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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 185 2018 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation â¢ Environment Airport Air Quality Management 101 Booz Allen Hamilton McLean, VA Environmental Consulting Group Annapolis, MD Vanasse Hangen Brustlin, Inc. Watertown, MA DW Environmental Consulting Tampa, FL
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100â Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 185 Project 02-67 ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-44689-1 Library of Congress Control Number 2018943059 Â© 2018 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 185 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Marci A. Greenberger, Senior Program Officer Brittany Summerlin-Azeez, Program Coordinator Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Ellen M. Chafee, Senior Editor ACRP PROJECT 02-67 PANEL Field of Environment Robert D. Freeman, Los Angeles World Airports, Los Angeles, CA (Chair) L. Allison Barrett, GHD, Toronto, ON Danielle Buehler, Philadelphia International Airport, Philadelphia, PA Elizabeth M. Hendrick, Tetra Tech, Inc., Westford, MA Mindy J. Price, Direct Effect Solutions, Inc., Pickerington, OH Kristoffer Russell, Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, Prosper, TX Nicole Didyk, FAA Liaison Sabrina Johnson, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Transportation & Air Quality Liaison Melinda Z. Pagliarello, Airports Council InternationalâNorth America Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison
ACRP Research Report 185: Airport Air Quality Management 101 introduces airport employ- ees who are not environmental specialists to airport air quality issues. Airport air quality management is highly complex and technical, with many different stakeholders, including the local community and local, state, and federal regulators. Larger airports have dedicated environmental experts; however, at most airports, environmental management is carried out by employees who are engaged in other aspects of airport operations or provide oversight of external environmental consultants providing the work. ACRP Research Report 185 is a resource for those airport employees with air quality manage- ment responsibilities who are not air quality specialists. The guidebook provides information on air quality management processes, available tools, definitions, and mitigation strategies. It is complemented by the Airport Air Quality Resource Library (ACRP WebResource 4), a web- site that compiles the vast array of published research studies, resources, tools, standards, and advisory circulars pertaining to airport air qualityâas well as four short videos demonstrating how to use some air quality toolsâinto one searchable and easy-to-access resource. The many materials and resources available on airport air quality issues, produced by various entities, can be overwhelming to the airport employee who has been assigned to manage environmental issues. For these airport employees, ACRP Research Report 185 and the Airport Air Quality Resource Library, both developed under ACRP Project 02-67 by Booz Allen Hamilton, will be welcome resources. F O R E W O R D By Marci A. Greenberger Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
1 Summary 2 Section 1 Introduction 4 Section 2 Overview of Air Quality Management Functions 4 2.1 Highlights of Air Quality Laws Pertinent to Airports 5 2.2 Planning 5 2.3 Tracking 5 2.4 Analysis 6 2.5 Permitting and Compliance 6 2.6 Reporting 8 Section 3 Airport Emissions and Sources 9 3.1 Mobile Sources 10 3.2 Stationary Sources 10 3.3 Construction 12 Section 4 Air Quality Analysis 12 4.1 Emissions Inventory 13 4.2 Dispersion Modeling 16 Section 5 Tools for Airport Air Quality Analysis 19 Section 6 Air Environmental Regulations Applicable to Airports 19 6.1 The CAA 20 6.2 NEPA 21 6.3 Criteria Pollutants from Airport Operations 21 6.4 HAPs 22 6.5 GHG Emissions 22 6.6 International Regulation of Aviation Emissions 24 Section 7 Mitigation Strategies 24 7.1 Emission Mitigation 24 7.2 Funding Sources 28 Section 8 Decision Support for Air Quality Management 32 Section 9 Stakeholder Engagement Strategies 33 9.1 Opportunities for Stakeholder Engagement 35 9.2 Airport Air Quality Stakeholder Engagement Forums C O N T E N T S
39 Section 10 Emerging Issues in Airport Air Quality 39 10.1 GHG Emissions 40 10.2 Climate Adaptation and Resiliency 40 10.3 PM 41 10.4 HAPs 42 10.5 Pb 42 10.6 Sustainability 44 Section 11 Frequently Asked Questions 46 Glossary 51 Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Initialisms 53 Appendix Airport Air Quality Resource Library User Guide Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.