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Optimizing the Process for Establishing the Dietary Guidelines for Americans: The Selection Process (2017)

Chapter: Appendix A: Literature Search Strategy for "Conflict of Interest

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Literature Search Strategy for "Conflict of Interest." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Optimizing the Process for Establishing the Dietary Guidelines for Americans: The Selection Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24637.
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Appendix A

Literature Search Strategy for “Conflict of Interest”

This National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (the National Academies) committee recognizes the importance of considering conflicts of interest in contributing to and detracting from the public’s trust in the development of guidelines. To supplement previous evidence reviews and to identify additional resources for consideration, the committee conducted a focused literature review guided by the following preliminary questions:

  1. How are conflicts of interest managed in guideline development and/or in advisory committees? This may include but is not limited to the following:
    1. Evidence review
    2. Expert group or advisory committee formation
    3. Translation to recommendations or practice
    4. Project funding
  2. Are there any conflict-of-interest practices specific to nutrition or diet research and guidelines?

The main finding was significant variation of conflict-of-interest policies and practices across organizations and within guideline development processes, and limited empirical evidence linking these policies and practices to desired outcomes. This search was not intended to be a comprehensive review, but rather to identify relevant and recent publications for consideration.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Literature Search Strategy for "Conflict of Interest." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Optimizing the Process for Establishing the Dietary Guidelines for Americans: The Selection Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24637.
×

SEARCH TERMS

A keyword search was run through Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus. Keywords included conflict of interest, conflicts of interest, conflicting interest, competing interest, financial conflicts, commercial conflicts, funding, disclosure, guideline, guidelines, guidelines as topic, practice guidelines, committee, committees, advisory committee, committee membership, review literature, organizational policy, policy, policies, nutritional policy, and industry. The search was restricted to English language.

SCREENING

More than 800 unique articles were found, 62 of which met inclusion criteria of describing or managing conflicts of interest in the development of guidelines and advisory committees. The narrow focus of the search excluded conflicts of interest in areas not directly applicable (e.g., conflicts of interest in human subject research), while noting that many articles would be relevant to this National Academies committee’s second report. Two reviewers independently screened selected titles and abstracts for inclusion in the full-text review. An additional scan of the reference lists of relevant publications and previous Institute of Medicine publications (IOM, 2009, 2011) led to the identification and ad-hoc inclusion of additional articles. Some articles were determined not to be relevant and were excluded based on the full-text review. In total, 62 references were included and are listed below.

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Literature Search Strategy for "Conflict of Interest." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Optimizing the Process for Establishing the Dietary Guidelines for Americans: The Selection Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24637.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Literature Search Strategy for "Conflict of Interest." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Optimizing the Process for Establishing the Dietary Guidelines for Americans: The Selection Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24637.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Literature Search Strategy for "Conflict of Interest." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Optimizing the Process for Establishing the Dietary Guidelines for Americans: The Selection Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24637.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Literature Search Strategy for "Conflict of Interest." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Optimizing the Process for Establishing the Dietary Guidelines for Americans: The Selection Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24637.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Literature Search Strategy for "Conflict of Interest." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Optimizing the Process for Establishing the Dietary Guidelines for Americans: The Selection Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24637.
×
Page 99
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Literature Search Strategy for "Conflict of Interest." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Optimizing the Process for Establishing the Dietary Guidelines for Americans: The Selection Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24637.
×
Page 100
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Literature Search Strategy for "Conflict of Interest." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Optimizing the Process for Establishing the Dietary Guidelines for Americans: The Selection Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24637.
×
Page 101
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Literature Search Strategy for "Conflict of Interest." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Optimizing the Process for Establishing the Dietary Guidelines for Americans: The Selection Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24637.
×
Page 102
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Literature Search Strategy for "Conflict of Interest." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Optimizing the Process for Establishing the Dietary Guidelines for Americans: The Selection Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24637.
×
Page 103
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Literature Search Strategy for "Conflict of Interest." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Optimizing the Process for Establishing the Dietary Guidelines for Americans: The Selection Process. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24637.
×
Page 104
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Federal guidance on nutrition and diet is intended to reflect the state of the science and deliver the most reliable recommendations possible according to the best available evidence. This guidance, updated and presented every 5 years in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA), serves as the basis for all federal nutrition policies and nutrition assistance programs, as well as nutrition education programs. Despite the use of the guidelines over the past 30 years, recent challenges prompted Congress to question the process by which food and nutrition guidance is developed.

This report assesses the process used to develop the guidelines; it does not evaluate the substance or use of the guidelines. As part of an overall, comprehensive review of the process to update the DGA, this first report seeks to discover how the advisory committee selection process can be improved to provide more transparency, eliminate bias, and include committee members with a range of viewpoints for the purpose of informing the 2020 cycle.

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