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C-1 Appendix C. Updated Crash Cost Estimates Crash costs are used in benefit-cost analyses to represent the benefits of reducing crashes. The crash cost values, by crash severity level, currently used in the examples presented in this document are as follows: ï· Fatality (K) $4,008,900 ï· Disabling injury (A) $216,600 ï· Evident injury (B) $79,000 ï· Possible injury (C) $44,900 ï· Property damage only (O) $7,400 These crash cost values represent the comprehensive societal costs of crashes, and are currently used by a number of highway agencies in benefit-cost analyses. These values of crash costs are accepted and used by a number of highway agencies because they are presented in Chapter 7 of the AASHTO Highway Safety Manual (HSM) (2), and the HSM is generally considered an authoritative source. However, many highway agencies use crash costs that differ from these values. The crash cost values in current use by highway agencies range from approximately $1 million per fatality to over $9 million per fatality. On looking further into the HSM crash cost values, however, it is evident that they are in need of updating. The HSM crash cost values are taken from a 2005 FHWA report (31), which it presents crash costs based on 2001 data. The FHWA report also provides a methodology for updating these crash costs to future years. The crash costs used as default values in these guidelines are based on the FHWA report values updated to 2015 levels. The recommended methodology for updating the crash cost values, based on the FHWA report is presented below. This updating procedure is in current use by both the New Hampshire and Ohio Departments of Transportation. Table C-1 shows that the comprehensive societal costs of crashes by severity level for 2001 can be broken down into two components: ï· human capital cost component ï· other societal cost component