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51 This report summarizes the results of the analysis performed based on the interview of 11 commercial service airports and 13 private GT providers regarding their AFV policies and other sustainability practices. The study identified the most common types of clean vehicle policies and summarized the details of applying these policies. However, because of the low sample size, the observed results cannot be safely extrapolated to all, or even the majority, of the airports in the country. Although most surveyed airports reported being satisfied with their clean vehicle policies, the real sustainability impact of the implemented programs is yet to be assessed. Few airports are able to objectively track the environmental impacts of a specific airport sustainability program. The West Coast of the United States appears to be more proactive in sustainability initiatives than are other regions of the country. General observations from the surveyed airports and fleets suggest more established airport clean vehicle policies; higher availability of different types of AFs; and higher availability of government grants, rebates, and incentives supporting AFVs and other clean vehicle technologies are available in the West Coast region. This phenomenon can be attributed partially to an environmentally conscious mindset of West Coast residents and partially to state government regulations, including strict vehicle emission standards (often exceeding national standards) and various incentives encouraging the production of AFs, use of AFVs and low-emission vehicles, and other sustainability practices. The survey of airports and private GT providers identified a few different approaches taken by the airports to implement clean vehicle requirements, including explicit requirements for GT operators to use AFVs, an incentive-based approach (providing incentives for operators that use AFVs), a penalty-based approach (applying higher airport fees to operators that do not use AFVs), and others. However, the relative effectiveness of each identified approach is not clear. Further investigation may be required to examine and compare the effectiveness of each policy approach for achieving airport sustainability goals. The new types of GT operatorsâtransportation network companiesâhave dramatically changed the landscape of the GT market at airports. TNCs have aggressively gained market share previously covered by taxicabs, airport shuttles, and other providers. It is currently not clear how traditional operators will adapt to the new market realities. For some time, TNCs operated at airports without having formal agreements, but more air- ports are establishing formal contractual relationships with TNCs and treating them as valid GT providers. Airportsâ experience in dealing with TNCs is limited, and few definitive conclusions can be reached at this point. More in-depth research examining the most-effective format of cooperation between airports and TNCs to achieve airport sustainability goals may be useful and necessary. C H A P T E R 4 Conclusions and Future Research
52 Clean Vehicles, Fuels, and Practices for Airport Private Ground Transportation Providers Collecting valid data on TNC operations at airports is important for understanding the impacts of TNCs on air quality, congestion, and airport sustainability goals. Further research in this area is warranted. Additionally, airports can benefit from the comprehensive overview of effective strategies and best practices in uniformly applying environmental requirements to operators with different business models. The success of the proposed research will depend heavily on the ability to collect detailed data on TNC operations at the airports. Such data are instrumental in ensur- ing that airports design policies that treat all GT modes similarly when applying environmental requirements. Rematch technologies, which allow matching a vehicle dropping off passengers at the airport with outgoing passengers, have been used by some GT operators (particularly TNCs) to reduce deadheading. As these strategies become more widespread, it may be beneficial to research and evaluate the environmental effects of common deadhead reduction strategies used by airport GT fleets. Rapidly developing autonomous and connected vehicle technologies are expected to dramatically change the transportation industry, altering travel behavior and land use. These changes may result in new approaches and business models for providing GT, includ- ing GT service at the airport. Both airports and GT operators can benefit from a guidebook outlining the tools and data needed to understand the potential effects of new and emerging GT business models on airport operations. Further research is warranted in this area.