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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24974.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24974.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24974.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24974.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24974.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Impr ACKNOWLED This work was (TDC). It was c Research Boa COPYRIGHT I Authors herein persons who o Cooperative R purposes. Per FMCSA, FRA, product, metho uses will give a request permis DISCLAIMER The opinions a are not necess or the program The informatio edited by TRB oving t GMENT sponsored by t onducted throu rd (TRB) of the NFORMATION are responsibl wn the copyrigh esearch Progra mission is give FTA, Office of d, or practice. ppropriate ack sion from CRP nd conclusions arily those of th sponsors. n contained in t . he Res b Volum Alan Rutge he Federal Tran gh the Transit C National Acade e for the authen t to any previo ms (CRP) gran n with the unde the Assistant Se It is expected th nowledgment o . expressed or im e Transportatio his document w TC Web-Only ilience o y Natu e 2: Re Debo Lo Was Jon M. Voorhee rs, The State New B Ja Lo Kans sit Administrat ooperative Re mies of Scienc ticity of their m usly published o ts permission to rstanding that n cretary for Res at those reprod f the source of a plied in this re n Research Bo as taken direct RP Docume f Trans ral Disa search rah Matherly uis Berger hington, DC A. Carnegie s Transport University runswick, N ne Mobley uis Berger as City, MO ion (FTA) in coo search Program es, Engineering aterials and for r copyrighted m reproduce ma one of the mate earch and Tec ucing the mate ny reprinted or port are those o ard; the Nation ly from the subm nt 70: it Syste sters Overv ation Center of New Jerse J peration with t (TCRP), whic , and Medicine obtaining writte aterial used he terial in this pub rial will be used hnology, PHMS rial in this docu reproduced ma f the researche al Academies o ission of the a ms Th iew y Final Rep he Transit Deve h is administere . n permissions f rein. lication for clas to imply TRB, A, or TDC endo ment for educat terial. For oth rs who perform f Sciences, Eng uthor(s). This m reatene ort for TCRP P Submitted lopment Corpo d by the Trans rom publishers sroom and not AASHTO, FAA rsement of a p ional and not-fo er uses of the m ed the researc ineering, and M aterial has not d roject A-41 May 2017 ration portation or -for-profit , FHWA, articular r-profit aterial, h. They edicine; been

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

TCRP PROJECT A-41 PANEL Emmanuel C.B. "Cris" Liban, Los Angeles County (CA) Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Los Angeles, CA (Chair) Madinah Ali, Excelente, Inc., Atlanta, GA Andrew D. Brennan, Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, Boston, MA Dana C. Coyle, MTA Metro North Railroad, New York, NY Erik S. Johanson, Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority, Philadelphia, PA Hilda Lafebre, San Mateo County Transit District, San Carlos, CA Steven Loehr, MTA New York City Transit, New York, NY Vincent D. Pellegrin, Metro Transit - Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minneapolis, MN Susan K. Reinertson, AMTRAK, Washington, DC Linbing Wang, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA Nina Chung, FTA Liaison Adam Schildge, FTA Liaison Richard Weaver, APTA Liaison Monica Starnes, TRB Liaison

Author Acknowledgments Acknowledgments:  The study team appreciates the contributions of time, information, and  materials from APTA, the transit agency case study participants, and the National Aeronautics  Space Administration (NASA).   The principal authors wish to acknowledge the valuable contributions of the case study and  literature review authors and study contributors, presented here in alphabetical order by last  name, and listed as authors in the Final Report, Literature Review and Case Study appendices to  the Final Report:   Jim Amdal, Senior Research Associate, University of New Orleans Transportation Institute, New  Orleans, Louisiana; William Ankner, Principal, Transportation Solutions, Providence, Rhode Island;  Tom Callahan, Consultant, UII, Springfield, Virginia; Julie MacLachlan, Senior Analyst, Louis Berger,  Kansas City, Missouri; Eric Peterson, Private Consultant, Vienna, Virginia; John Renne, Director and  Associate Professor, Center for Urban & Environmental Solutions (CUES), Florida Atlantic  University, Boca Raton, Florida; James Schwab, Principal, Jim Schwab Consulting LLC, Chicago,  Illinois; Marie Venner, President, Venner Consulting, Lakewood, Colorado; Niek Veraart, Vice  President, Louis Berger, New York City, New York; Ryan Whytlaw, Senior Transportation Analyst,  NJ Department of Transportation, Office of Emergency Management, Trenton, New Jersey; Brian  Wolshon, Director, Gulf Coast Research Center for Evacuation and Transportation Resiliency,  Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 

Table of Contents BACKGROUND AND RESEARCH APPROACH ................................................................................. 1  GUIDEBOOK ............................................................................................................................................. 1  FINDINGS AND APPLICATIONS ......................................................................................................... 2  SUMMARY: WHAT WE KNOW FROM THE LITERATURE .......................................................... 2  Literature Review Synthesis: Thematic Overview of Current Practices .......................................................... 3  Resilience Adoption: State of the Practice .................................................................................................... 6  Policy, Planning, and Administration .......................................................................................................... 12  Asset Management and Capital Programming ............................................................................................ 16  Project Development, Infrastructure Design, and Construction ................................................................... 20  Operations and Maintenance ..................................................................................................................... 22  Emergency Preparedness, Response, and Recovery .................................................................................... 24  Literature Review Summary and Discussion ................................................................................................ 27  Works Cited ............................................................................................................................................... 29  SUMMARY: WHAT WE LEARNED FROM THE CASE STUDIES ................................................. 33  Defining “Resilience” .................................................................................................................................. 33  Threats and Hazards ................................................................................................................................... 34  “Pathways” to Resilience ............................................................................................................................ 34  The Importance of Partnerships and Collaboration ..................................................................................... 37  Examples of Effective Practices ................................................................................................................... 39  WORKSHOP AND ADDITIONAL INTERIM OUTREACH ............................................................. 41  INCORPORATING RESILIENCE INTO APTA STANDARDS AND GUIDANCE ......................... 43  Summary Chronology of Study Team Interaction with APTA ....................................................................... 43  Exhibit A: Resilience Lens Suggested Worksheet for APTA Working Groups ................................................. 45  CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTED RESEARCH AND IMPLEMENTATION NEEDS ............... 49  BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................................................... 58 

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TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Web Only Document 70: Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 2: Research Overview summarizes elements of the research effort that offers practices for transit systems of all sizes to absorb the impacts of disaster, recover quickly, and return rapidly to providing the services that customers rely on to meet their travel needs. It also explores additional research needs that have been identified during the course of the study. The report is accompanied by Volume 1: A Guide and Volume 3: Literature Review and Case Studies.

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