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Making Medicines Affordable: A National Imperative (2018)

Chapter: Appendix E: Biographical Information

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Making Medicines Affordable: A National Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24946.
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E

Biographical Information

COMMITTEE MEMBERS

Norman Augustine, M.S.E. (Chair), is a retired chairman and chief executive officer of Lockheed Martin Corporation. He has served as an assistant secretary, undersecretary, and subsequently, acting secretary of the U.S. Army. He has been on the faculty of Princeton University and has served as chairman and principal officer of the American Red Cross and as chairman of the Defense Science Board. He has served as a member of the boards of directors of ConocoPhillips, Black & Decker, Proctor & Gamble, and Lockheed Martin. He is a regent of the University System of Maryland and has been a trustee of Princeton University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Johns Hopkins University. He has served for 16 years on the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology under both Republican and Democratic presidents. He was also the founding chair of the National Institutes of Health Scientific Management Review Board and chair of the Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine. He is a member of the American Philosophical Society and the Council on Foreign Relations and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He received the U.S. National Medal of Technology, Joint Chiefs of Staff Distinguished Public Service Award, and for five times the U.S. Department of Defense’s highest civilian decoration, the Distinguished Service Medal. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a member and former chairman of the National Academy of Engineering. He holds 35 honorary degrees.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Making Medicines Affordable: A National Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24946.
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Jeff Bingaman, J.D., is a former U.S. senator from New Mexico, serving from 1983 to 2013. He held several committee assignments during his tenure in the U.S. Senate including the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, Committee on Finance, Joint Economic Committee, Committee on Armed Services, and the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. On the Senate Energy Committee, he has contributed to every major piece of energy policy legislation in the past two decades. Earlier, he worked as a private practice attorney. He served as counsel to the New Mexico Constitutional Convention and was attorney general of New Mexico. He earned his B.A. from Harvard University and his J.D. from Stanford University.

Rena Conti, Ph.D., is an associate professor in the Department of Pediatrics and the Department of Public Health Sciences at The University of Chicago. Her research focuses on financing, regulation, and organization of medical care with an emphasis on biopharmaceutical markets. She serves as an ad hoc advisor to the U.S. Senate’s Committee on Finance and the U.S. House of Representatives’ Committee on Oversight and Government Reform and has provided congressional testimony on prescription drug shortages. She is an elected member of the Conference on Research in Income and Wealth. She received her Ph.D. in health policy from Harvard University.

Stacie Dusetzina, Ph.D., is an assistant professor at the University of North Carolina (UNC) Eshelman School of Pharmacy’s Division of Pharmaceutical Outcomes and Policy. She also has a faculty appointment at the UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health in the Department of Health Policy and Management and is a member of the Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, the Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research, and the Carolina Health Informatics Program. Earlier, she was an assistant professor in the Division of General Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology in the UNC School of Medicine. Her primary research focus is on assessing the role of health system policies, drug safety warnings, and costs on prescription drug use and the subsequent health outcomes for patients, particularly among individuals with cancer or mental illness. She received her Ph.D. from the UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy and completed her postdoctoral work in health care policy at Harvard Medical School.

Martha Gaines, J.D., L.L.M., is the founder and director of the Center for Patient Partnerships and a distinguished clinical professor at the University of Wisconsin schools of law, medicine, nursing, and pharmacy. Her work focuses on consumer engagement and empowerment in all aspects of health care, including its reform. She served on the steering committee of National Academy of Medicine’s Vital Directions Task Force and the

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Making Medicines Affordable: A National Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24946.
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National Cancer Research Advocates of the National Cancer Institute. She also serves on the board of the American Academy on Communication in Healthcare and has led patient partnership and related initiatives for diverse organizations including the Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation, National Patient Advocacy Foundation, the Institute of Medicine, and the American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation. She has received numerous awards for her work, including the National American Cancer Society Lane Adams Quality of Life Award, the Chancellor’s Hilldale Award for Excellence in Teaching, the Robert Heidman Award for Excellence in Public Service, and the inaugural Health Law Attorney of the Year Award from the Wisconsin State Bar Association. She earned her A.B. at Vassar College and her J.D. and L.L.M. from the University of Wisconsin Law School. She is a long-term survivor of metastatic ovarian cancer.

Rebekah Gee, M.D., M.P.H., is the secretary of the Louisiana Department of Health. She most recently served as the Medicaid medical director for Louisiana and as an associate professor of health policy and management and of obstetrics and gynecology at Louisiana State University. She completed a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Clinical Scholars program at the University of Pennsylvania and received an M.S. in health policy research. She obtained an M.P.H. from Columbia University in health policy and management and her M.D. from Cornell University, and she trained in obstetrics and gynecology at the Brigham and Women’s and Massachusetts General Hospitals. She has advised the public health departments of several states, including Louisiana, Massachusetts, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. She is a recipient of the Association of Maternal and Child Health Programs’ State Leadership in Maternal and Child Health Award and the inaugural Norman F. Gant/American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology Fellowship from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, where she has served as a member of the Board on Health Care Services. She is a member of the National Academy of Medicine.

Victoria Hale, Ph.D., is the founder, former chief executive officer, and chair emerita of OneWorld Health, the first nonprofit pharmaceutical company in the United States. Under her leadership, the organization developed a new cure for visceral leishmaniasis and developed a platform technology to reduce the cost of malaria drugs by more than a factor of 10. She is also the founder and former chief executive officer of Medicines360, a second-generation nonprofit pharmaceutical company that developed a hormonal intra-uterine device. She established her expertise in all stages of biopharmaceutical drug development at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and at Genentech, Inc. She earned her Ph.D. from the University of California, San Francisco, where she maintains an adjunct professorship in

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Making Medicines Affordable: A National Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24946.
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biomedical engineering and therapeutic sciences. Her honors include being named a MacArthur Fellow, receiving the President’s Award of Distinction from the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists and The Economist’s Social and Economic Innovation Award, and being recognized as the Schwab Fellow of the World Economic Forum. She is a member of the National Academy of Medicine.

Michelle Mello, J.D., Ph.D., is a professor of law at Stanford Law School and a professor of health research and policy at Stanford University School of Medicine. Earlier, she was a professor at the Harvard School of Public Health, where she directed the Program in Law and Public Health, as well as a lab fellow at Harvard’s Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics. She conducts empirical research into issues at the intersection of law, ethics, and health policy. She has also received the Alice S. Hersh New Investigator Award from AcademyHealth, a Greenwall Faculty Scholars Award in Bioethics, and a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Investigator Award in Health Policy Research. She holds a J.D. from the Yale Law School; a Ph.D. in health policy and administration from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; an M.Phil. from Oxford University, where she was a Marshall Scholar; and a B.A. from Stanford University. She is a member of the National Academy of Medicine.

Eliseo Pérez-Stable, M.D., is the director of the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD) at the National Institutes of Health. He has spent more than 30 years leading research on smoking cessation and tobacco control policy in Latino populations in the United States and Latin America. Prior to becoming NIMHD director, he was a professor of medicine and the chief of the Division of General Internal Medicine and also the director of the Center for Aging in Diverse Communities at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). He was also the director of the UCSF Medical Effectiveness Research Center for Diverse Populations and the assistant director for health care disparities at the UCSF Comprehensive Cancer Center. He has served as a member of the National Institute on Aging’s advisory council. He earned his B.A. in chemistry from the University of Miami and his M.D. from the University of Miami School of Medicine. He completed his primary care internal medicine residency and research fellowship at UCSF. His honors include UCSF’s Kaiser Award for Excellence in Teaching and the Society of General Internal Medicine’s John M. Eisenberg National Award for Career Achievement in Research. He is a member of the National Academy of Medicine.

Charles Phelps, Ph.D., M.B.A., is a university professor and provost emeritus at the University of Rochester. He previously held appointments in the

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Making Medicines Affordable: A National Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24946.
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departments of economics and political science and served as the director of the Public Policy Analysis Program and chair of the Department of Community and Preventive Medicine in the School of Medicine and Dentistry. Earlier, he served as a senior staff economist and the director of the Program on Regulatory Policies and Institutions at the RAND Corporation. His research cuts across the fields of health economics, health policy, health technology assessment, and related topics, and he is the author of Health Economics (now in its sixth edition), among other books. He has testified before U.S. congressional committees on health policy and intellectual property issues. He is a fellow of the National Bureau of Economic Research and serves on the board of directors of the Health Care Cost Institute. He has served as the chair of the board of directors of VirtualScopics, Inc., and as a consultant to Gilead Sciences, Inc., CardioDx, and Kaiser Permanente of Northern California. He received his B.A. in mathematics from Pomona College, an M.B.A. in hospital administration, and a Ph.D. in business economics from the University of Chicago. He is a member of the National Academy of Medicine.

Michael Rosenblatt, M.D., is the chief medical officer of Flagship Pioneering. Recently, he served as the executive vice president and chief medical officer at Merck & Co., Inc. Previously, he served as dean of Tufts University School of Medicine and held the appointments of George R. Minot Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School, president of Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and director of the Harvard–Massachusetts Institute of Technology Division of Health Sciences and Technology. Earlier, he was the senior vice president for research at Merck Sharp & Dohme Research Laboratories, where he co-led the worldwide development team for alendronate (Fosamax), Merck’s bisphosphonate for osteoporosis and bone disorders. In addition, he directed drug discovery efforts in molecular biology, bone biology, virology, cancer research, lipid metabolism, and cardiovascular research in the United States, Japan, and Italy. He also headed Merck Research’s worldwide University and Industry Relations Department. He is the recipient of the Fuller Albright Award for his work on parathyroid hormone, the Vincent du Vigneaud Award in peptide chemistry and biology, and the Chairman’s Award from Merck. He has served on the board of directors and scientific advisory boards of several biotech companies. He was a scientific founder of ProScript, the company that discovered bortezomib (Velcade), now Takeda Millennium Pharmaceutical’s drug for multiple myeloma and other malignancies. He has served as a founding scientist, scientific advisory board member, or director of more than a dozen biopharmaceutical companies, including ProScript, Millennium, Human Genome Sciences, and Radius Pharmaceuticals. He currently serves on the board of directors of the Flagship company

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Making Medicines Affordable: A National Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24946.
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Rubius Therapeutics. He was a member of the board of scientific counselors of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases of the National Institutes of Health. He has provided congressional testimonies and has served as a consultant to the U.S. President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. He received his undergraduate degree from Columbia University and his M.D. from Harvard University. His internship, residency, and endocrinology training were all at the Massachusetts General Hospital. He was elected to the American Society of Clinical Investigation and the Association of American Physicians and to fellowships in the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the American College of Physicians. He is a former president of the American Society of Bone and Mineral Research.

Diane Rowland, Sc.D., is the executive vice president of the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation and the executive director of the Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured. She is also an adjunct professor in the Department of Health Policy and Management at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. She served as the inaugural chair of the Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance Program Payment and Access Commission. She holds a B.A. from Wellesley College; an M.P.A. from the University of California, Los Angeles; and an Sc.D. in health policy and management from the Johns Hopkins University. Her experience includes service on the staff of the Committee on Energy and Commerce in the U.S. House of Representatives as well as senior health policy positions in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. She is a founding member of the National Academy of Social Insurance. She is a past president and a fellow of the Association for Health Services Research (now AcademyHealth). She is a member of the National Academy of Medicine.

Vinod Sahney, Ph.D., is a distinguished university professor of industrial engineering and operations research at Northeastern University. He is also a senior fellow at the Institute for Health Care Improvement and an adjunct professor of health policy and management at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. He previously served as the senior vice president and chief strategy officer at Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts. Earlier, he served as a senior vice president at Henry Ford Health System for 25 years. He has been a management consultant to more than 30 health care organizations in the areas of strategy, productivity, and quality improvement and has served on the boards of many health systems and professional societies. His awards include the Dean Conley Award from the American College of Health Care Executives; the Best Paper Award and Quality Award from Health Care Information and Management Systems Society of the American Hospital Association; a Distinguished Service

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Making Medicines Affordable: A National Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24946.
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Award from the Institute of Industrial Engineers; the Founders Award from the Society of Health Systems; the Distinguished Service Award from the University of Wisconsin–Madison; the Gold Award from the Engineering Society of Detroit; and the Gilbreth Award for Lifetime Achievement from the Institute for Industrial Engineering. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and the National Academy of Medicine.

Peter Sands, M.P.A., is a research fellow at the Mossavar-Rahmani Center for Business and Government of the Harvard John F. Kennedy School of Government and the Harvard Global Health Institute. Previously, he was the group chief executive of Standard Chartered Bank. He joined the board of Standard Chartered as the group finance director responsible for finance, strategy, risk, and technology and operations. Earlier, he was a director and senior partner at McKinsey & Company. Before joining McKinsey, he worked for the United Kingdom’s Foreign and Commonwealth Office. He is the lead non-executive board member of the Department of Health in the United Kingdom. He has served on various boards and commissions, including as a director of the World Economic Forum and a co-chairman of Davos, the governor of the United Kingdom’s National Institute of Economic and Social Research, a member of the International Advisory Board of the Monetary Authority of Singapore, a member of the Browne Commission on Higher Education Funding in the United Kingdom, a board director of the Institute of International Finance, and the chairman of the International Monetary Conference. He graduated from Oxford University and holds an M.P.A. from the Harvard Kennedy School, where he was a Harkness Fellow. He was the chair of the International Commission on a Global Health Risk Framework for the Future under the auspices of the National Academy of Medicine.

Henri Termeer, M.B.A., was the chairman, president, and chief executive officer of Genzyme Corporation. Under his leadership of nearly three decades, Genzyme grew from a modest entrepreneurial venture to one of the world’s leading biotechnology companies and was later acquired by Sanofi. Prior to Genzyme, he held various management positions at Baxter Travenol (now Baxter International). He was a director of Massachusetts General Hospital and a member of the board of Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the board of fellows of Harvard Medical School. He also served on the board of Partners Health Care, Biotechnology Industry Organization, Project HOPE, Boston Museum of Science, and the following companies: Abiomed Inc., Aveo Pharmaceuticals, Moderna Therapeutics, and ProQR Therapeutics. He served as chair of the board of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston and the New England Healthcare Institute and as a board member of the Biomedical Science Careers Program. He was

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Making Medicines Affordable: A National Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24946.
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inducted into the Academy of Distinguished Entrepreneurs, established by Babson College to recognize the economic and social contributions of business pioneers. He was a recipient of Frost and Sullivan’s Pharmaceuticals and Biotechnology Lifetime Achievement Award and Ernst & Young’s Master Entrepreneur Award. He studied economics at the Economische Hogeschool (Erasmus University, The Netherlands) and earned an M.B.A from the University of Virginia. He was a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and an honorary fellow of the U.K. Royal College of Physicians.

Reed Tuckson, M.D., is the managing director of Tuckson Health Connections, LLC. Previously, he served as the executive vice president and chief of medical affairs for UnitedHealth Group. Earlier, he served as the senior vice president for professional standards of the American Medical Association, senior vice president of the March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation, president of the Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, and commissioner of public health for the District of Columbia. He is the immediate past president of the American Telemedicine Association and serves on the board of directors of LifePoint Health and Cell Therapeutics, Inc., and is chairman of the board of directors of ViTel Net, LLC. At the National Institutes of Health, he currently serves on the Clinical Center Research Hospital Board and the National Advisory Council for Complementary and Integrative Health. Additionally, he serves on the board of the Arnold P. Gold Foundation, the advisory board of the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics, and the board of trustees of Howard University. Previously, he was a member of the advisory committee to the director of the National Institutes of Health and served as chairman of the Secretary of Health and Human Services’ Advisory Committee on Genetics, Health, and Society. He has also served on several cabinet-level health advisory committees of the U.S. government concerned with health reform, infant mortality, children’s health, violence, and radiation testing. He is a graduate of Howard University, the Georgetown University School of Medicine, and the general internal medicine residency and fellowship programs of the hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, where he was also a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Clinical Scholar studying at the Wharton School of Business. He is a fellow of American College of Physicians and a member of the National Academy of Medicine.

Alan Weil, J.D., M.P.P., is the editor-in-chief of Health Affairs and vice president for public policy at Project HOPE. Earlier, he was the executive director of the National Academy for State Health Policy. Previously, he directed the Urban Institute’s Assessing the New Federalism project, one of the largest privately funded social policy research projects ever undertaken

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Making Medicines Affordable: A National Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24946.
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in the United States; held a cabinet position as executive director of the Colorado Department of Health Care Policy and Financing; and was assistant general counsel in the Massachusetts Department of Medical Security. He is a member of the board of trustees of the Consumer Health Foundation and a member of the Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured and the Children’s Health Insurance Program Payment and Access Commission. He earned his bachelor’s degree from the University of California, Berkeley; a master’s degree from the Harvard John F. Kennedy School of Government; and a J.D. from Harvard Law School. He is a co-editor of two books and has served on the Board on Health Care Services of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. He is a member of the National Academy of Medicine.

STAFF

Guru Madhavan, Ph.D., M.B.A. (Project Director), is a senior program officer in the Health and Medicine Division of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, where his portfolio of work has included directing a global health program on microbial threats and leading the research, design, and development of a systems analysis tool for prioritizing vaccines for development. He has served as a technical adviser to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and has been a strategic consultant for technology startup firms and nonprofit organizations. A control systems engineer by background, he received his M.S. and Ph.D. in biomedical engineering and an M.B.A. from the State University of New York. He has worked in the medical device industry as a research scientist developing cardiac surgical catheters for ablation therapy. He has served as a vice president and member of the board of directors of IEEE-USA of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), the world’s largest organization for engineering and technology. His honors include the U.K. Institution of Engineering and Technology’s Mike Sargeant Career Achievement Award, the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation’s AAMI–Becton Dickinson Award for Professional Achievement, the IEEE–USA Professional Achievement Award, and the Washington Academy of Sciences’ Krupsaw Award for engineering sciences and education. He has also received the inaugural Innovator Award and the Cecil Medal from the presidents of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. He has authored or co-edited seven books and been named a distinguished young scientist by the World Economic Forum.

Francis Amankwah, M.P.H., is an associate program officer in the Health and Medicine Division of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Earlier, he provided research support for two forums focused

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Making Medicines Affordable: A National Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24946.
×

on global violence prevention and on public–private partnerships for global health and safety in the National Academies’ Board on Global Health. He also served as a research associate for the National Academies’ Board on Children, Youth, and Families, where he provided research support for two consensus studies focused on peer victimization and bullying and on fostering school success for English and dual-language learners. He earned his M.P.H. and a graduate certificate in global planning and international development from Virginia Tech. He earned his B.S. degree in agricultural science from Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in Ghana.

Sylara Marie Cruz, is a senior program assistant with the Health and Medicine Division at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Within the National Academies, she also supports the National Cancer Policy Forum, which is focused on the engagement of national leaders from multiple sectors working cooperatively to address high-priority policy issues in the nation’s effort to combat cancer. She earned her B.A. in political economy from the University of California, Berkeley.

Daniel Bearss, M.L.S., is a senior research librarian at the George E. Brown Library and Research Center of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. His previous positions include serving as a librarian at Columbia University, Bryn Mawr College, Johns Hopkins University, Covington & Burling, and the U.S. Supreme Court Library. He received his M.L.S. degree from the University of Michigan.

Rebecca Morgan, M.L.I.S., is a senior research librarian at the George E. Brown Library and Research Center of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Most recently, her research has supported National Academies’ publications, including The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids and Accounting for Social Risk Factors in Medicare Payment. She received her master’s degree in library and information science from the Catholic University of America.

Sharyl Nass, Ph.D., serves as director of the Board on Health Care Services and director of the National Cancer Policy Forum at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. To enable the best possible care for all patients, the work of the board entails independent, scholarly analysis of the organization, financing, effectiveness, workforce, and delivery of health care, with emphasis on quality, cost, and accessibility. The National Cancer Policy Forum examines policy issues pertaining to the entire continuum of cancer research and care. For 18 years, she has

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Making Medicines Affordable: A National Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24946.
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worked on a broad range of health and science policy topics that includes the quality and safety of health care and clinical trials, developing technologies for precision medicine, and strategies for large-scale biomedical science. She has a Ph.D. from Georgetown University and undertook postdoctoral training at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, as well as a research fellowship at the Max Planck Institute in Germany. She also holds a B.S. and an M.S. from the University of Wisconsin–Madison. She has been the recipient of the Cecil Medal for Excellence in Health Policy Research, a Distinguished Service Award from the National Academies, and the Institute of Medicine staff team achievement award (as team leader).

FELLOWS AND CONSULTANTS

Jennie Kwon, D.O., M.S.C.I. (National Academy of Medicine Anniversary Fellow in Osteopathic Medicine), is an assistant professor at the Washington University School of Medicine (WUSM) and an associate hospital epidemiologist at the Barnes-Jewish Hospital. She received her medical degree from the Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine, completed her residency and chief residency in internal medicine at The University of Chicago (NorthShore), an infectious diseases fellowship at WUSM, and received her master’s in clinical investigation from Washington University in St. Louis. She specializes in the care of patients with solid organ and stem cell transplant related infections. She performs clinical and translational research in multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) and the fecal microbiome and specializes in MDRO transmission and prevention. Her research has been funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.

Stephen Merrill, Ph.D. (Technical Consultant), is executive director of the Center for Innovation Policy and senior fellow in innovation and entrepreneurship at Duke Law School. Previously, he was the founding director of the Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. During his 22-year tenure at the National Academies, he directed many projects and publications, including A Patent System for the 21st Century, which became a blueprint for the America Invents Act of 2011. For his work on patent reform, he was named one of the 50 most influential people worldwide in the intellectual property field by Managing Intellectual Property magazine and earned the National Academies’ Distinguished Service Award. Previously, he was a fellow in International Business at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, where he specialized in technology trade issues. He served on various congressional staffs, including the U.S. Senate Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee, for which he organized

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Making Medicines Affordable: A National Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24946.
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the first congressional hearings on international competition in the semiconductor and biotechnology industries and contributed to the Stevenson–Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980 and other legislations. He holds degrees in political science from Columbia (B.A.), Oxford (M.Phil.), and Yale (M.A. and Ph.D.) Universities. He attended the Harvard John F. Kennedy School of Government’s senior executives program and has served as an adjunct professor of international affairs at Georgetown University. He has been a member of the Global Agenda Council on the Intellectual Property System of the World Economic Forum.

Robert Pool, Ph.D. (Editorial Consultant), is an editor specializing in science and technology. He has worked as a staff writer for both Science and Nature. Hundreds of his works have appeared in leading periodicals, including Discover, New Scientist, Technology Review, Forbes, and The Washington Post, among others. He received his Ph.D. in mathematics from Rice University and has taught science writing at Johns Hopkins University. He is the author or co-author of four books and has been a consultant editor for numerous reports and proceedings of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

Brendan Saloner, Ph.D. (National Academy of Medicine Greenwall Fellow in Bioethics), is an assistant professor in the Department of Health Policy and Management at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. He also holds appointments in the Department of Mental Health, the Institute for Health and Social Policy, and the Berman Institute of Bioethics at the Bloomberg School of Public Health. His research focuses on health care systems that serve low-income and vulnerable populations; particular topics of interest include access to treatment for mental health and substance use disorders, children’s health disparities, health insurance design, and primary care services. He was a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health and Society Scholar at the University of Pennsylvania. He has previously worked with the Urban Institute and the RAND Corporation. He received a Ph.D. in health policy from Harvard University.

Jonathan Watanabe, Pharm.D., Ph.D. (National Academy of Medicine Anniversary Fellow in Pharmacy), is an associate professor of clinical pharmacy at the University of California, San Diego, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. He is an outcomes researcher and board certified geriatrics clinical pharmacist involved in examining the influence of medication adherence on clinical measures, the role of copayment pricing on adherence, applying nationally representative claims data from large employers and veteran populations, and the influence of socioeconomic strata on copayment impact on adherence. He has conducted studies mea-

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Making Medicines Affordable: A National Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24946.
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suring the effect of inability to obtain medications on emergency department and hospitalization costs. He has also published a review of generic medications and affordable drug use policies to sustain the Medicaid programs in the United States, as well as a global review of definitions and attributes of generic medications by country. He completed his Pharm.D. at the University of Southern California. He received a master’s and a Ph.D. at the University of Washington (UW) as the inaugural UW-Allergan Health Economics and Outcomes Research Fellow. He serves as a clinical pharmacist at the San Diego Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly Clinic of the San Ysidro Health Center and the Villa Pomerado Skilled Nursing Facility of Palomar Health. He is a participant in the National Institutes of Health Loan Repayment Program focusing on prevalence and impact of high-risk medication use in older adults.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Making Medicines Affordable: A National Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24946.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Making Medicines Affordable: A National Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24946.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Making Medicines Affordable: A National Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24946.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Making Medicines Affordable: A National Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24946.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Making Medicines Affordable: A National Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24946.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Making Medicines Affordable: A National Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24946.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Making Medicines Affordable: A National Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24946.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Making Medicines Affordable: A National Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24946.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Making Medicines Affordable: A National Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24946.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Making Medicines Affordable: A National Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24946.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Making Medicines Affordable: A National Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24946.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Making Medicines Affordable: A National Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24946.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Making Medicines Affordable: A National Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24946.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Making Medicines Affordable: A National Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24946.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Making Medicines Affordable: A National Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24946.
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Making Medicines Affordable: A National Imperative Get This Book
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Thanks to remarkable advances in modern health care attributable to science, engineering, and medicine, it is now possible to cure or manage illnesses that were long deemed untreatable. At the same time, however, the United States is facing the vexing challenge of a seemingly uncontrolled rise in the cost of health care. Total medical expenditures are rapidly approaching 20 percent of the gross domestic product and are crowding out other priorities of national importance. The use of increasingly expensive prescription drugs is a significant part of this problem, making the cost of biopharmaceuticals a serious national concern with broad political implications. Especially with the highly visible and very large price increases for prescription drugs that have occurred in recent years, finding a way to make prescription medicines—and health care at large—more affordable for everyone has become a socioeconomic imperative.

Affordability is a complex function of factors, including not just the prices of the drugs themselves, but also the details of an individual’s insurance coverage and the number of medical conditions that an individual or family confronts. Therefore, any solution to the affordability issue will require considering all of these factors together. The current high and increasing costs of prescription drugs—coupled with the broader trends in overall health care costs—is unsustainable to society as a whole.

Making Medicines Affordable examines patient access to affordable and effective therapies, with emphasis on drug pricing, inflation in the cost of drugs, and insurance design. This report explores structural and policy factors influencing drug pricing, drug access programs, the emerging role of comparative effectiveness assessments in payment policies, changing finances of medical practice with regard to drug costs and reimbursement, and measures to prevent drug shortages and foster continued innovation in drug development. It makes recommendations for policy actions that could address drug price trends, improve patient access to affordable and effective treatments, and encourage innovations that address significant needs in health care.

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