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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
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B-1 Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2 Spreadsheet Tool 2 is a spreadsheet-based benefit-cost analysis tool that can be used to assess the cost-effectiveness of specific improvement alternatives for implementation in conjunction with a 3R project. The tool helps highway agencies in making the decision as to whether the 3R project should consist of pavement resurfacing only or should also include geometric design improvements. Tool 2 has the capability to assess multiple improvement alternatives as a part of a single analysis and identify the most cost effective alternative (or combination of alternatives). By contrast, Tool 1 considers only one alternative (or combination of alternatives) at a time. Tool 2 can be applied as part of the planning process for 3R projects. If a specific project site has no observed crash patterns or no traffic operational needs that would justify a design improvement, then geometric design improvements are recommended for implementation as part of a 3R project only if it is anticipated that such improvements would be cost-effective. Tool 2 provides a capability to assess all feasible improvement alternatives (or combinations of alternatives) for a given set of improvement types (see below). Like Tool 1, Tool 2 addresses candidate 3R projects on rural two-lane highways, rural four-lane undivided and divided highways (nonfreeways), and rural and urban freeways. The tool does not address 3R projects on urban and suburban arterials (nonfreeways). An example of the application of Tool 2 is presented Section 5.7.4 of this guide. The input data for Tool 2 include a description of the existing roadway conditions and selection of the improvement(s) to be assessed. The roadway characteristics input data for Tool 2 are essentially identical to the roadway characteristics input data for Tool 1. The tool considers a single set of AADT, terrain, and cross-section geometrics for the roadway between intersections within the candidate project being assessed. Variations in cross-section geometrics at intersections or on intersection approaches do not need to be considered in using the tool. Where there are minor variations in AADT on the project or in cross-section geometrics on the roadway between intersections within the project, use the average AADT and the most common cross- section geometrics as input to the tool. Thus, the tool can be applied even where the cross section throughout the project is not entirely homogeneous. Where there are major changes in cross- section geometrics on the roadway between intersections (e.g., half the project has 6-ft paved shoulders and half has 2-ft unpaved shoulders), the project can be broken into separate sections and each section analyzed separately. Breaking the project into separate sections for analysis is only appropriate where the differences in cross-section geometrics are substantial. Tool 2 includes logic to estimate the implementation cost of the improvement alternatives evaluated; the cost estimation logic in Tool 2 is essentially equivalent to the cost estimation logic in Tool 1. The project costs are estimated from default values of unit construction costs that are built into the tool. An option is available to change these default unit costs to match a particular agency’s experience or to replace the project cost estimated by the tool with the agency’s own site-specific estimate. An option is available for any given analysis as to whether the cost of right-of-way acquisition is included in the project implementation cost estimate. Right-of-way costs can also be based on default values built into the tool, user-specific unit costs for right-of- way, or site-specific cost estimates made by the agency.

B-2 The safety performance of the roadway being analyzed and the safety benefits of improvement alternatives estimated in Tool 2 are based on the crash prediction procedures presented in Part C of the AASHTO Highway Safety Manual (HSM) including HSM Chapters 10, 11, and 18 (2,3). The tool analyzes roadway segment (i.e., nonintersection) crashes only. The HSM crash prediction procedures are applied first to predict the crash frequencies by severity level for the existing roadway based on safety performance functions (SPFs), crash modification factors (CMFs), and local calibration factors (if available). The crash reduction effectiveness of improvements is based on the CMFs presented in Section 4.4 of this guide. The local calibration factor is set equal to 1.0 by default, but may be replaced with an agency-specific value. An option is available to provide site-specific crash history data and apply the Empirical Bayes (EB) method for converted predicted crash frequencies to expected crash frequencies, using the procedures presented in the Appendix to HSM Part C (2). Crash costs by severity level are set by default to values built into the tool, but may be replaced with agency-specific values. An option is available in Tool 2 to select which improvement alternatives (or combinations of alternatives) will be considered in the benefit-cost analysis. The improvement alternatives that may be considered include:  Lane widening  Shoulder widening (outside shoulder only on two-lane and four-lane nonfreeways; both outside and inside shoulders on freeways)  Shoulder paving (nonfreeways only)  Roadside slope flattening (two-lane and four-lane nonfreeways only)  Centerline rumble strips (undivided highways only)  Shoulder rumble strips (outside shoulder only on undivided roads; both outside and inside shoulders on divided nonfreeways and freeways)  Enhanced striping/delineation (nonfreeways only)  Add median barrier (freeways only)  Improve/restore superelevation (nonfreeways only) The results provided by Tool 2 for the analysis of any improvement alternative (or combination of alternatives include:  Project implementation cost ($)  Present value of safety benefit ($)  Benefit-cost ratio (benefit divided by cost)  Net benefit (benefit minus cost) ($) The most cost-effective improvement alternative (or combination of alternatives) identified by Tool 2 is the alternative (or combination of alternatives) with the highest net benefit whose implementation cost is within the highway agency’s available budget.

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Each roa  A an  E sh  M w  P T  A Click the defaults a Click the any chan B.1.1.2 Click the window. d element is verage Em d mountain xisting Bas oulder. illing Dept ill be milled avement De his data elem verage Deli OK button nd return to Close butto ges to the ru Cost Elem View/Edit C The window Figu defined by bankment H ous terrains e Depth: De h: Depth in . This data e pth: Depth ent applies neator Spa to save any the Rural T n to return t ral two-lane ents ost Elemen shown in F re B-5. Rur the followin eight: Ave . pth in inche inches to w lement app of flexible p only to flex cing: Spacin changes ma wo-lane Hig o the Rural highway ro t Defaults b igure B-5 w al Two-lane B-6 g: rage emban s of base m hich flexible lies only to f avement in ible paveme g between r de to the rur hway Setup Two-lane H ad element utton in the ill appear. Highway kment heigh aterial under pavement o lexible pave inches for t nt. oadside del al two-lane window. ighway Setu defaults. Rural Two- Cost Eleme t in feet for neath the tr f traveled-w ment. raveled way ineators on highway roa p window w lane Highw nts Window level, rollin aveled-way ay and sho and should average in f d element ithout savin ay Setup g, and ulder er. eet. g

B-7 Each cost data element is defined by the following:  Base: Cost of base material per cubic yard.  Milling: Cost of pavement milling per square yard.  Flexible Pavement: Material and installation cost for flexible pavement per cubic yard.  Rigid Pavement: Material and installation cost for rigid pavement per square yard.  Unpaved Shoulder: Material and installation cost for unpaved shoulder per square yard.  Embankment: Cost of embankment material per cubic yard.  Right-of-way: Cost of acquiring right-of-way per acre.  Centerline Rumble Strip: Cost per linear foot of installing a centerline rumble strip.  Shoulder Rumble Strip: Cost per linear foot of installing a shoulder rumble strip.  Durable Pavement Marking: Material and installation cost per linear foot for durable pavement markings.  Delineator: Material and installation cost for one roadside delineator.  Incidentals: Each incidental cost is calculated as a percentage of the total project cost not including the right-of-way cost. - Signing and PM: Signing and pavement markings.  MARR/discount rate: Minimum attractive rate of return (MARR) for analysis of 3R project investments. Federal guidelines suggest an MARR value at 7 percent. The MARR is also referred to as discount rate.  Service Life (yr): Expected lifetime of roadway improvement. - Slope Flattening: Service life of slope flattening, including flattening the roadside foreslope only. - Lane Widening: Service life for widening of the traveled-way. - Shoulder Widening: Service life for widening of the shoulder adjacent to the traveled- way.  NOTE: Slope Flattening, Lane Widening, and Shoulder Widening should always be assigned identical service lives. - Rumble Strip Installation: Service life of centerline and shoulder rumble strips. - Striping/Delineation: Service life of roadway striping and roadside delineators. - Superelevation Restoration: Service life of restoring or changing horizontal curve superelevation.

 C le - - - - - Click the defaults a Click the any chan B.1.1.3 Click the window. rash Cost b vels are def Fatal: Co Disabling Evident In Possible I Property D OK button nd return to Close butto ges to the ru Safety Ele View/Edit The window Figure y Severity: ined in a ma st of a fatal Injury: Cos jury: Cost o njury: Cost amage On to save any the Rural T n to return t ral two-lane ments Safety Elem shown in F B-6. Rura Societal cra nner consist crash. t of a disabl f an eviden of a possibl ly: Cost of a changes ma wo-Lane H o the Rural highway co ent Defaults igure B-6 w l Two-Lane B-8 sh costs by ent with the ing injury cr t injury cras e injury cras property da de to the rur ighway Setu Two-Lane H st data elem button in th ill appear. Highway S crash severi HSM. ash. h. h. mage only al two-lane p window. ighway Set ent defaults e Rural Tw afety Elem ty level. Cra crash. highway co up window . o-Lane High ents Windo sh severity st data elem without sav way Setup w ent ing

Each safe  C th 1  C sh Y th d p  C se th p d si There is n Tool 2. Click the defaults a ty data elem alibration F e safety pre .0 is built int rash Type own. Defau ou may also e sum of all isplayed. To ercentages ( rash Severi verity level e tool. You ercent. If the isplayed. Wh milarly to th o capability OK button nd return to ent is defin actor: This diction proc o the tool. Proportions lt values of enter agenc percentage assist the u see Figure B ty Proporti . Default va may also en sum of all ile no figur e crash type Figure B for changin to save any the Rural T ed by the fo is a factor edure to app : These are these percen y-specific v s is not equa ser, a sum is -7). ons: These lues of these ter agency-s percentages e is shown, proportion -7. Entering g the coeffi changes ma wo-Lane H B-9 llowing: to adjust cra roximate yo the percenta tages from alues. All p l to 100 per shown at th are the perc percentage pecific valu is not equal the entry of s illustrated user-supp cients of the de to the rur ighway Setu sh frequenc ur local con ge of all cra HSM Chapt ercentages m cent, then an e bottom of entage of all s from HSM es. All perc to 100 perc crash severi in Figure B lied propor rural two-l al two-lane p window. y estimates p ditions. A d shes for eac er 10 are bu ust add to error mess the window crashes for Chapter 10 entages mus ent an error ty proportio -7. tions ane highway highway saf roduced fro efault value h crash type ilt into the t 100 percent. age will be as you type each crash are built in t add to 100 message wi ns functions SPFs in ety data elem m of ool. If in to ll be ent

Click the any chan B.1.2 R All of the direction In the Se the View The three defaults; exit the w B.1.2.1 Click the window. Close butto ges to the ru ural Multil rural multi of travel. tup workshe /Edit Rural F buttons on these three b indow and Road Elem View/Edit R The window n to return t ral two-lane ane Highw lane highwa et, there is a Multilane D igure B-8. the left allow uttons are d return to the ents oad Eleme shown in F o the Rural highway sa ay Defaul ys considere panel of bu efaults butto Rural Mult you to vie iscussed in Setup work nt Defaults b igure B-9 w B-10 Two-Lane H fety data ele ts d in Tool 2 ttons at the n. The wind ilane Highw w and edit r detail in the sheet. utton in the ill appear. ighway Set ment defau have four la top of the sc ow shown i ay Setup W oad, cost, an following s Rural Mult up window lts. nes, two-lan reen (see Fi n Figure B- indow d safety da ubsections. ilane Highw without sav es in each gure B-1). C 8 will appea ta element Click Close ay Setup ing lick r. to

Each roa  A an  E sh  M w  P T  A Figure B-9 d element is verage Em d mountain xisting Bas oulder. illing Dept ill be milled avement De his data elem verage Deli . Rural Mu defined by bankment H ous terrains e Depth: De h: Depth in . This data e pth: Depth ent applies neator Spa ltilane Hig the followin eight: Ave . pth in inche inches to w lement app in inches of only to flex cing: Avera B-11 hway Road g: rage emban s of base m hich flexible lies only to f flexible pav ible paveme ge spacing i way Data E kment heigh aterial under pavement o lexible pave ement for t nt. n feet betwe lements W t in feet for neath the tr f traveled w ment. raveled way en roadside indow level, rollin aveled way ay and shou and should delineators g, and lder er. .

Click the defaults a Click the any chan B.1.2.2 Click the window. Each cos  B  M  F cu  R y  U sq  E OK button nd return to Close butto ges to the ru Cost Elem View/Edit C The window Figur t data eleme ase Unit Co illing Unit lexible Pave bic yard. igid Pavem ard. npaved Sho uare yard. mbankmen to save any the Rural M n to return t ral multilan ents ost Elemen shown in F e B-10. Rur nt is defined st: Cost of Cost: Cost ment Unit ent Unit Co ulder Unit t Unit Cost changes ma ultilane Hi o the Rural e highway r t Defaults b igure B-10 al Multilan by the follo base materia of pavement Cost: Mater st: Materia Cost: Mate : Cost of em B-12 de to the rur ghway Setup Multilane H oad element utton in the will appear. e Highway wing: l per cubic y milling per ial and insta l and installa rial and inst bankment m al multilane window. ighway Setu defaults. Rural Multi Cost Elem ard. square yard llation cost tion cost of allation cost aterial per highway ro p window w lane Highw ents Windo . of flexible p rigid pavem of unpaved cubic yard. ad element ithout savin ay Setup w avement pe ent per squ shoulder pe g r are r

B-13  Right-of-way Unit Cost: Cost of acquiring right-of-way per acre.  Centerline Rumble Strip Unit Cost: Cost of installing a centerline rumble strip per linear foot. This value only applies to undivided rural multilane highways.  Shoulder Rumble Strip Unit Cost: Cost per linear foot for installing a shoulder rumble strip.  Durable Pavement Marking Unit Cost: Material and installation cost per linear foot for durable pavement markings.  Delineator Cost: Material and installation cost for one roadside delineator.  Incidentals: Each incidental cost is calculated as a percentage of the project total cost, not including the right-of-way cost. - Signing and PM: Signing and pavement markings.  MARR/discount rate: Minimum attractive rate of return (MARR) for analysis of 3R project investments. Federal guidelines suggest an MARR value at 7 percent. The MARR is also referred to as discount rate.  Service Life: Expected lifetime of roadway improvement. - Slope Flattening: Service life of slope flattening, including flattening the roadside foreslope only. - Lane Widening: Service life for widening of the traveled-way. - Shoulder Widening: Service life for widening of the shoulder adjacent to the traveled- way.  NOTE: Slope Flattening, Lane Widening, and Shoulder Widening should always be assigned identical service lives. - Rumble Strip Installation: Service life of centerline and shoulder rumble strips. - Striping/Delineation: Service life of roadway striping and roadside delineators. - Superelevation Restoration: Service life of restoring or changing horizontal curve superelevation.  Crash Cost by Severity: Societal crash costs by crash severity level. Crash severity levels are defined in a manner consistent with the HSM. - Fatal: Cost of a fatal crash. - Disabling Injury: Cost of a disabling injury crash. - Evident Injury: Cost of an evident injury crash. - Possible Injury: Cost of a possible injury crash. - Property Damage Only: Cost of a property damage only crash. Click the OK button to save any changes made to the rural multilane highway cost data element defaults and return to the Rural Multilane Highway Setup window. Click the Close button to return to the Rural Multilane Highway Setup window without saving any changes to the rural multilane highway cost data element defaults.

B.1.2.3 Click the window. The safet highways undivide Safety Ele View/Edit The window Figure y data elem as shown i d and divide Figure B ments Safety Elem shown in F B-11. Rura ent defaults n Figure B-1 d multilane -12. Undivid ent Defaults igure B-11 l Multilane need to be s 2. Use the t safety data e ed and div B-14 button in th will appear. Highway S elected for b abs at the to lement defa ided tabs fo e Rural Mu afety Elem oth undivid p of the win ults. r rural mu ltilane High ents Wind ed and divid dow to swit ltilane high way Setup ow ed multilan ch between ways e

Each safe  C th 1  C sh Y th d p  C se th p d si Fi There is n Click the element d ty data elem alibration F e safety pre .0 is built int rash Type own. Defau ou may also e sum of all isplayed. To ercentages ( rash Severi verity level e tool. You ercent. If the isplayed. Wh milarly to th gure B-13. o capability OK button efaults and ent is defin actor: This diction proc o the tool. Proportions lt values of enter agenc percentage assist the u see Figure B ty Proporti . Default va may also en sum of all ile no figur e crash type Entering u for changin to save any return to the ed by the fo is a factor edure to app : These are these percen y-specific v s is not equa ser, a sum is -13). ons: These lues of these ter agency-s percentages e is shown, proportion ser-supplied g the coeffi changes ma Rural Mult B-15 llowing: to adjust cra roximate yo the percenta tages from alues. All p l to 100 per shown at th are the perc percentage pecific valu is not equal the entry of s illustrated proportio cients of rur de to the rur ilane Highw sh frequenc ur local con ge of all cra HSM Chapt ercentages m cent, then an e bottom of entage of all s from HSM es. All perc to 100 perc crash severi in Figure B ns for rural al multilane al multilane ay Setup w y estimates p ditions. A d shes for eac er 11 are bu ust add to error mess the window crashes for Chapter 11 entages mus ent an error ty proportio -13. multilane highway S highway sa indow. roduced fro efault value h crash type ilt into the t 100 percent. age will be as you type each crash are built in t add to 100 message wi ns functions highways PFs in Tool fety data m of ool. If in to ll be 2.

Click the any chan B.1.3 F In the Se the View The three defaults; exit the w B.1.3.1 Click the shown in Close butto ges to the ru reeway De tup workshe /Edit Freew buttons on these three b indow and Road Elem View/Edit R Figure B-1 n to return t ral multilan faults et, there is a ay Defaults Figu the left allow uttons are d return to the ents oad Eleme 5 will appea o the Rural e highway s panel of bu button. The re B-14. Fr you to vie iscussed in Setup work nt Defaults b r. B-16 Multilane H afety data el ttons at the window sho eeway Setu w and edit r detail in the sheet. utton in the ighway Setu ement defau top of the sc wn in Figur p Window oad, cost, an following s Freeway S p window w lts. reen (see Fi e B-14 will d safety da ubsections. etup window ithout savin gure B-1). C appear. ta element Click Close . The wind g lick to ow

Each roa  A an  E sh  M w  P T Click the the Freew Click the freeway r d element is verage Em d mountain xisting Bas oulder. illing Dept ill be milled avement De his data elem OK button ay Setup w Close butto oad elemen Figure B defined by bankment H ous terrains e Depth: De h: Depth in . This data e pth: Depth ent applies to save any indow. n to return t t defaults. -15. Freew the followin eight: Ave . pth of base inches to w lement app in inches of only to flex changes ma o the Freew B-17 ay Road El g: rage emban material in i hich flexible lies only to f flexible pav ible paveme de to the fre ay Setup wi ements win kment heigh nches under pavement o lexible pave ement for t nt. eway road e ndow witho dow t in feet for neath the tr f traveled w ment. raveled-way lement defa ut saving an level, rollin aveled way ay and shou and should ults and retu y changes to g, and lder er. rn to the

B.1.3.2 Click the shown in Each cos  B  M  F cu  R y  E  R  S st  G  C  C  G Cost Elem View/Edit C Figure B-1 t data eleme ase Unit Co illing Unit lexible Pave bic yard. igid Pavem ard. mbankmen ight-of-way houlder Ru rip. uardrail U able Barrie oncrete Ba uardrail R ents ost Elemen 6 will appea Figure B nt is defined st: Cost of Cost: Cost ment Unit ent Unit Co t Unit Cost Unit Cost: mble Strip nit Cost: Co r Unit Cost rrier Unit C emoval Uni t Defaults b r. -16. Freew by the follo base materia of pavement Cost: Mater st: Materia : Cost of em Cost of acq Unit Cost: st per linear : Cost per li ost: Cost p t Cost: Cos B-18 utton in the ay Cost Ele wing: l per cubic y milling per ial and insta l and installa bankment m uiring right Cost per line foot for ins near foot fo er linear foo t per linear f Freeway Se ments win ard. square yard llation cost tion cost of aterial per -of-way per ar foot for i talling a W- r installing a t for installi oot for remo tup window dow . of flexible p rigid pavem cubic yard. acre for eac nstalling a s shaped guar cable barri ng a concret ving a guar . The windo avement pe ent per squ h freeway ty houlder rum drail. er. e barrier. drail. w r are pe. ble

B-19  Cable Barrier Removal Unit Cost: Cost per linear foot for removing a cable barrier.  Concrete Barrier Removal Unit Cost: Cost per linear foot for removing a concrete barrier.  MARR/discount rate: Minimum attractive rate of return (MARR) for analysis of 3R project investments. Federal guidelines suggest an MARR value at 7 percent. The MARR is also referred to as discount rate.  Service Life: Expected lifetime of roadway improvement. - Slope Flattening: Service life of slope flattening, including flattening the roadside foreslope only. - Lane Widening: Service life for widening of the traveled-way. - Shoulder Widening: Service life for widening of the shoulder adjacent to the traveled- way.  NOTE: Slope Flattening, Lane Widening, and Shoulder Widening should always be assigned identical service lives. - Rumble Strip Installation: Service life of shoulder rumble strips. - Guardrail Installation: Service life of guardrails. - Cable Barrier Installation: Service life of cable barriers. - Concrete Barrier Installation: Service life of concrete barriers.  Crash Cost by Severity: Societal crash costs by crash severity level. Crash severity levels are defined in a manner consistent with the HSM. - Fatal: Cost of a fatal crash. - Disabling Injury: Cost of a disabling injury crash. - Evident Injury: Cost of an evident injury crash. - Possible Injury: Cost of a possible injury crash. - Property Damage Only: Cost of a property damage only crash. To set defaults for incidentals and right-of-way costs for freeways, click the Incidentals and Right-of-way Costs button in the Freeway Cost Elements window. The window shown in Figure B-17 will appear.

Freeway top of the  In in -  R Click the return to Click the freeway c B.1.3.3 Click the shown in incidentals window to cidentals: cluding the Signing a ight-of-Wa OK button the Freeway Close butto ost data ele Safety Ele View/Edit Figure B-1 Figure and right-of- toggle betw Each inciden right-of-way nd PM: Sign y Unit Cost to save any Setup wind n to return t ment defaul ments Safety Elem 8 will appea B-17. Free way costs a een differen tal is calcul cost for ea ing and pav : Cost of ac changes ma ow. o the Freew ts. ent Defaults r. B-20 way Incide re defined fo t freeway ty ated as a pe ch freeway ement mark quiring righ de to the fre ay Setup wi button in th ntals windo r each freew pes. These rcentage of type. ings. t-of-way per eway cost d ndow witho e Freeway S w ay type. U elements are the project t acre for eac ata element ut saving an etup windo se the tabs a defined bel otal cost not h freeway t defaults and y changes to w. The win t the ow: ype. dow

Each safe  C th 1 Click the return to Click the freeway s B.2 Ex After the perform b ty data elem alibration F e safety pre .0 is built int OK button the Freeway Close butto afety data e isting Ro setup defau enefit-cost Figure B ent is defin actor: This diction proc o the tool. to save any Setup wind n to return t lement defa adway A lts have bee analyses. Pr -18. Freewa ed by the fo is a factor edure to app changes ma ow. o the Freew ults. ttributes n either reta oceed to the B-21 y Safety E llowing: to adjust cra roximate yo de to the fre ay Setup wi ined or mod Existing Co lements win sh frequenc ur local con eway safety ndow witho ified, as you nditions wo dow y estimates p ditions. A d data elemen ut saving an wish, the to rksheet. roduced fro efault value t defaults an y changes to ol is ready m of d the to

There is B-19. The follo B.2.1 S To start e shown in  R fo ro  S  T v a panel of bu Figure B- wing subsec tart New A ntering road Figure B-20 oad Type: ur-lane divi adway type ection Leng raffic Volu ehicles per d ttons at the 19. Button P tions discus nalysis way data fo will appea Figu Select rural ded highwa for the cand th: Enter th me: Enter th ay. top of the E anel on Ex s the functio r a new ana r. re B-20. Ro two-lane hig y, rural freew idate 3R pr e length of t e average a B-22 xisting Con isting Cond n of these b lysis, click t adway Data hway, rural ay, or urba oject site. he roadway nnual daily t ditions work itions Wor uttons in de he Start New entry form four-lane u n freeway t section in m raffic on the sheet, show ksheet for tail. button. Th ndivided hig o identify th iles. roadway s n in Figure Tool 2 e window hway, rural e area type a ection in nd

 T  P ri Click Ne Click Ca When yo segment each road B.2.1.1 Enter all window. clicking o First nav Figure errain: Sele avement Ty gid. xt when you ncel to exit w u click Next attributes ne way type. T Rural Two attributes ab The window n the tabs a igate to the E B-21. Rura ct the terrai pe: Select t are finished ithout savi , a window eded for the he followin -Lane High out the road is compose t the top of xisting Cro l Two-lane n type in wh he type of p filling out ng. will appear benefit-cos g subsection way Projec way segmen d of four di the window ss Section t Highway Pr B-23 ich the road avement for all fields in in which yo t analysis. T s explain th t Data t using the fferent page . Each page ab shown in oject Data way section the roadwa the Roadwa u should ent he windows e data entry Rural Two- s. Navigate is discussed Figure B-2 Window: E is located. y section, ei y Data wind er all applic that appear for each roa Lane Highw between the below. 1. xisting Cro ther flexible ow. able roadwa will differ dway type. ay Project D se pages by ss Section T or y for ata ab

 L  S  S  R  C st  S ar Next, clic Use the o specific c dropdow improvem The wind option. Figur ane Width: houlder Wi houlder Ty oadside Slo enterline R rips are pres houlder Ru e present on k on the Al ption button urve data. D n menus wil ent as part ow in Figur e B-22. Rur Select the e dth: Select pe: Select th pe: Select t umble Strip ent on the r mble Strip: the roadwa ignment tab s in Figure epending o l appear in t of your 3R p e B-22 show al Two-Lan xisting lane the existing e existing s he existing r : Select Ye oadway sect Select Yes y section. O . B-22 to sele n which opt he window. roject, you s all data en e Highway B-24 width of th shoulder wi houlder type oadside fore s from the d ion. Otherw from the dro therwise, se ct either ent ion button y Note that if must enter s try needed Project Da curve d e traveled w dth in feet. . slope. ropdown m ise, select N pdown men lect No. ry of averag ou select, di you plan on pecific curv to use the av ta window: ata ay in feet. enu if center o. u if shoulde e curve data fferent text considering e data. erage curve Alignment line rumble r rumble str or entry of boxes and supereleva data entry tab, avera ips tion ge

 % lo p  T se  N se  P cu The wind option. F  N pr  M ra  D of Section cated on ho ercentage. ypical Curv ction. umber of C ction. resence of S rves, use th ow in Figur igure B-23 umber of C esent on the aximum Su te for horizo esign Speed Length on rizontal curv e Radius: E urves on S piral Tran e dropdown e B-23 show . Rural Two urves in Ro roadway se perelevatio ntal curves : Enter the Curves: En es. Include nter the ave ection: Ente sitions: If sp menu to sel s all data en -lane High s adway Sec ction. n Rate (em on rural two design speed B-25 ter the perce any spiral tr rage horizo r the numbe iral transiti ect Yes. Oth try needed way Projec pecific cur tion: Enter ax): Enter yo -lane highw of the road ntage of the ansitions th ntal curve r r of horizon ons are pres erwise, sele to use the sp t Data wind ve data the number ur agency’s ays. way section roadway se at may be pr adius for the tal curves o ent with the ct No. ecific curve ow: Alignm of horizonta maximum in miles pe ction that is esent in the roadway n the roadw horizontal data entry ent tab, l curves tha superelevati r hour. ay t are on

Next, you horizonta The wind clicked. Figur At the top you are e  C tr  T fo  C  S O  C a Click the the next c Click the Data win will need t l curve on t ow shown i e B-24. Spe of the Hor ntering data urve Lengt ansitions. ransition L r one side o urve Radiu piral Presen therwise, se urve Super percent. Next Curve urve on the Save/Close dow. o click the S he roadway n Figure B-2 cific curve d izontal Curv for. For eac h: Enter the ength: Ente f the horizo s: Enter the ce: Select Y lect No. elevation: E button to sa roadway se button to sa pecific Cur segment. 4 will appe ata entry w e Data wind h individua length in m r the length ntal curve. radius of th es from the nter the exi ve the data gment. ve the data B-26 ve Data Inpu ar when the indow: Fir ow is a labe l horizontal iles of horiz in miles of a e horizontal dropdown sting supere entered for entered for t t button to Specific Cu st curve on l that indica curve: ontal curve, ny spiral tr curve in fee menu if spir levation rat the curve an he curve an enter details rve Data Inp rural two- tes which h not includin ansition that t. al curves ar e for the hor d proceed to d exit the H about each ut button is lane highwa orizontal cu g spiral may be pre e present. izontal curv data entry orizontal Cu y rve sent e as for rve

Click the curve cur The wind Figur All data e however roadway Click the previous All other Next, pro At your o section to simply us options i history is Cancel butt rently show ow for data e B-25. Spe ntry for the there is a bu section in ca Previous C curve on the buttons are ceed to the ption, you c assist in ca e the estima s made in th that the ben on to exit th n in the win entry on the cific curve last curve o tton (the Ad se more are urve button roadway se the same as Crash Histo an choose t lculating po te given by e window sh efit estimat e Horizonta dow. last curve o data entry w n the roadw d Curve but needed. to save data ction. previously ry tab, as sh o use the ex tential crash the HSM cr own in Figu e may better B-27 l Curve Dat n the roadw indow: La ay section is ton) that all entered for defined for t own in Figu isting site-sp savings wit ash predicti re B-26. Th reflect loca a window w ay section i st curve on the same a ows you to the curve an he Horizont re B-26. ecific crash h the 3R pro on method. e advantage l conditions ithout savin s shown in F rural two- s previously add more cu d return to d al Curve Da history of t ject. Otherw The choice b of using sit . g changes to igure B-25 lane highwa defined, rves to the ata entry fo ta window. he roadway ise, you ca etween the e-specific c the . y r the n se rash

Fig If the Ye following  C  T p Next, pro ure B-26. R s option is c data: rash Histor otal Crashe eriod. ceed to the ural Two- hosen for co y Period: E s: Enter the Pavement M lane Highw nsidering ex nter the num total numbe arking/Deli B-28 ay Project D isting site-s ber of year r of crashes neator tab, a ata windo pecific cras s of availab that have o s shown in w: Crash H h history, en le crash data ccurred duri Figure B-27 istory tab ter the . ng this time .

 % w  % fo  % se  T o ro b B.2.1.2 Enter all window. clicking o First nav Figure B- of Section hich the cen of Section r which the of Section ction for wh otal Length f the roadwa adway sepa oth sides of Rural Mult attributes ab The window n the tabs a igate to the E 27. Rural T with Dashe terline strip with Solid- centerline s with Doub ich the cent of Section y section th rately (i.e. e the roadway ilane Undiv out the road is compose t the top of xisting Cro wo-lane Hi Ma d Centerlin ing is dashe Dash Cent triping is a s le Solid Cen erline stripi with Deline at will have nter 2 mi if . ided and D way segmen d of four di the window ss Section t B-29 ghway Proj rking/Delin e: Enter the d only. erline: Ente olid-dash co terline: En ng is double ator Posts: roadside de a 1-mi roadw ivided High t using the fferent page . Each page ab shown in ect Data wi eator tab percentage r the percen mbination. ter the perce -solid. Enter the le lineator post ay section way Proje Rural Multi s. Navigate is discussed Figure B-2 ndow: Pav of the road tage of the r ntage of the ngth in mile s. Include b has roadsid ct Data lane Highw between the below. 8. ement way section oadway sect roadway s for the po oth sides of e delineators ay Project D se pages by for ion rtion the on ata

Figure Figure B entered in  L  S  S  R  C st  S ar For rural Figure B Next, clic If you pla enter spe curve dat The wind B-28. Rura -28 shows th this windo ane Width: houlder Wi houlder Ty oadside Slo enterline R rips are pres houlder Ru e present on multilane d -28. k on the Al n on consid cific curve d a entry. ow in Figur l Multilane e window t w are as fol Select the e dth: Select pe: Select th pe: Select t umble Strip ent on the r mble Strip: the roadwa ivided highw ignment tab ering supere ata. Otherw e B-29 show Highway P hat will app lows: xisting lane the existing e existing s he existing r : Select Ye oadway sect Select Yes y section. O ays, Center . levation im ise, you can s all alignm B-30 roject Data ear for rural width of th shoulder wi houlder type oadside fore s from the d ion. Otherw from the dro therwise, se line Rumble provement a enter 0 for ent data ent window: E multilane u e traveled w dth in feet. . slope. ropdown m ise, select N pdown men lect No. Strips will s part of yo number of c ry required. xisting Cro ndivided hig ay in feet. enu if center o. u if shoulde not appear i ur 3R projec urves, and s ss Section hways. The line rumble r rumble str n the windo t, you must kip the spec tab data ips w in ific

F  N pr  M ra  D Next, if y will need curve on The wind clicked igure B-29 umber of C esent on the aximum Su te for horizo esign Speed ou entered a to click the the roadway ow shown i . Rural Mu urves in Ro roadway se perelevatio ntal curves : Enter the value grea Specific Cu segment. n Figure B- ltilane High adway Sec ction. n Rate (em on rural two design speed ter than 0 fo rve Data Inp 30 will appe B-31 way Projec tion: Enter ax): Enter yo -lane highw of the road r the Numbe ut button to ar when the t Data wind the number ur agency’s ays. way section r of Curves enter detai Specific Cu ow: Alignm of horizonta maximum in miles pe in Roadway ls about eac rve Data Inp ent tab l curves tha superelevati r hour. Section, yo h horizontal ut button is t are on u

F At the top you are e  C tr  T fo  C  S O  C a Click the the next c Click the Data win Click the curve cur The wind igure B-30. of the Hor ntering data urve Lengt ansitions. ransition L r one side o urve Radiu piral Presen therwise, se urve Super percent. Next Curve urve on the Save/Close dow. Cancel butt rently show ow for data Specific cu izontal Curv for. The fol h: Enter the ength: Ente f the horizo s: Enter the ce: Select Y lect No. elevation: E button to sa roadway se button to sa on to exit th n in the win entry on the rve data en e Data wind lowing data length in m r the length ntal curve. radius of th es from the nter the exi ve the data gment. ve the data e Horizonta dow. last curve o B-32 try: first cu ow is a labe are entered iles of horiz in miles of a e horizontal dropdown sting supere entered for entered for t l Curve Dat n the roadw rve on rura l that indica for each cur ontal curve, ny spiral tr curve in fee menu if spir levation rat the curve an he curve an a window w ay section i l multilane tes which h ve: not includin ansition that t. al curves ar e for the hor d proceed to d exit the H ithout savin s shown in F highway orizontal cu g spiral may be pre e present. izontal curv data entry orizontal Cu g changes to igure B-31 rve sent e as for rve the .

F All data e however roadway Click the previous All other Next, pro At your o section to simply us options i history is igure B-31. ntry for the there is a bu section in ca Previous C curve on the buttons are ceed to the ption, you c assist in ca e the estima s made in th that the ben Specific cu last curve o tton (the Ad se you need urve button roadway se the same as Crash Histo an choose t lculating po te given by e window sh efit estimat rve data en n the roadw d Curve but to add mor to save data ction. previously ry tab, show o use the ex tential crash the HSM cr own in Figu e may better B-33 try: last cu ay section is ton) that all e. entered for defined for t n in Figure isting site-sp savings wit ash predicti re B-32. Th reflect loca rve on rura the same a ows you to the curve an he Horizont B-32. ecific crash h the 3R pro on method. e advantage l conditions l multilane s previously add more cu d return to d al Curve Da history of t ject. Otherw The choice b of using sit . highway defined; rves to the ata entry fo ta window. he roadway ise, you ca etween the e-specific c r the n se rash

Fig If the Ye  C  T p Next, pro ure B-32. R s option is c rash Histor otal Crashe eriod. ceed to the ural Multi hosen for co y Period: E s: Enter the Pavement M lane Highw nsidering ex nter the num total numbe arking/Deli B-34 ay Project isting crash ber of year r of crashes neator tab, s Data windo history, ent s of availab that have o hown in Fig w: Crash H er the follow le crash data ccurred duri ure B-33. istory tab ing data: . ng this time

 T ro o d B.2.1.3 Enter all window i tabs at th First nav Figure B-3 otal Length adway secti f the roadwa elineators on Rural and attributes ab s composed e top of the igate to the E 3. Rural M of Section on that will y separately both sides Urban Free out the road of five diffe window. Ea xisting Cro ultilane Hi Ma with Deline have [OR th (i.e. enter 2 of the roadw way Projec way segmen rent pages. ch page is d ss Section t B-35 ghway Proj rking/Delin ator Posts: at has] road mi if a 1-m ay. t Data t using the Navigate be iscussed bel ab shown in ect Data w eator tab Enter the le side delinea i roadway s Freeway Pr tween these ow. Figure B-34 indow: Pav ngth in mile tor posts. In ection has ro oject Data w pages by cl ement s of the clude both adside indow. The icking on th sides e

 N se  L dr  O dr  In dr  O m  M tr  M th  O ar N  C Figure B- umber of T gment from ane Width: opdown me utside Shou opdown me side Shoul opdown me utside Roa enu. edian Wid aveled-way edian Slop ere is not a utside Barr e present al o. lear Zone W 34. Freewa hrough La the dropdo Select the e nu. lder Width nu. der Width: nu. dside Slope th: Enter the to the left-m e: Select the depressed m ier: Select ong the free idth: Ente y Project D nes: Select t wn menu. xisting lane : Select the Select the e : Select the median wi ost edge of median cro edian. Yes from th way segmen r the width o B-36 ata window he total num width of th existing ou xisting insid existing road dth in feet, m the traveled ss slope fro e dropdown t. Otherwise f the clear z : Existing C ber of throu e traveled w tside should e shoulder w side foreslo easured fro way of the m the dropd menu if the , if there ar one in feet. ross Sectio gh lanes on ay in feet fr er width in f idth in feet pe from the m the left-m opposite dir own menu. re are outsid e no outside n tab the freeway om the eet from the from the dropdown ost edge of ection. Select Flat i e barriers th barriers, se the f at lect

 In pr  O ar  % th  M ar N Next, clic Use the o specific c dropdow The wind option. Figur side Shoul esent on the utside Shou e present on of AADT e traffic vol edian Barr e present al o. k on the Al ption button urve data. D n menus wil ow in Figur e B-35. Fre der Rumble inside shou lder Rumb the outside during high ume exceed ier: Select Y ong the free ignment tab s in Figure epending o l appear in t e B-35 show eway Proje Strip: Sele lders of the le Strip: Se shoulders o volume pe s 1,000 veh/ es from the way segmen . B-35 to sele n which opt he window. s all data en ct Data win B-37 ct Yes from roadway se lect Yes fro f the roadw riods: prop h/lane. dropdown t. Otherwise ct either ent ion button y try required dow: Align the dropdo ction. Other m the dropd ay section. O ortion of AA menu if the , if there ar ry of averag ou select, di for using th ment tab, a wn menu if wise, select own menu i therwise, s DT during re are media e no median e curve data fferent text e average c verage curv rumble strip No. f rumble str elect No. hours in wh n barriers th barriers, se or entry of boxes and urve data en e data entr s are ips ich at lect try y

 % lo  T se  N se The wind option. Figur  N pr Next, you horizonta The wind clicked. of Section cated on ho ypical Curv ction. umber of C ction. ow in Figur e B-36. Fre umber of C esent on the will need t l curve on t ow shown i Length on rizontal curv e Radius: E urves on S e B-36 show eway Proje urves in Ro roadway se o click the S he roadway n Figure B- Curves: En es. Include nter the ave ection: Ente s all data en ct Data win adway Sec ction. Coun pecific Cur segment. 37 will appe B-38 ter the perce spiral transi rage horizo r the numbe try required dow: Align tion: Enter t curves in e ve Data Inpu ar when the ntage of the tions in the ntal curve r r of horizon for using th ment tab, s the number ach directio t button to Specific Cu roadway se percentage i adius for the tal curves o e specific c pecific curv of horizonta n of travel s enter details rve Data Inp ction that is f present. roadway n the roadw urve data en e data entr l curves tha eparately. about each ut button is ay try y t are

At the top you are e  C tr  C Click the the next c Click the Data win Click the curve cur The wind Figu of the Hor ntering data urve Lengt ansitions in urve Radiu Next Curve urve on the Save/Close dow. Cancel butt rently show ow for data Figu re B-37. Sp izontal Curv for. h: Enter the miles. s: Enter the button to sa roadway se button to sa on to exit th n in the win entry on the re B-38. Sp ecific curve e Data wind length in m radius of th ve the data gment. ve the data e Horizonta dow. last curve o ecific curve B-39 data entry ow is a labe iles of the h e horizontal entered for entered for t l Curve Dat n the roadw data entry : first curve l that indica orizontal cu curve in fee the curve an he curve an a window w ay section i : last curve on freeway tes which h rve not inclu t. d proceed to d exit the H ithout savin s shown in F on freeway orizontal cu ding spiral data entry orizontal Cu g changes to igure B-38 rve for rve the .

All data e however, roadway Click the previous All other Next, pro At your o section to simply us options i history is ntry for the there is a b section in ca Previous C curve on the buttons are ceed to the ption, you c assist in ca e the estima s made in th that the ben Figur last curve o utton (the A se you need urve button roadway se the same as Crash Histo an choose t lculating po te given by e window sh efit estimat e B-39. Fre n the roadw dd Curve bu add more. to save data ction. previously ry tab, show o use the ex tential crash the HSM cr own in Figu e may better eway Proje B-40 ay section is tton) that al entered for defined for t n in Figure isting site-sp savings wit ash predicti re B-39. Th reflect loca ct Data win the same a lows you to the curve an he Horizont B-39. ecific crash h the 3R pro on method. e advantage l conditions dow: Crash s previously add more cu d return to d al Curve Da history of t ject. Otherw The choice b of using sit . History ta defined; rves to the ata entry fo ta window. he roadway ise, you ca etween the e-specific c b r the n se rash

B-41 If the Yes option is chosen for considering existing crash history, enter the following data:  Crash History Period: Enter the number of years of available crash data.  Total MV-FI Crashes: Enter the total number of multiple vehicle crashes on the roadway segment that fall into the following crash severity levels combined: - Fatal crash - Disabling injury crash - Evident injury crash - Possible injury crash  Total MV-PDO Crashes: Enter the total number of multiple vehicle crashes on the roadway segment that fall into the property-damage-only crash severity level.  Total SV-FI Crashes: Enter the total number of single vehicle crashes on the roadway segment that fall into the following crash severity levels combined: - Fatal crash - Disabling injury crash - Evident injury crash - Possible injury crash  Total SV-PDO Crashes: Enter the total number of single vehicle crashes on the roadway segment that fall into the property-damage-only crash severity level. The last two tabs in the Freeway Project Data window are for entering data describing the median barriers and outside barriers on the freeway section. These two tabs will appear only if you selected Yes for the presence of either type of barrier. If you selected Yes for median barrier presence in the Existing Cross Section tab, then proceed to the Median Barrier tab, shown in Figure B-40. Otherwise skip to data entry for outside barriers shown in Figure B-43.

The first following situation  C th  C n  D co Based on fields in t  N (s in  In op Figure dropdown m defines eac . ontinuous, C e entire leng ontinuous, O ot centered i iscontinuou ntinuous. your entry he Median umber of d tand-alone) this numbe side Barrie tion appear B-40. Free enu in the M h option of entered: A th of the fre ffset: A me n the media s: Median b in the Media Barrier tab m iscontinuou median barr r. r Width: E s only for co way Projec edian Barr the dropdow median barr eway segm dian barrier n. arriers are p n Barrier L ay remain s median b iers on the f nter the wid ntinuous, c B-42 t Data wind ier tab is for n menu. Se ier is presen ent. runs the ent resent on the ocation drop or disappear arriers: En reeway sect th of the con entered and ow: Media the Median lect the opti t in the cent ire length o freeway se down menu . The follow ter the total ion. Do not tinuous me continuous, n Barrier t Barrier Lo on that desc er of the me f the freewa gment, but , the remain ing defines number of d count a con dian barrier offset medi ab cation. The ribes your dian and ru y segment, b are not ing data ent each attribu iscontinuou tinuous barr in feet. This an barriers. ns ut is ry te. s ier

 D fe op  C em co Next, if t Discontin the roadw The wind button is Fi At the top barrier yo  B  H tr  B Click the entry for Click the Barrier D istance betw et from the tion appear ont. Media bedded dro ntinuous, o here are disc uous Media ay segment ow in Figur clicked. gure B-41. D of the Med u are enteri arrier Leng orizontal C aveled way arrier Type Next Barrie the next me Save/Close ata Input w een barrie inside trave s only for co n Barrier T pdown men ffset median ontinuous m n Barrier D . e B-41 will iscontinuo ian Barrier ng data for. th: Enter th learance: E and the face : Select the r button to s dian barrier button to sa indow. r face and led-way edg ntinuous, o ype: Select u. This opti barriers. edian barri ata button to appear when us median Data Input w e length in m nter the dist of the disco discontinuo ave the data on the roadw ve the data B-43 edge of nea e closest to ffset median the continuo on appears o ers present, enter detail the Enter D barrier dat indow is a iles of the ance in feet ntinuous m us median b entered for ay segmen entered for t rest travele the offset ba barriers. us median nly for con you will nee s about each iscontinuou a entry: fir label that in discontinuo between th edian barrie arrier type f the median t. he median b d way: Ente rrier to the b barrier type tinuous, cen d to click th discontinu s Median B st barrier o dicates whic us median b e leftmost ed r. rom the dro barrier and arrier and e r the distan arrier face. from the tered and e Enter ous barrier o arrier Data n freeway h median arrier. ge of the pdown men proceed to d xit the Med ce in This n u. ata ian

Click the the media The wind B-42. Fi All data e defined, h you to ad Click the entry for All other If you se the Outsi Cancel butt n barrier cu ow for data gure B-42. ntry for the owever the d more med Previous B the previou buttons are lected Yes f de Barrier ta on to exit th rrently show entry on the Discontinuo last median re is a butto ian barriers arrier button s median bar the same as or outside ba b, shown in e Median B n in the win last median us median barrier on t n (the Add D to the roadw to save data rier on the r previously rrier presen Figure B-4 B-44 arrier Data I dow. barrier on barrier dat he roadway iscontinuou ay section i entered for oadway sec defined for t ce in the Ex 3. Otherwise nput windo the roadway a entry: las section is th s Median B n case you n the median tion. he Median B isting Cross skip to the w without sa section is s t barrier on e same as p arrier butto eed to add barrier and arrier Data Section tab next section ving chang hown in Fig freeway reviously n) that allow more. return to da Input wind , then proce . es to ure s ta ow. ed to

 N th Next, you outside b The wind Figure umber of O e freeway s will need t arrier on the ow in Figur B-43. Free utside Bar egment. o click the E roadway se e B-44 will way Projec riers: Enter nter Outsid gment. appear when B-45 t Data wind the number e Barrier Da the Enter O ow: Outsid of outside b ta button to utside Barr e Barrier t arriers that enter detail ier Data but ab are present o s about each ton is clicke n d.

At the top barrier yo  B  H tr  B Click the the next o Click the Barrier D Click the the outsid The wind B-45. Figure of the Out u are enteri arrier Leng orizontal C aveled way arrier Type Next Barrie utside barri Save/Close ata Input w Cancel butt e barrier cu ow for data B-44. Outs side Barrier ng data for. th: Enter th learance: E and the barr : Select the r button to s er on the ro button to sa indow. on to exit th rrently show entry on the ide barrier Data Input w e length in m nter the dist ier face. barrier type ave the data adway segm ve the data e Outside B n in the win last median B-46 data entry indow is a iles of the ance in feet from the dr entered for ent. entered for t arrier Data I dow. barrier on : first barri label that in outside barr between th opdown me the curve a he outside b nput windo the roadway er on freew dicates whi ier. e rightmost nu. nd proceed t arrier and e w without s section is s ay ch outside edge of the o data entry xit the Outs aving chang hown in Fig for ide es to ure

All data e defined, h outside b Click the entry for All other You have B.2.2 E With the specific b segment the top o B.3 Al The next inclusion Condition the roadw appear fo Figure ntry for the owever the arriers to the Previous B the previou buttons are now finish dit Analys procedures enefit-cost attributes alr f the Existin ternative step is to se in the 3R p s workshee ay type bei r each roadw B-45. Out last outside re is a butto roadway se arrier button s outside bar the same as ed entering is Data Alr presented ab analysis. Ho eady entere g Condition s to Con lect which r roject. Click t. Roadway ng examined ay type. side barrier barrier on t n (the Add O ction in cas to save data rier on the r previously all necessary eady Ente ove, you en wever, if yo d, click the s worksheet sider oadway imp the Alterna improvemen . The follow B-47 data entry he roadway utside Barr e you need entered for oadway sec defined for t roadway se red tered all roa u need to go Edit Roadw (see Figure rovements y tives to Con ts available ing subsec : last barri section is th ier button) t to add more the outside tion. he Outside gment data dway segm back and e ay Data or E B-19). ou want to sider button for inclusio tions presen er on freew e same as p hat allows y . barrier and Barrier Data for the econ ent data nee dit any of th dit Project D consider for at the top o n in the ana t the window ay reviously ou to add m return to da Input wind omic analy ded for a e roadway ata buttons potential f the Existin lysis depend that will ore ta ow. sis. at g on

B.3.1 R The wind clicked fo Place a c  W 1 th  W le w  P ty  F is 1V 1V ro  A is ural Two-l ow shown i r rural two- Figure heck mark n iden Lane 2 ft. Selectin e existing la iden Shoul ss than 8 ft. idth options ave Existin pe is unpav latten Road steeper than :3H, 1V:4H :3H, then o adside fore dd Centerl currently pr ane Highw n Figure B-4 lane highwa B-46. Alter ext to all alt Width: Thi g lane wide ne width to der Width: Selecting sh from the ex g Unpaved ed. side Slope: 1V:6H. If , and 1V:6 ptions of 1V slope is 1V:4 ine Rumble esent. ay 6 will appe ys. natives to c ernatives yo s option wil ning will re 12 ft, in 0.5 This option oulder wide isting shoul Shoulders: This option the existing H will be co :3H, 1V:4H H, then opt Strip: This B-48 ar when the onsider for u want to co l appear onl sult in consi -ft intervals will appear ning will re der width to This option will appear roadside for nsidered. If , and 1V:6 ions of 1V:4 option will Alternative rural two- nsider for p y if the exist deration of a . only if the sult in cons 8 ft, in 1-ft will appear only if the eslope is 1V the existing H will be co H, and 1V: appear only s to Conside lane highw otential imp ing lane wid ll lane widt existing sho ideration of intervals. only if the e existing road :2H, then o roadside fo nsidered. If 6H will be c if no center r button is ays rovement. th is less th h options fro ulder width all shoulder xisting shou side foreslo ptions of 1V reslope is the existing onsidered. line rumble an m is lder pe :2H, strip

 A cu  E co w  Im to im a  In co ac fl B.3.2 R The wind rural mul Place a c dd Shoulde rrently pres nhance Str nsider insta ell as install prove Cur ol to consid provement crash reduct clude Righ st of acquir quisition is attening. ural Multil ow in Figur tilane undiv Figure heck mark n r Rumble S ent. iping/Deline lling durabl ing roadside ve Superel er improvin s will only b ion would b t-of-Way A ing right-of- needed for ane Highw e B-47 will ided and div B-47. Alter ext to all alt trip: This o ation: Sele e pavement delineators evation: Sel g the curve e considere e likely to r cquisition C way in the b all lane and ay appear when ided highw natives to c ernatives yo B-49 ption will a ct enhanced markings fo . ect improve superelevati d for curves esult from th ost: Select enefit-cost shoulder wi the Altern ays. onsider for u want to co ppear only i striping/del r both cente curve supe on, where n on which H e superelev this option analysis. Th dening as w atives to Co rural mult nsider for i f no shoulde ineation if y rline and ed relevation if eeded. Supe SM procedu ation impro if you want e tool assum ell as roadsi nsider butto ilane highw mprovemen r rumble str ou want to ge striping a you want th relevation res indicate vement. to include th es right-of- de slope n is clicked ays t. ip is s e that e way for

B-50  Widen Lane Width: This option will appear only if the existing lane width is less than 12 ft. Selecting lane widening will result in consideration of all lane width options from the existing lane width to 12 ft, in 0.5-ft intervals.  Widen Shoulder Width: This option will appear only if the existing shoulder width is less than 8 ft. Selecting shoulder widening will result in consideration of all shoulder width options from the existing shoulder width to 8 ft, in 1-ft intervals. On divided highways, only widening of the outside shoulders is considered.  Pave Existing Unpaved Shoulders: This option will appear only if the existing shoulder type is unpaved.  Flatten Roadside Slope: This option will appear only if the existing roadside foreslope is steeper than 1V:6H. If the existing roadside foreslope is 1V:2H, then options of 1V:2H, 1V:3H, 1V:4H, and 1V:6H will be considered. If the existing roadside foreslope is 1V:3H, then options of 1V:3H, 1V:4H, and 1V:6H will be considered. If the existing roadside foreslope is 1V:4H, then options of 1V:4H, and 1V:6H will be considered.  Add Centerline Rumble Strip: This option will appear only if no centerline rumble strip is currently present. This option only applies to undivided roadways.  Add Shoulder Rumble Strip: This option will appear only if no shoulder rumble strip is currently present.  Enhance Striping/Delineation: Select enhanced striping/delineation if you want to consider installing durable pavement markings for both centerline and edge striping as well as installing roadside delineators.  Improve Curve Superelevation: Select improve curve superelevation if you want the tool to consider improving the curve superelevation, where needed. Superelevation improvements will only be considered for curves on which HSM procedures indicate that a crash reduction would be likely to result from the superelevation improvement.  Include Right-of-Way Acquisition Cost: Select this option if you want to include the cost of acquiring right-of-way in the benefit-cost analysis. The tool assumes right-of-way acquisition is needed for all lane and shoulder widening as well as roadside slope flattening. B.3.3 Freeway The window shown in Figure B-48 will appear when the Alternatives to Consider button is clicked for rural and urban freeways.

Place a c  W 1 th to o T m en  W sh co 1  W sh co 1  In (e w heck mark n iden Lane 2 ft. Selectin e existing la ol will auto f the roadwa hese scenari edian width tire analysi iden Outsi oulder widt nsideration 2 ft, in 1-ft i iden Inside oulder widt nsideration 2 ft, in 1-ft i stall Cente ither center ant to consi Figure B-4 ext to all alt Width: Thi g lane wide ne width to matically co y and widen os may diffe affects the s process an de Shoulde h is less tha of all outsid ntervals. Shoulder h is less tha of all inside ntervals. r Median B ed or offset) der in the an 8. Alternat ernatives yo s option wil ning will re 12 ft in 0.5- nsider both ing lanes by r in cost; th benefits. Bo d both will b r Width: Th n 12 ft. Sele e shoulder w Width: This n 12 ft. Sele shoulder w arrier: Thi are present alysis. B-51 ives to cons u want to co l appear onl sult in consi ft intervals. widening la adding wid e benefits m th widening e included is option w cting outsid idth option option will cting inside idth options s option wil . Select the b ider for fre nsider for i y if the exist deration of a If lane wide nes by addin th toward th ay differ as scenarios a in the result ill appear on e shoulder w s from the e appear only shoulder wi from the ex l appear only arrier type eways mprovemen ing lane wid ll lane widt ning option g width on e outside o well, becau re considere s table. ly if the exi idening wil xisting shou if the exist dening will isting shoul if no conti or all barrier t. th is less th h options fro is selected, the median f the roadwa se a change d through th sting outsid l result in lder width t ing inside result in der width to nuous barrie types that y an m the side y. in e e o rs ou

 A ru  A sh  In co ar al B.4 Ru Click the The wind alternativ seconds, number o Click the B.5 Re When the will be d The resul benefits i dd Inside S mble strip i dd Outside oulder rum clude Righ st of acquir e selected f l lane and sh n the An Run button ow shown i es based on however the f design alte OK button sults tool is finis isplayed in t ts of the ana n descendin houlder Ru s currently p Shoulder R ble strip is c t-of-Way A ing right-of- or considera oulder wid alysis in the Alter n Figure B-4 your alterna re is a possi rnatives. Figure B-4 to proceed w hed comput he Results w lysis are pre g order. For mble Strip resent. umble Stri urrently pre cquisition C way in the e tion, the too ening toward natives to C 9 will appe tives to con bility of lon 9. Message ith the anal ing benefits orksheet. T sented in a each alterna B-52 : This option p: This opti sent. ost: Select conomic an l assumes th s the outsid onsider win ar indicating sider input. ger computi prior to ru ysis. and costs fo his workshe table with e tive consid will appea on will appe this option alysis. If rig at right-of-w e of the free dow to start the numbe Most analys ng times if t nning the a r all possib et will appe ach design a ered, the res r only if no ar only if n if you want ht-of-way a ay acquisit way. the benefit- r of possible es are comp here are a v nalysis le alternativ ar automatic lternative so ults table in inside shoul o outside to include th cquisition c ion is neede cost analysi design leted within ery large es, the resul ally. rted by net cludes the der e osts d for s. ts

B-53 improvement benefits, improvement costs, benefit-cost ratio, net benefits, and the “after project” condition for each roadway attribute that was considered for improvement. For rural two-lane and multilane highways, any superelevation improvements to curves will be shown in the last column of the results table. For freeway sections, the last column in the results table will indicate any changes that had to be made to median and outside barriers due to widening of lanes and shoulders. The cost of moving barriers is considered in the benefit-cost analysis. The preferred alternative is generally the alternative with the highest net benefits whose improvement cost falls within the available budget for the project. However, the user is not constrained to select the preferred alternative indicated by the tool. The final decision on which alternative(s) to implement for a project always involves an assessment by the highway agency of a broad range of factors, safety cost-effectiveness being only one of those many factors.

Next: Appendix C. Updated Crash Cost Estimates »
Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects Get This Book
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TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) has released a pre-publication, non-edited version of Research Report 876: Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. The report presents an approach for estimating the cost-effectiveness of including safety and operational improvements in a resurfacing, restoration, or rehabilitation (3R) project. The approach uses the performance of the existing road in estimating the benefits of a proposed design improvement and in determining if it is worthwhile. These guidelines are intended to replace TRB Special Report 214: Designing Safer Roads: Practices for Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation. The guidelines are accompanied by two spreadsheet tools available for download through a .zip file: one for analyzing a single design alternative and one for comparing several alternatives or combinations of alternatives.

Disclaimer: This software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences or the Transportation Research Board (collectively "TRB") be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.

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