS AND CANNABINOIDS

Chronic Pain

Andreae, M. H., G. M. Carter, N. Shaparin, K. Suslov, R. J. Ellis, M. A. Ware, D. I. Abrams, H. Prasad, B. Wilsey, D. Indyk, M. Johnson, and H. S. Sacks. 2015. Inhaled cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: A meta-analysis of individual patient data. Journal of Pain 16(12):1121–1232.

Fitzcharles, M. A., P. A. Ste-Marie, W. Hauser, D. J. Clauw, S. Jamal, J. Karsh, T. Landry, S. LeClercq, J. J. McDougall, Y. Shir, K. Shojania, and Z. Walsh. 2016. Efficacy, tolerability, and safety of cannabinoid treatments in the rheumatic diseases: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Arthritis Care and Research 68(5):681–688.

Richards, B. L., S. L. Whittle, D. M. Van Der Heijde, and R. Buchbinder. 2012. Efficacy and safety of neuromodulators in inflammatory arthritis: A Cochrane systematic review. Journal of Rheumatology 39(Suppl 90):28–33.

Snedecor, S. J., L. Sudharshan, J. C. Cappelleri, A. Sadosky, P. Desai, Y. J. Jalundhwala, and M. Botteman. 2013. Systematic review and comparison of pharmacologic therapies for neuropathic pain associated with spinal cord injury. Journal of Pain Research 6:539–547.

Whiting, P. F., R. F. Wolff, S. Deshpande, M. Di Nisio, S. Duffy, A. V. Hernandez, J. C. Keurentjes, S. Lang, K. Misso, S. Ryder, S. Schmidlkofer, M. Westwood, and J. Kleijnen. 2015. Cannabinoids for medical use: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 313(24):2456–2473.

Cancer

Rocha, F., J. dos Santos Junior, S. Stefano, and D. da Silveira. 2014. Systematic review of the literature on clinical and experimental trials on the antitumor effects of cannabinoids in gliomas. Journal of Neuro-Oncology 116(1):11–24.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Systematic Reviews." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24625.
×

Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting

Phillips, R. S., A. J. Friend, F. Gibson, E. Houghton, S. Gopaul, J. V. Craig, and B. Pizer. 2016. Antiemetic medication for prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in childhood. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2:CD007786.

Smith, L. A., F. Azariah, T. C. V. Lavender, N. S. Stoner, and S. Bettiol. 2015. Cannabinoids for nausea and vomiting in adults with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 11:CD009464.

Whiting, P. F., R. F. Wolff, S. Deshpande, M. Di Nisio, S. Duffy, A. V. Hernandez, J. C. Keurentjes, S. Lang, K. Misso, S. Ryder, S. Schmidlkofer, M. Westwood, and J. Kleijnen. 2015. Cannabinoids for medical use: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 313(24):2456–2473.

Anorexia and Weight Loss

Lutge, E. E., A. Gray, and N. Siegfried. 2013. The medical use of cannabis for reducing morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV/AIDS. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 4:CD005175.

Whiting, P. F., R. F. Wolff, S. Deshpande, M. Di Nisio, S. Duffy, A. V. Hernandez, J. C. Keurentjes, S. Lang, K. Misso, S. Ryder, S. Schmidlkofer, M. Westwood, and J. Kleijnen. 2015. Cannabinoids for medical use: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 313(24):2456–2473.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

The committee did not identify any good- or fair-quality systematic reviews that reported on IBS.

Epilepsy

Gloss, D., and B. Vickrey. 2014. Cannabinoids for epilepsy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 3:CD009270.

Koppel, B. S., J. C. Brust, T. Fife, J. Bronstein, S. Youssof, G. Gronseth, and D. Gloss. 2014. Systematic review: Efficacy and safety of medical marijuana in selected neurologic disorders: Report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 82(17):1556–1563.

Spasticity Associated with Multiple Sclerosis and Paraplegia Caused by Spinal Cord Injury

Koppel, B. S., J. C. Brust, T. Fife, J. Bronstein, S. Youssof, G. Gronseth, and D. Gloss. 2014. Systematic review: Efficacy and safety of medical marijuana in selected neurologic disorders: Report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 82(17):1556–1563.

Whiting, P. F., R. F. Wolff, S. Deshpande, M. Di Nisio, S. Duffy, A. V. Hernandez, J. C. Keurentjes, S. Lang, K. Misso, S. Ryder, S. Schmidlkofer, M. Westwood, and J. Kleijnen. 2015. Cannabinoids for medical use: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 313(24):2456–2473.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Systematic Reviews." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24625.
×

Tourette Syndrome

Koppel, B. S., J. C. Brust, T. Fife, J. Bronstein, S. Youssof, G. Gronseth, and D. Gloss. 2014. Systematic review: Efficacy and safety of medical marijuana in selected neurologic disorders: Report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 82(17):1556–1563.

Whiting, P. F., R. F. Wolff, S. Deshpande, M. Di Nisio, S. Duffy, A. V. Hernandez, J. C. Keurentjes, S. Lang, K. Misso, S. Ryder, S. Schmidlkofer, M. Westwood, and J. Kleijnen. 2015. Cannabinoids for medical use: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 313(24):2456–2473.

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

The committee did not identify any good- or fair-quality systematic reviews that reported on ALS.

Huntington’s Disease

Koppel, B. S., J. C. Brust, T. Fife, J. Bronstein, S. Youssof, G. Gronseth, and D. Gloss. 2014. Systematic review: Efficacy and safety of medical marijuana in selected neurologic disorders: Report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 82(17):1556–1563.

Parkinson’s Disease

Koppel, B. S., J. C. Brust, T. Fife, J. Bronstein, S. Youssof, G. Gronseth, and D. Gloss. 2014. Systematic review: Efficacy and safety of medical marijuana in selected neurologic disorders: Report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 82(17):1556–1563.

Dystonia

Koppel, B. S., J. C. Brust, T. Fife, J. Bronstein, S. Youssof, G. Gronseth, and D. Gloss. 2014. Systematic review: Efficacy and safety of medical marijuana in selected neurologic disorders: Report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 82(17):1556–1563.

Dementia

Krishnan, S., R. Cairns, and R. Howard. 2009. Cannabinoids for the treatment of dementia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2:CD007204.

van den Elsen, G. A. H., A. I. A. Ahmed, M. Lammers, C. Kramers, R. J. Verkes, M. A. van der Marck, and M. G. M. O. Rikkert. 2014. Efficacy and safety of medical cannabinoids in older subjects: A systematic review. Ageing Research Reviews 14(1):56–64.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Systematic Reviews." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24625.
×

Glaucoma

Whiting, P. F., R. F. Wolff, S. Deshpande, M. Di Nisio, S. Duffy, A. V. Hernandez, J. C. Keurentjes, S. Lang, K. Misso, S. Ryder, S. Schmidlkofer, M. Westwood, and J. Kleijnen. 2015. Cannabinoids for medical use: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 313(24):2456–2473.

Traumatic Brain Injury/Intracranial Hemorrhage

The committee did not identify any good- or fair-quality systematic reviews that reported on traumatic brain injury/intracranial hemorrhage.

Addiction

Marshall, K., L. Gowing, R. Ali, and B. Le Foll. 2014. Pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 12:CD008940.

Prud’Homme, M., R. Cata, and D. Jutras-Aswad. 2015. Cannabidiol as an intervention for addictive behaviors: A systematic review of the evidence. Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment 9:33–38.

Anxiety

Whiting, P. F., R. F. Wolff, S. Deshpande, M. Di Nisio, S. Duffy, A. V. Hernandez, J. C. Keurentjes, S. Lang, K. Misso, S. Ryder, S. Schmidlkofer, M. Westwood, and J. Kleijnen. 2015. Cannabinoids for medical use: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 313(24):2456–2473.

Depression

Whiting, P. F., R. F. Wolff, S. Deshpande, M. Di Nisio, S. Duffy, A. V. Hernandez, J. C. Keurentjes, S. Lang, K. Misso, S. Ryder, S. Schmidlkofer, M. Westwood, and J. Kleijnen. 2015. Cannabinoids for medical use: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 313(24):2456–2473.

Sleep Disorders

Whiting, P. F., R. F. Wolff, S. Deshpande, M. Di Nisio, S. Duffy, A. V. Hernandez, J. C. Keurentjes, S. Lang, K. Misso, S. Ryder, S. Schmidlkofer, M. Westwood, and J. Kleijnen. 2015. Cannabinoids for medical use: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 313(24):2456–2473.

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

The committee did not identify any good- or fair-quality systematic reviews that reported on PTSD.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Systematic Reviews." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24625.
×

Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses

McLoughlin, B. C., J. A. Pushpa-Rajah, D. Gillies, J. Rathbone, H. Variend, E. Kalakouti, and K. Kyprianou. 2014. Cannabis and schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 10:CD004837.

Whiting, P. F., R. F. Wolff, S. Deshpande, M. Di Nisio, S. Duffy, A. V. Hernandez, J. C. Keurentjes, S. Lang, K. Misso, S. Ryder, S. Schmidlkofer, M. Westwood, and J. Kleijnen. 2015. Cannabinoids for medical use: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 313(24):2456–2473.

CANCER INCIDENCE

Lung Cancer

Zhang, L. R., H. Morgenstern, S. Greenland, S.-C. Chang, P. Lazarus, M. D. Teare, P. J. Woll, I. Orlow, and B. Cox, on behalf of the Cannabis and Respiratory Disease Group of New Zealand, Y. Brhane, G. Liu, and R. J. Hung. 2015. Cannabis smoking and lung cancer risk: Pooled analysis in the International Lung Cancer Consortium. International Journal of Cancer 136(4):894–903.

Head and Neck Cancers

de Carvalho, M. F., M. R. Dourado, I. B. Fernandes, C. T. Araujo, A. T. Mesquita, and M. L. Ramos-Jorge. 2015. Head and neck cancer among marijuana users: A meta-analysis of matched case-control studies. Archives of Oral Biology 60(12):1750–1755.

Testicular Cancer

Gurney, J., C. Shaw, J. Stanley, V. Signal, and D. Sarfati. 2015. Cannabis exposure and risk of testicular cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Cancer 15:897.

Esophageal Cancer

The committee did not identify any good- or fair-quality systematic reviews that reported on esophageal cancer.

Other Cancers in Adults

The committee did not identify any good- or fair-quality systematic reviews that reported on other cancers in adults.

Childhood Cancers

The committee did not identify any good- or fair-quality systematic reviews that reported on childhood cancers.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Systematic Reviews." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24625.
×

CARDIOMETABOLIC RISK

The committee did not identify any good- or fair-quality systematic reviews that reported on the health endpoints addressed in this chapter.

RESPIRATORY DISEASE

Pulmonary Function

Tetrault, J. M., K. Crothers, B. A. Moore, R. Mehra, J. Concato, and D. A. Fiellin. 2007. Effects of marijuana smoking on pulmonary function and respiratory complications: A systematic review. Archives of Internal Medicine 167:221–228.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

The committee did not identify any good- or fair-quality systematic reviews that reported on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Respiratory Symptoms, Including Chronic Bronchitis

Tetrault, J. M., K. Crothers, B. A. Moore, R. Mehra, J. Concato, and D. A. Fiellin. 2007. Effects of marijuana smoking on pulmonary function and respiratory complications: A systematic review. Archives of Internal Medicine 167:221–228.

Asthma

Tetrault, J. M., K. Crothers, B. A. Moore, R. Mehra, J. Concato, and D. A. Fiellin. 2007. Effects of marijuana smoking on pulmonary function and respiratory complications: A systematic review. Archives of Internal Medicine 167:221–228.

IMMUNITY

The committee did not identify any good- or fair-quality systematic reviews that reported on the health endpoints addressed in this chapter.

INJURY AND DEATH

All-Cause Mortality

Calabria, B., L. Degenhardt, W. Hall, and M. Lynskey. 2010. Does cannabis use increase the risk of death? Systematic review of epidemiological evidence on adverse effects of cannabis use. Drug and Alcohol Review 29(3):318–330.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Systematic Reviews." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24625.
×

Occupational Injury

The committee did not identify any good- or fair-quality systematic reviews that reported on occupational injury.

Motor Vehicle Crashes

Asbridge, M., J. A. Hayden, and J. L. Cartwright. 2012. Acute cannabis consumption and motor vehicle collision risk: Systematic review of observational studies and meta-analysis. BMJ 344:e536.

Calabria, B., L. Degenhardt, W. Hall, and M. Lynskey. 2010. Does cannabis use increase the risk of death? Systematic review of epidemiological evidence on adverse effects of cannabis use. Drug and Alcohol Review 29(3):318–330.

Elvik, R. 2013. Risk of road accident associated with the use of drugs: A systematic review and meta-analysis of evidence from epidemiological studies. Accident Analysis & Prevention 60:254–267.

Hartman, R. L., and M. A. Huestis. 2013. Cannabis effects on driving skills. Clinical Chemistry 59(3):478-492.

Li, M. C., J. E. Brady, C. J. DiMaggio, A. R. Lusardi, K. Y. Tzong, and G. Li. 2012. Marijuana use and motor vehicle crashes. Epidemiologic Reviews 34:65–72.

Rogeberg, O., and R. Elvik. 2016. The effects of cannabis intoxication on motor vehicle collision revisited and revised. Addiction 111:1348–1359.

Overdose Injuries and Death

The committee did not identify any good- or fair-quality systematic reviews that reported on overdose injuries and death.

PRENATAL, PERINATAL, AND NEONATAL EXPOSURE TO CANNABIS

Pregnancy Complications for the Mother

Gunn, J. K. L., C. B. Rosales, K. E. Center, A. Nunez, S. J. Gibson, C. Christ, and J. E. Ehiri. 2016. Prenatal exposure to cannabis and maternal and child health outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open 6(4):e009986.

Fetal Growth and Development

Gunn, J. K. L., C. B. Rosales, K. E. Center, A. Nunez, S. J. Gibson, C. Christ, and J. E. Ehiri. 2016. Prenatal exposure to cannabis and maternal and child health outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open 6(4):e009986.

Neonatal Conditions

Gunn, J. K. L., C. B. Rosales, K. E. Center, A. Nunez, S. J. Gibson, C. Christ, and J. E. Ehiri. 2016. Prenatal exposure to cannabis and maternal and child health outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open 6(4):e009986.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Systematic Reviews." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24625.
×

Later Outcomes

The committee did not identify any good- or fair-quality systematic reviews that reported on later outcomes.

PSYCHOSOCIAL

Cognition

Batalla, A., S. Bhattacharyya, M. Yucel, P. Fusar-Poli, J. A. Crippa, S. Nogue, M. Torrens, J. Pujol, M. Farre, and R. Martin-Santos. 2013. Structural and functional imaging studies in chronic cannabis users: A systematic review of adolescent and adult findings. PLOS ONE 8(2):e55821.

Broyd, S. J., H. H. Van Hell, C. Beale, M. Yucel, and N. Solowij. 2016. Acute and chronic effects of cannabinoids on human cognition—A systematic review. Biological Psychiatry 79(7):557–567.

Grant, I., R. Gonzalez, C. L. Carey, L. Natarajan, and T. Wolfson. 2003. Non-acute (residual) neurocognitive effects of cannabis use: A meta-analytic study. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 9:679–689.

Martin-Santos, R., A. B. Fagundo, J. A. Crippa, Z. Atakan, S. Bhattacharyya, P. Allen, P. Fusar-Poli, S. Borgwardt, M. Seal, G. F. Busatto, and P. McGuire. 2010. Neuroimaging in Cannabis Use: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Psychological Medicine 40(3):383–398.

Schreiner, A. M., and M. E. Dunn. 2012. Residual effects of cannabis use on neurocognitive performance after prolonged abstinence: A meta-analysis. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 20(5):420–429.

Academic Achievement

Macleod, J., R. Oakes,A. Copello, I. Crome, M. Egger, M. Hickman, T. Oppenkowski, H. Stokes-Lampard, and G. Davey Smith. 2004. Psychological and social sequelae of cannabis and other illicit drug use by young people: A systematic review of longitudinal, general population studies. Lancet 363(9421):1579–1588.

Employment and Income

The committee did not identify any good- or fair-quality systematic reviews that reported on employment and income.

Social Relationships and Other Social Roles

Macleod, J., R. Oakes, A. Copello, I. Crome, M. Egger, M. Hickman, T. Oppenkowski, H. Stokes-Lampard, and G. Davey Smith. 2004. Psychological and social sequelae of cannabis and other illicit drug use by young people: A systematic review of longitudinal, general population studies. Lancet 363(9421):1579–1588.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Systematic Reviews." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24625.
×

MENTAL HEALTH

Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses

Donoghue, K., and G. A. Doody. 2012. Effect of illegal substance use on cognitive function in individuals with a psychotic disorder: A review and meta-analysis. Neuropsychology 26(6):785–801.

Large, M., S. Sharma, M. T. Compton, T. Slade, and O. Nielssen. 2011. Cannabis use and earlier onset of psychosis: A systematic meta-analysis. Archives of General Psychiatry 68(6):555–561.

Marconi, A., M. Di Forti, C. M. Lewis, R. M. Murray, and E. Vassos. 2016. Meta-analysis of the association between the level of cannabis use and risk of psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 42(5):1262–1269.

Moore, T. H., S. Zammit, A. Lingford-Hughes, T. R. Barnes, P. B. Jones, M. Burke, and G. Lewis. 2007. Cannabis use and risk of psychotic or affective mental health outcomes: A systematic review. Lancet 370(9584):319–328.

Myles, N., H. Newall, O. Nielssen, and M. Large. 2012. The association between cannabis use and earlier age at onset of schizophrenia and other psychoses: Meta-analysis of possible confounding factors. Current Pharmaceutical Design 18(32):5055–5069.

Rabin, R. A., K. K. Zakzanis, and T. P. George. 2011. The effects of cannabis use on neurocognition in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Research 128(1–3):111–116.

Szoke, A., A. M. Galliot, J. R. Richard, A. Ferchiou, G. Baudin, M. Leboyer, and F. Schurhoff. 2014. Association between cannabis use and schizotypal dimensions—A meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies. Psychiatry Research 219(1):58–66.

van der Meer, F. J., E. Velthorst, C. J. Meijer, M. W. Machielsen, and L. de Haan. 2012. Cannabis use in patients at clinical high risk of psychosis: Impact on prodromal symptoms and transition to psychosis. Current Pharmaceutical Design 18(32):5036–5044.

Yucel, M., E. Bora, D. I. Lubman, N. Solowij, W. J. Brewer, S. M. Cotton, P. Conus, M. J. Takagi, A. Fornito, S. J. Wood, P. D. McGorry, and C. Pantelis. 2012. The impact of cannabis use on cognitive functioning in patients with schizophrenia: A meta-analysis of existing findings and new data in a first-episode sample. Schizophrenia Bulletin 38(2):316–330.

Zammit, S., T. H. Moore, A. Lingford-Hughes, T. R. Barnes, P. B. Jones, M., Burke, and G. Lewis. 2008. Effects of cannabis use on outcomes of psychotic disorders: Systematic review. British Journal of Psychiatry 193(5):357–363.

Bipolar Disorder

Gibbs, M., C. Winsper, S. Marwaha, E. Gilbert, M. Broome, and S. P. Singh. 2015. Cannabis use and mania symptoms: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders 171:39–47.

Depression

Lev-Ran, S., B. Le Foll, K. McKenzie, T. P. George, and J. Rehm. 2013. Bipolar disorder and co-occurring cannabis use disorders: Characteristics, co-morbidities and clinical correlates. Psychiatry Research 209(3):459–465.

Moore, T. H., S. Zammit, A. Lingford-Hughes, T. R. Barnes, P. B. Jones, M. Burke, and G. Lewis. 2007. Cannabis use and risk of psychotic or affective mental health outcomes: A systematic review. Lancet 370(9584):319–328.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Systematic Reviews." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24625.
×

Suicide

Borges, G., C. L. Bagge, and R. Orozco. 2016. A literature review and meta-analyses of cannabis use and suicidality. Journal of Affective Disorders 195:63–74.

Moore, T. H., S. Zammit, A. Lingford-Hughes, T. R. Barnes, P. B. Jones, M. Burke, and G. Lewis. 2007. Cannabis use and risk of psychotic or affective mental health outcomes: A systematic review. Lancet 370(9584):319–328.

Anxiety

Kedzior, K. K., and L. T. Laeber. 2014. A positive association between anxiety disorders and cannabis use or cannabis use disorders in the general population—A meta-analysis of 31 studies. BMC Psychiatry 14:136.

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

The committee did not identify any good- or fair-quality systematic reviews that reported on PTSD.

PROBLEM CANNABIS USE

Development of Problem Cannabis Use

The committee did not identify any good- or fair-quality systematic reviews that reported on the development of problem cannabis use.

Risk and Protective Factors for Developing Problem Cannabis Use

Humphreys, K. L., T. Eng, and S. S. Lee. 2013. Stimulant medication and substance use outcomes: A meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry 70(7):740–749.

Kedzior, K. K., and L. T. Laeber. 2014. A positive association between anxiety disorders and cannabis use or cannabis use disorders in the general population—A meta-analysis of 31 studies. BMC Psychiatry 14:136.

Risk and Protective Factors for Severity and Persistence of Problem Cannabis Use

The committee did not identify any good- or fair-quality systematic reviews that reported on the risk and protective factors for severity and persistence of problem cannabis use.

ABUSE OF OTHER SUBSTANCES

The committee did not identify any good- or fair-quality systematic reviews that reported on abuse of other substances.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Systematic Reviews." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24625.
×
Page 443
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Systematic Reviews." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24625.
×
Page 444
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Systematic Reviews." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24625.
×
Page 445
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Systematic Reviews." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24625.
×
Page 446
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Systematic Reviews." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24625.
×
Page 447
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Systematic Reviews." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24625.
×
Page 448
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Systematic Reviews." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24625.
×
Page 449
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Systematic Reviews." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24625.
×
Page 450
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Systematic Reviews." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24625.
×
Page 451
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Systematic Reviews." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24625.
×
Page 452
Next: Appendix D Public Session Agendas »
The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $78.00 Buy Ebook | $64.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Significant changes have taken place in the policy landscape surrounding cannabis legalization, production, and use. During the past 20 years, 25 states and the District of Columbia have legalized cannabis and/or cannabidiol (a component of cannabis) for medical conditions or retail sales at the state level and 4 states have legalized both the medical and recreational use of cannabis. These landmark changes in policy have impacted cannabis use patterns and perceived levels of risk.

However, despite this changing landscape, evidence regarding the short- and long-term health effects of cannabis use remains elusive. While a myriad of studies have examined cannabis use in all its various forms, often these research conclusions are not appropriately synthesized, translated for, or communicated to policy makers, health care providers, state health officials, or other stakeholders who have been charged with influencing and enacting policies, procedures, and laws related to cannabis use. Unlike other controlled substances such as alcohol or tobacco, no accepted standards for safe use or appropriate dose are available to help guide individuals as they make choices regarding the issues of if, when, where, and how to use cannabis safely and, in regard to therapeutic uses, effectively.

Shifting public sentiment, conflicting and impeded scientific research, and legislative battles have fueled the debate about what, if any, harms or benefits can be attributed to the use of cannabis or its derivatives, and this lack of aggregated knowledge has broad public health implications. The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids provides a comprehensive review of scientific evidence related to the health effects and potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis. This report provides a research agenda—outlining gaps in current knowledge and opportunities for providing additional insight into these issues—that summarizes and prioritizes pressing research needs.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!