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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Sustaining Ocean Observations to Understand Future Changes in Earth's Climate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24919.
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Appendix B

Workshop Agenda

Sustaining Ocean Observations to Understand
Future Changes in Earth’s Climate
Workshop Agenda

National Academy of Sciences
2101 Constitution Avenue NW | Washington, DC 20418
NAS BUILDING
November 15-17, 2016

November 15, 2016
Meeting Location: NAS 120

OPEN SESSION

8:30 AM Breakfast available
9:00 AM Welcome and Introductions:
Mary Glackin and Bob Weller, Committee Co-Chairs
  • Context and purpose of the study
  • Objectives of the workshop
9:30 AM Keynote Address:
John Holdren, Assistant to the President for Science and Technology, Director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy
Introduced by:
Marcia McNutt, President, National Academy of Sciences
10:30 AM Session 1—Defining and Supporting the U.S. Contributions to GCOS and GOOS
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Sustaining Ocean Observations to Understand Future Changes in Earth's Climate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24919.
×

Session Objective: To understand how major funding decisions are made and how funding can be sustained

Session lead: Bob Weller
Panelists:
Michael Freilich, Director, Earth Science Division, Science Mission Directorate, NASA
Craig McLean, Assistant Administrator, Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, NOAA
Roger Wakimoto, Assistant Director, Directorate for Geosciences, NSF
Questions:
  1. Given the long-term need for sustained, global, ocean observations to understand future climate change as outlined in IPCC, GCOS, and GOOS documents, how does the United States define and scope its role in developing and sustaining the global, ocean observing system? For years, the U.S. has played a leading role; will it continue as a leader, as a coordinator, as a participant? As a contributor, what levels of resources are projected in terms of funds, platforms, human resources?
  2. What are the most effective means for the U.S. ocean science community to argue for and gain a high level of prioritization within the United States for U.S. support of sustained, global ocean observations?
  3. How do U.S. agencies divide and coordinate U.S responsibilities and commitments to the development and support of sustained ocean observing among themselves?
  4. What is (are) the process(es) by which funding is developed for sustained ocean observations in the budgets of NOAA, NASA, and NSF?
  5. Is the United States able to make and subsequently meet long-term or ongoing commitments to sustained ocean observing?
  6. Is there dialog and coordination with your peers in other countries directed at supporting sustained, global ocean observations?
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Sustaining Ocean Observations to Understand Future Changes in Earth's Climate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24919.
×
12:00 PM Lunch Break
1:00 PM Session 2—International Coordination and Sovereignty

Session Objective: To understand the challenges and potential solutions to international coordination and collecting and sharing observations in the EEZ

Session lead: Dean Roemmich
Panelists:
Craig McLean, Assistant Administrator, Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, NOAA
Michael Patterson, Director, US CLIVAR Project Office
Allison Reed, Foreign Affairs Officer, Office of Ocean and Polar Affairs, Marine Science and Research, Department of State
Questions:
  1. Given that 30% of the deep ocean is inside an EEZ or maritime zone, what is needed to ensure that sustained ocean observations for climate can be made in the global domain that is required for such observations?
  2. With ocean observing datasets being freely available, how can we entrain new contributions into the enterprise? In the present system, are the contributions distributed in an equitable manner?
  3. Advances in technologies of sustained observations tend to come from a few nations. How can these advances be distributed among all interested global partners?
  4. Are existing international coordination bodies, i.e., JCOMMOPS, carrying out the functions required of them?
  5. Are the relationships, responsibilities, and functions between different international coordination bodies (such as IOC-GOOS, JCOMMOPS, GEO,) well defined and complementary?
  6. What is the follow through in the U.S. on international agreements, like the Galway Declaration, to work toward growth in sustained ocean observing? Does the recent
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Sustaining Ocean Observations to Understand Future Changes in Earth's Climate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24919.
×

interest at G7 ministerial summits on ocean observing indicate a growing international coordination to develop and support sustained ocean observing?

2:00 PM Break
2:30 PM Session 3—Prioritizing and Coordinating U.S. Contributions to GCOS and GOOS

Session Objective: To understand how the U.S. ocean research and observing efforts across the agencies and from remote sensing, to coastal, to open ocean are prioritized and coordinated

Session leads: Rob Dunbar and Patrick Heimbach
Panelists:
David Legler, Division Chief, Climate Observation Division, Climate Program Office, NOAA
Eric Lindstrom, Physical Oceanography Program Scientist, Science Mission Directorate, NASA, and Co-Chair, Global Ocean Observing System
Gary Mitchum, Associate Dean and Professor, College of Marine Science, University of South Florida
Rick Murray, Director, Ocean Sciences Division, Directorate for Geosciences, NSF
Questions:
  1. International planning is advancing a framework for ocean observing that includes identification of essential ocean variables. How do U.S. agencies select what they will support, develop priorities, and coordinate investments?
  2. The coastal observing system, IOOS, is comprised of regional components. How are these IOOS observing efforts coordinated with global ocean observing?
  3. Across the agencies’ investments in the open ocean and the coastal ocean, is there agreement on, or movement toward, common best practices for observing and for data sharing?
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Sustaining Ocean Observations to Understand Future Changes in Earth's Climate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24919.
×
  1. How would one prioritize what observing to support across both open and coastal ocean?
  2. Does the greater proximity of regional coastal observing efforts to stakeholders and the U.S. population suggest a different perspective will be formed on developing support for sustained coastal ocean observing than for sustained open ocean observing?
4:00 PM Session 4—Prioritizing and Coordinating Science at the International Level

Session Objective: To understand the challenges in prioritizing ocean observations as seen from U.S. and international science planning and oversight groups and from intergovernmental planning perspectives

Session leads: Lynne Talley and Ed Boyle
Panelists:
Molly Baringer, Deputy Laboratory Director and Supervisory Oceanographer, Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, and Co-Chair, NOAA Climate Observing System Council, NOAA
Annalisa Bracco, Co-Chair, CLIVAR Scientific Steering Group and Professor, Georgia Institute of Technology
Katy Hill, GCOS-GOOS Scientific Office, IOC, WMO
Gregory Johnson, Co-Chair, NOAA Climate Observing System Council, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, NOAA
David Legler, Division Chief, Climate Observation Division, Climate Program Office, NOAA
Questions:
  1. What is WCRP’s mechanism for evolving its science plan and incorporating new technologies?
  2. Does WCRP, JCOMMOPS have sufficient buy-in/support/authority to support long term ocean obs.?
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Sustaining Ocean Observations to Understand Future Changes in Earth's Climate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24919.
×
  1. What is GOOS/GCOS’s mechanism for evolving its implementation plan in terms of defining essential ocean variables and in optimizing across observational platforms to achieve the essential ocean variables’ specifications?
  2. What are the essential ocean variables that need to be observed over the long term?
  3. To what extent are the recommendations described in the GCOS/GOOS plans implemented by different nations? Are there mechanisms for commitment? Legally binding? What is their role in planning for system resilience (e.g., if one country’s contribution declines are they ensuring other countries provide additional resources)?
  4. Is it conceivable, based on experience working at international level, to create a CERN-like institution that would deal with sustained ocean observations, where countries commit resources, but decisions be made by the institution?
  5. Is international coordination hampering implementation plans because of “minimum common denominator”/national interests/priorities, incompatible funding structures?
  6. (How) can GOOS/GCOS support the specific goal of longevity, evolution, preservation of know-how?
5:30 PM Meeting adjourns for the day
6:00 PM Committee Dinner

November 16, 2016 Meeting Location: NAS 120

OPEN SESSION

8:00 AM Breakfast available
8:30 AM Session 5—Institutional Support to Sustaining Ocean Observations

Session Objectives: To understand the budget constraints and challenges to coordinate the contributions to GCOS and GOOS and explore opportunities for improvement

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Sustaining Ocean Observations to Understand Future Changes in Earth's Climate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24919.
×
Session leads: Mark Merrifield and Bob Hallberg
Panelists:
Rick Lumpkin, Deputy Director, Physical Oceanography Division, Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, NOAA
Kathleen Ritzman, Assistant Director, Scripps Institution of Oceanography
Chris Sabine, Director, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, NOAA
Sophie Seeyave, Executive Director, Partnership for Observation of Global Oceans (POGO)
John Trowbridge, Senior Scientist, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Robert Winokur, Deputy Oceanographer, Navy (ret.), and Senior Advisor, Michigan Tech Research Institute
Questions:
  1. What experience does your institution have in the area of sustained ocean observations in support of climate research?
  2. What do you see as the host institutional role in supporting various phases of sustained observations, such as: proposal support or idea development, technical support (facilities, technicians), research support (students, postdocs, FTE compensation), database management (IT specialists)?
  3. What role should the host institution play in making participation in sustained observations an attractive career path? How can institutions ensure multigenerational support of sustained observation facilities?
  4. What role does your institution play in advocating for ongoing financial support for sustained observations?
  5. Given the long time on sustaining the need observations, do you have concerns about the mismatch between the typical promotion milestones and career time lines at your institution?
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Sustaining Ocean Observations to Understand Future Changes in Earth's Climate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24919.
×
  1. Do you encourage and facilitate staff utilization of the sustained ocean observing efforts you support? At times the PIs involved say they get just enough funding to do the observing but none to do science with the observations; should it be an institution’s role to address this by helping raise support for the utilization of the observations?
10:30 AM Break
11:00 AM Session 6—Illustrating the past success and future challenges of a global observing system: Argo (past, future)

Session Objectives: To show, using the example of the Argo profiling float array, the efforts to deploy and sustain one element of the sustained ocean observing system and to also summarize challenges of responding to observing more different variables over more of the ocean

Session lead: Dean Roemmich
Panelists:
Jim Baker, Director, Forest and Land-Use Measurement, Clinton Climate Initiative, Clinton Foundation
Molly Baringer, Deputy Laboratory Director and Supervisory Oceanographer, Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory and Co-Chair, NOAA Climate Observing System Council, NOAA
Gregory Johnson, Co-Chair, NOAA Climate Observing System Council, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, NOAA
Dean Roemmich, Professor, Scripps Institution of Oceanography
Stan Wilson, Assistant Administrator, National Ocean Service, NOAA (ret.)
Nathalie Zilberman, Project Scientist, Climate, Atmospheric Science and Physical Oceanography, Scripps Institution of Oceanography
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Sustaining Ocean Observations to Understand Future Changes in Earth's Climate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24919.
×
Questions:
  1. Do you see ways where the contributions of the Argo Program could be better articulated to policy makers to ensure future investments of this critical program?
  2. Argo’s creation and development sprung from flexibility that academic institutions provided to researchers to explore science and emerging technology. How do we ensure this continued support into the future for sustainment and investment in new technologies and science exploration?
  3. In today’s fiscal and political climate, do you think it is feasible to use Argo’s past successes to more effectively make the case for the increases needed to meet today’s growing needs to invest in long term climate observing?
  4. What mechanisms might we use to make the work of long term climate observing to be attractive to young scientists?
  5. How might we optimize/prioritize the future Argo program with the addition of BioArgo, DeepArgo, Arctic, etc. in a flat budget environment?
1:00 PM Lunch Break
2:00 PM Session 7—New Models and Solutions for Sustaining Ocean Observations

Session Objectives: To explore and initiate the discussion of new models for sustaining ocean observations

Session leads: Mary Glackin and Rob Dunbar
Panelists:
Andrew Clark, Vice President of Research Industry Technology, Marine Technology Society
Adena Leibman, Ocean and Coastal Policy Advisor, Office of Senator Sheldon Whitehouse
Rick Spinrad, Chief Scientist, NOAA
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Sustaining Ocean Observations to Understand Future Changes in Earth's Climate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24919.
×
Questions:
  1. Both the Pew Ocean Commission and the U.S. Ocean Commission proposed various mechanisms to increase funding for ocean activities including long-term ocean observing. Since that time, we have seen increasing requirements for long-term ocean observing and largely flat or declining federal investments in this area. Over the past few decades, we have seen business grow by leveraging environmental information and access to the ocean. What have we learned from these experiences? How might you suggest this community better engage the private sector?
  2. There has been sustaining efforts to raise awareness of ocean issues and promote more investments as a result of the Pew Ocean Commission and U.S. Ocean Commission reports. How do you recommend the community that is stewarding long term ocean observing for climate change engage in these broader ocean efforts?
  3. It has been suggested that either Foundations or philanthropic funding could be a source of support for these long term ocean climate measurements. Do you see opportunities there? Is it reasonable in your opinion to rely on such funding sources for these very long term needs?
  4. Awards or endowed position (chair) for dedicated effort to long-term records?
3:00 PM Workshop discussion and wrap up by Jim Baker (Director, Forest and Land-Use Measurement, Clinton Climate Initiative, Clinton Foundation) and Ray Schmitt (Senior Scientist, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)

Wrap up will include comments based on the information gained during the workshop and a discussion of how to develop a report that has impact and makes a meaningful contribution to the current dialog. How do we capitalize on the growing international support for sustained ocean observing? This session is also intended to help set the stage for the second phase of this NAS effort.

5:00 PM Open session adjourns
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Sustaining Ocean Observations to Understand Future Changes in Earth's Climate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24919.
×
Page 125
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Sustaining Ocean Observations to Understand Future Changes in Earth's Climate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24919.
×
Page 126
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Sustaining Ocean Observations to Understand Future Changes in Earth's Climate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24919.
×
Page 127
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Sustaining Ocean Observations to Understand Future Changes in Earth's Climate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24919.
×
Page 128
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Sustaining Ocean Observations to Understand Future Changes in Earth's Climate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24919.
×
Page 129
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Sustaining Ocean Observations to Understand Future Changes in Earth's Climate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24919.
×
Page 130
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Sustaining Ocean Observations to Understand Future Changes in Earth's Climate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24919.
×
Page 131
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Sustaining Ocean Observations to Understand Future Changes in Earth's Climate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24919.
×
Page 132
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Sustaining Ocean Observations to Understand Future Changes in Earth's Climate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24919.
×
Page 133
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Workshop Agenda." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Sustaining Ocean Observations to Understand Future Changes in Earth's Climate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24919.
×
Page 134
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The ocean is an integral component of the Earth’s climate system. It covers about 70% of the Earth’s surface and acts as its primary reservoir of heat and carbon, absorbing over 90% of the surplus heat and about 30% of the carbon dioxide associated with human activities, and receiving close to 100% of fresh water lost from land ice.

With the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, notably carbon dioxide from fossil fuel combustion, the Earth’s climate is now changing more rapidly than at any time since the advent of human societies. Society will increasingly face complex decisions about how to mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change such as droughts, sea-level rise, ocean acidification, species loss, changes to growing seasons, and stronger and possibly more frequent storms.

Observations play a foundational role in documenting the state and variability of components of the climate system and facilitating climate prediction and scenario development. Regular and consistent collection of ocean observations over decades to centuries would monitor the Earth’s main reservoirs of heat, carbon dioxide, and water and provides a critical record of long-term change and variability over multiple time scales. Sustained high-quality observations are also needed to test and improve climate models, which provide insights into the future climate system. Sustaining Ocean Observations to Understand Future Changes in Earth’s Climate considers processes for identifying priority ocean observations that will improve understanding of the Earth’s climate processes, and the challenges associated with sustaining these observations over long timeframes.

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