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Clean Vehicles, Fuels, and Practices for Airport Private Ground Transportation Providers A Synthesis of Airport Practice Alexander Kolpakov Austin Marie Sipiora Jana E. Huss Center for Urban transportation researCh University of soUth florida Tampa, FL 2018 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP SYNTHESIS 89
ACRP SYNTHESIS 89 Project 11-03, Topic S02-19 ISSN 1935-9187 ISBN 978-0-309-39044-6 Library of Congress Control Number 2018947138 Â© 2018 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. 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They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100â Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners.
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C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP SYNTHESIS 89 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Gail R. Staba, Senior Program Officer Demisha Williams, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications ACRP PROJECT 11-03 PANEL Joshua D. Abramson, Easterwood Airport Management, College Station, TX (Chair) Debbie K. Alke, Montana DOT, Helena, MT (retired) Gloria G. Bender, TransSolutions, LLC, Fort Worth, TX David A. Byers, Quadrex Aviation, LLC, Melbourne, FL David N. Edwards, Jr., GreenvilleâSpartanburg Airport District, Greer, SC Brenda L. Enos, Burns & McDonnell, Kansas City, MO Linda Howard, Independent Aviation Consultant, Bastrop, TX Patrick W. Magnotta, FAA Liaison Matthew J. Griffin, Airports Consultants Council Liaison Liying Gu, Airports Council InternationalâNorth America Liaison Adam Williams, Aircraft Owners & Pilots Association Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison TOPIC S02-19 PANEL Scott De Wees, Port of Seattle Sea-Tac Airport, Seattle, WA Dorothy Harris, Denver International AirportâRevenue Management, Denver, CO Tamara McCrossen-Orr, Los Angeles World Airports, Los Angeles, CA Patrick W. Magnotta, FAA Liaison Harold Morgan, Taxicab, Limousine & Paratransit Association Liaison Ray A. Mundy, University of MissouriâSt. Louis Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison
FOREWORD Airport administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which information already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and practice. This infor- mation may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the airport industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the entire airport community, the Airport Cooperative Research Program authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing project. This project, ACRP Project 11-03, âSynthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices,â searches out and synthesizes useful knowl- edge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an ACRP report series, Synthesis of Airport Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. PREFACE By Gail R. Staba Staff Officer Transportation Research Board The current study summarizes the experiences of public-use airports with developing and imple- menting clean vehicle policies involving private ground transportation operators serving the air- ports. The main objective of this synthesis is to identify effective approaches and review best practices employed by the airports to encourage different types of private ground transportation providers to run more environmentally friendly operations. This synthesis is a companion to ACRP Synthesis 85: Alternative Fuels in Airport Fleets. Eleven commercial service airports and 13 private ground transportation operators were interviewed regarding their experiences with airport clean vehicle programs and other sustainability practices. The study targeted seven types of airport ground transportation fleets, including taxicabs, limousines, shared van rides, hotel/parking shuttles, rental car shuttles, scheduled airport service, and transportation network companies, to provide data diversity and examine the differences between how clean vehicle policies applied to different types of service providers. Appendices A through G can be found at www.TRB.org by searching for âACRP Synthesis 89.â Alexander Kolpakov, Austin Marie Sipiora, and Jana E. Huss, Center for Urban Transportation Research, University of South Florida, synthesized the information and wrote the report. The mem- bers of the topic panel are acknowledged on page iv. This synthesis is an immediately useful docu- ment that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand.
A C R O n y M S A n d A b b R E V I A T I O n S AF Alternative fuel AFDC Alternative Fuels Data Center AGTA Airport Ground Transportation Association AFLEET Alternative Fuel Life-Cycle Environmental and Economic Transportation AFV Alternative fuel vehicle AIP Airport Improvement Program ANL Argonne National Laboratory BD Biodiesel CAFE Corporate average fuel economy CARB California Air Resources Board CMAQ Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement program CNG Compressed natural gas DERA Diesel Emissions Reduction Act EIA U.S. Energy Information Agency EPA Environmental Protection Agency EPAct Energy Policy Act EV Electric vehicle EVSE Electric vehicle supply equipment GHG Greenhouse gas GGE Greenhouse gas emissions GREET Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation GT Ground transportation GVWR Gross vehicle weight rating H Hydrogen HEV Hybrid-electric vehicle LEED Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design LNG Liquefied natural gas LPG Liquefied propane gas MOVES Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator mpg Miles per gallon NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards NOx Nitrogen oxide NREL National Renewable Energy Laboratory PHEV Plug-in hybrid-electric vehicle PM Particulate matter PM2.5 Fine particulate matter RD Renewable diesel RNG Renewable natural gas ROI Return on investment TLPA Taxicab, Limousine & Paratransit Association TNC Transportation network company VALE Voluntary Airport Low Emission Program VMT Vehicle miles traveled VW Volkswagen ZEV Zero-emission vehicle
Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions. 1 Summary 3 Chapter 1 Introduction 3 Background 12 Previous Studies 13 Report Organization 14 Chapter 2 Study Approach 14 Survey Development 14 Airport and Fleet Selection 15 Data Collection 15 Data Analysis and Presentation 16 Chapter 3 Results 16 Airports and Clean Vehicle Programs 34 Ground Transportation Providersâ Perspective 46 Summary of Practices and Lessons Learned 49 Considerations and Outstanding Issues 51 Chapter 4 Conclusions and Future Research 53 References 55 Appendices C O n T E n T S