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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 182 2017 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviationâ â¢â DataâandâInformationâTechnologyâ â¢â Design Guidance for Planning, Design, and Operations of Airport Communications Centers David Kipp Dominic Nessi Burns EnginEEring Philadelphia, PA
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100â Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 182 Project 10-20A ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-44672-3 Library of Congress Control Number 2017961195 Â© 2017 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 182 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Marci A. Greenberger, Senior Program Officer Brittany Summerlin-Azeez, Program Coordinator Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Hilary Freer, Senior Editor ACRP PROJECT 10-20A PANEL Field of Operations Steve Cahill, Rhode Island Airport Corporation, Warwick, RI (Chair) Peter Aarons, HNTB Corporation, Los Angeles, CA Frank Barich, Barich, Inc., Chandler, AZ Margi Evanson, Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport, Mesa, AZ Augustus L. Hudson, Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, Atlanta, GA David A. Ruch, Stillwater, MN Freddie James, FAA Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison
Various functions occur at an airport communications center. Typical functions include dispatch of police, emergency response, maintenance requests, and monitoring of air- port systems (e.g., CCTV and access control). In some cases, individual departments have âsiloedâ these functions into separate call centers. Myriad factors need to be addressed in considering the best approach to providing necessary services internally and to the public. ACRP Research Report 182: Guidance for Planning, Design, and Operations of Airport Communications Centers provides guidance in considering such factors. At airports, communications centers are known by different names, such as integrated communications centers or airport response coordinated centers. However, their functions are similar in that they allow the elimination of separate âsiloedâ call centers run by individual departments. Integrating the handling of several functions into one communications center can achieve operational efficiencies. With more and more technology requiring monitoring by staff and thus diverting their attention, there is concern about staff maintaining situational awareness. No one solution fits all airports. Various factors need to be considered in determining whether an airport should have one integrated communications center or individual call centers for each department. Burns Engineering, in support of ACRP Project 10-20A, was selected to conduct research of airports and other entities with integrated communications centers and then develop guidance that can be used by all sizes of airports to determine which type of airport com- munications center best meets each airportâs operational needs. This guidance will be useful to airport planners, operations staff, engineers and architects, and IT staff. F O R E W O R D ByâMarciâA.âGreenberger StaffâOfficer TransportationâResearchâBoard
1â Summary 6 Section 1â Introduction 7 1.1 Definition of an ACC 7 1.2 Guidebook Structure 8 1.3 Role of an ACC 9 1.4 User/Function Focus 11 1.5 Current Communications Center Models 13 1.6 Virtual, Single-Function, and Multi-Function Centers 16 1.7 Examples of Current Communications Centers 19 1.8 Examples of Non-Airport ACC Facilities 20 Section 2â ComponentsâofâanâACC 20 2.1 ACC Policies 22 2.2 Call Center Functions 23 2.3 Technology 24 2.4 Human Resources 25 2.5 External Agencies 26 2.6 ACC as a Component in the National Incident Management System (NIMS) 27 2.7 Joint Information Center (JIC) 27 2.8 Eliminating Organizational Silos 28 2.9 Data Management 29 2.10 Implementing an ACC at a Small Airport 31 Section 3â ProjectâPlanning 32 3.1 ACC Project Management Practices 33 3.2 Establishing and Choosing the Project Team 34 3.3 Project Management Plan 35 3.4 Project Scheduling 36 3.5 Project Work Breakdown Schedule 37 3.6 ACC Funding 38 3.7 Project Risk Assessment 40 Section 4â ConceptâofâOperationsâ(CONOPS) 40 4.1 Concept of Operation 41 4.2 Basis for ACC Development 41 4.3 ACC Functionality 41 4.4 ACC Users 45 4.5 Initiating the CONOPS Process 45 4.6 Undertaking the Full CONOPS 47 4.7 CONOPS Structure 51 4.8 Situational Awareness C O N T E N T S
54 Section 5â CommunicationsâCenterâDesignâConcepts 55 5.1 A User-Centric Approach to Human Factors (HF) Design 55 5.2 Human Factors Challenges in Information Absorption 56 5.3 Location and Physical Components of an ACC 59 5.4 Basis of Design (BoD) 60 5.5 Functional Design Objectives 60 5.6 Establishing the Design Process 62 5.7 Facility Space Requirements and Layouts 64 5.8 Ergonomics and Equipment 66 5.9 Human Factors 68 5.10 Current ACC Designs 68 5.11 ACC Examples 72 Section 6â ConstructionâandâActivationâActivities 72 6.1 ACC Design 72 6.2 Construction Oversight 73 6.3 Pre-Opening 73 6.4 Periodic Construction Monitoring 73 6.5 Commissioning and Activation 74 6.6 Training and Orientation 75 6.7 Warranties 76 Section 7â ACCâTechnology 77 7.1 Establishing a Communications Infrastructure 77 7.2 Communications Infrastructure Relationships 79 7.3 Challenges Caused by New Technologies 80 7.4 Technology Design Considerations 81 7.5 ACC System Architecture 82 7.6 ACC Applications 90 7.7 Airport Technology Infrastructure Systems 94 7.8 Workstation Design 96 7.9 Managing ACC Video Output 98 7.10 External Communications 99 7.11 Organizations Operating in the ACC 103 7.12 Situational Awareness Software 104 7.13 System Test, Verification, and Validation 104 7.14 Technology Security 107 7.15 Privacy and Other Legal Considerations 109 Section 8â Operations 109 8.1 Management Oversight 110 8.2 Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) 112 8.3 Human Resource Management 113 8.4 Staff Training 114 8.5 Facility Operations and Management 115 8.6 Facility Security 117 8.7 ACC Backup Site
118 Section 9â Recommendations 118 9.1 Section 1, Introduction 119 9.2 Section 2, Components of an ACC 121 9.3 Section 3, Project Planning 122 9.4 Section 4, Concept of Operations (CONOPS) 123 9.5 Section 5, ACC Design Concept 125 9.6 Section 6, Construction and Activation Activity 126 9.7 Section 7, ACC Technology 128 9.8 Section 8, Operations 131 Appendix Aâ ConceptâofâOperationsâReferenceâGuide 132 Appendix Bâ CONOPSâTemplate 138 Appendix Câ CONOPSâFunctionâTemplate 140 Appendix Dâ SituationalâAwarenessâTemplate 142 Appendix Eâ StandardâOperatingâProcedureâTemplate 144 Appendix Fâ GlossaryâofâTermsâ&âAcronyms 152 Appendix Gâ IndustryâTechnicalâStandards 158 Appendix Hâ SuggestedâReading Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.