National Academies Press: OpenBook
Page i
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Microgrids and Their Application for Airports and Public Transit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25233.
×
Page R1
Page ii
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Microgrids and Their Application for Airports and Public Transit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25233.
×
Page R2
Page iii
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Microgrids and Their Application for Airports and Public Transit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25233.
×
Page R3
Page iv
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Microgrids and Their Application for Airports and Public Transit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25233.
×
Page R4
Page v
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Microgrids and Their Application for Airports and Public Transit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25233.
×
Page R5
Page vi
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Microgrids and Their Application for Airports and Public Transit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25233.
×
Page R6
Page vii
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Microgrids and Their Application for Airports and Public Transit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25233.
×
Page R7
Page viii
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Microgrids and Their Application for Airports and Public Transit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25233.
×
Page R8
Page ix
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Microgrids and Their Application for Airports and Public Transit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25233.
×
Page R9
Page x
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Microgrids and Their Application for Airports and Public Transit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25233.
×
Page R10
Page xi
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Microgrids and Their Application for Airports and Public Transit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25233.
×
Page R11
Page xii
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Microgrids and Their Application for Airports and Public Transit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25233.
×
Page R12
Page xiii
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Microgrids and Their Application for Airports and Public Transit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25233.
×
Page R13
Page xiv
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Microgrids and Their Application for Airports and Public Transit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25233.
×
Page R14

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M T R A N S I T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M 2018 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration and the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation Subscriber Categories Aviation  •  Public Transportation  •  Energy Microgrids and Their Application for Airports and Public Transit A Synthesis of Airport and Transit Practices Ruby Heard Eric Mannarino Arup San Francisco, CA TCRP SYNTHESIS 137 ACRP SYNTHESIS 91

ACRP SYNTHESIS 91 Project A11-03, Topic S01-16 ISSN 1935-9187 ISBN 978-0-309-39059-0 Library of Congress Control Number 2018952383 © 2018 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. Cover photo credit: San Diego International Airport NOTICE The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nation’s aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100— Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners.

TCRP SYNTHESIS 137 Project A11-03, Topic S01-16 ISSN 1073-4880 ISBN 978-0-309-39059-0 © 2018 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. Cover photo credit: San Diego International Airport NOTICE The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transporta- tion Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published reports of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The nation’s growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Cur- rent systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating prob- lems, adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and introduce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Coopera- tive Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213—Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administration—now the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- solving research. TCRP, modeled after the successful National Coop- erative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), undertakes research and other technical activities in response to the needs of transit ser- vice providers. The scope of TCRP includes various transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooperating organi- zations: FTA; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research organization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identi- fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. The panels prepare project statements (requests for propos- als), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired effect if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminat- ing TCRP results to the intended users of the research: transit agen- cies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, train- ing aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are imple- mented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

O V E R S I G H T C O M M I T T E E S ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* CHAIR Kitty Freidheim Freidheim Consulting VICE CHAIR Kelly Johnson Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport Authority MEMBERS Gloria G. Bender TransSolutions Rochelle Cameron City of Philadelphia-Division of Aviation, Philadelphia International Airport Deborah Flint Los Angeles World Airports Rhonda Hamm-Niebruegge Lambert-St. Louis International Airport Winsome A. Lenfert Federal Aviation Administration Margaret McKeough Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority Scott McMahon Morristown Municipal Airport Frank Miller Hollywood Burbank Airport Bob Montgomery Southwest Airlines Eric Potts Freese and Nichols, Inc. Megan S. Ryerson University of Pennsylvania EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Sabrina Johnson U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Mark Kimberling National Association of State Aviation Officials Laura McKee Airlines for America Christopher Oswald Airports Council International—North America Neil J. Pedersen Transportation Research Board Melissa Sabatine American Association of Airport Executives T.J. Schulz Airport Consultants Council SECRETARY Christopher J. Hedges Transportation Research Board TCRP OVERSIGHT AND PROJECT SELECTION COMMITTEE* CHAIR Paul C. Jablonski San Diego Metropolitan Transit System VICE CHAIR Doran J. Barnes Foothill Transit SECRETARY TREASURER Mortimer L. Downey III Mort Downey Consulting LLC MEMBERS Jeffrey Arndt VIA Metropolitan Transit Authority Jameson Auten Kansas City Area Transportation Authority Mallory R. Avis Michigan Department of Transportation Paul J. Ballard Fort Worth Transportation Authority Alva Carrasco Sacramento Regional Transit District Dorval Ronald Carter, Jr. Chicago Transit Authority Francis “Buddy” Coleman Clever Devices Ltd. Ryan I. Daniel St. Cloud Metro Bus Katharine Eagan Port Authority of Allegheney County Suzie Edrington San Antonio VIA Betsy Kachmar Citilink/Fort Wayne Public Transportation Corporation John Lewis Charlotte Area Transit System Kris Lyon Lane Transit District W.H. (Bill) McCloud McCloud Transport Associates Jonathan H. McDonald CH2M E. Susan Meyer Spokane Transit Authority Daniel J. Raudebaugh Center for Transportation and the Environment T.J. Ross PACE Vicki L. Shotland Greater Hartford Transit District Denise Tyler Delaware Transit Corporation Ed Watt Amalgamated Transit Union David C. Wilcock Vanasse Hangen Brustlin, Inc. K. Jane Williams Federal Transit Administration EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Brandye Hendrickson Federal Highway Administration Neil J. Pedersen Transportation Research Board Richard A. White American Public Transportation Association Frederick G. (Bud) Wright American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Arthur L. Guzzetti American Public Transportation Association SECRETARY Christopher J. Hedges Transportation Research Board *Membership as of April 2018

AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS A compilation of existing information for a topic with little published literature on practice requires considerable time and cooperation from the interviewees at airports, transit entities, and other orga- nizations. The research team is grateful to the interviewees, who shared considerable time, and is especially grateful to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) liaison Rima Oueid for her contributions, which are based primarily on the DOE’s literature review and the Microgrid Playbook for Decision Makers, which she has developed for the DOE (final version pending release). Thanks also go to Russell Carr, Arup, San Francisco, for his guidance during completion of this report. C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP SYNTHESIS 91/TCRP SYNTHESIS 137 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Gwen Chisholm-Smith, Manager, Transit Cooperative Research Program Gail R. Staba, Senior Program Officer Demisha Williams, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Sharon Lamberton, Editor ACRP PROJECT 11-03 PANEL Joshua D. Abramson, Easterwood Airport Management, College Station, TX (Chair) Debbie K. Alke, Montana DOT, Helena, MT Gloria G. Bender, TransSolutions, LLC, Fort Worth, TX David A. Byers, Quadrex Aviation, LLC, Melbourne, FL David N. Edwards, Jr., Greenville-Spartanburg Airport District, Greer, SC Brenda L. Enos, Burns & McDonnell, Kansas City, MO Linda Howard, Independent Aviation Consultant, Bastrop, TX Patrick W. Magnotta, FAA Liaison Matthew J. Griffin, Airports Consultants Council Liaison Liying Gu, Airports Council International– North America Liaison Adam Williams, Aircraft Owners & Pilots Association Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison TCRP PROJECT J-07 PANEL Brad Miller, Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authority (PSTA), St. Petersburg, FL (Chair) Mallory R. Avis, Michigan DOT, Lansing, MI Donna DeMartino, San Joaquin Regional Transit District, Stockton, CA Mark Donaghy, Greater Dayton Regional Transit Authority, Dayton, OH Michael Ford, Regional Transportation District, Denver, CO Bobby J. Griffin, Griffin and Associates, Flower Mound, TX Christian T. Kent, Virginia Beach, VA Ronald Kilcoyne, Walnut Creek, CA Jeanne Krieg, Eastern Contra Costa Transit Authority, Antioch, CA Paul J. Larrousee, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ David A. Lee, First Transit, West Hartford, CT Elizabeth Presutti, Des Moines Area Regional Transit Authority, Des Moines, IA Robert H. Prince, Jr., FOOT PRINCE, Jacksonville, FL Jarrett W. Stoltzfus, Proterra, City of Industry, CA David C. Wilcock, Vanasse Hangen Brustlin, Inc., Boston, MA Faith Hall, FTA Liaison TOPIC S01-16 PANEL Cullen Choi, Denver International Airport, Denver, CO Eric R. Daleo, NJ Transit Corp., Newark, NJ Casey Lamont, City of Burlington Electric Department, Burlington, VT Brendan J. Reed, San Diego County Regional Airport Authority, San Diego, CA John A. Bodnar, FTA Liaison Patrick W. Magnotta, FAA Liaison Rima Kasia Oueid, U.S. DOE Liaison

FOREWORD Airport administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which information already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and practice. This infor- mation may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the airport industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the entire airport community, the Airport Cooperative Research Program authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing project. This project, ACRP Project 11-03, “Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices,” searches out and synthesizes useful knowl- edge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an ACRP report series, Synthesis of Airport Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. PREFACE By Gail R. Staba Staff Officer Transportation Research Board The focus of this report is on describing microgrids that airports and public transit agencies can implement to increase resilience of their critical infrastructure. A microgrid is described as a collec- tion of loads, on-site energy sources, local energy storage systems, and an overarching control system. Developments in control technologies have seen advanced microgrid controllers expand microgrid functionality to create new value streams and revenue opportunities, increasing microgrid viability to many more sectors. This synthesis describes the benefits, challenges, costs, revenue streams, and ownership structures relevant to airports and public transit entities. Ruby Heard and Eric Mannarino, Arup, San Francisco, synthesized the information and wrote the report. Rima Oueid of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provided significant input to the research through submission of an extensive literature review and information based on the Microgrid Playbook for Decision Makers, which she developed for the DOE (final version pending release). The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on page vi. This synthesis is an imme- diately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand.

xi Glossary xiii Abbreviations 1 Summary 4 Chapter 1 Introduction 7 Chapter 2 Background 7 Types of Microgrids 7 Microgrid Applications and Deployment 8 Current State of Microgrids 12 Merits and Advantages 14 Microgrid Ownership, Revenue Streams, and Funding 16 Chapter 3 Benefits to Airports and Public Transit Entities 16 Needs and Benefits 17 Synergies and Trade-Offs 19 Chapter 4 Opportunities 19 Technical 20 Financial 21 Regulatory/Policy 22 Chapter 5 Barriers and Considerations 22 Technical 23 Financial 24 Regulatory/Policy 25 Operational and Organizational 25 Utility Integration 26 Gaps in Methodologies and Methods 28 Chapter 6 Microgrid Costs 28 Capital Costs 29 O&M Costs 31 Chapter 7 Cost Savings and Monetization Strategies 31 ISO/RTO Services 31 Utility Services 32 Ancillary Service Considerations 33 Customer-Sited Benefits 33 ROI C O N T E N T S

36 Chapter 8 Case Examples 37 General Assumptions 38 Case 1: Princeton University Campus Microgrid, Princeton, New Jersey 40 Case 2: Stewart International Airport Community Microgrid, New Windsor, New York 42 Case 3: Sunnyside Yard Community Microgrid, Queens, New York 44 Case 4: Eighth Avenue Community Microgrid, Manhattan, New York 46 Chapter 9 Conclusions 48 References 52 Appendix Evaluation and Modeling Tools Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.

G L O S S A R Y Advanced microgrid controller Sophisticated microgrid controller technology enabling grid moni- toring, communications, and facilitation of services to the wider distribution and transmission system. Bilateral agreement An agreement between a willing buyer and a willing seller to exchange electricity, rights to generating capacity, or a related product under mutually agreeable terms for a specified period. Combined heat and power (CHP) The concurrent production of electricity or mechanical power and useful thermal energy (heating and/or cooling) from a single source of energy. Technology used in these systems may be gas turbines, microturbines, reciprocating engines, steam turbines, and absorption chillers. Also called co-generation. Direct current (DC) An electric current flowing in only one direction. Solar photovoltaic (solar PV) systems and other generation technologies generate direct current (DC) electricity, whereas the main utility grid [in the United States] operates using alternating current (AC), in which electricity flows in two directions. An inverter or rectifier is required to convert one to the other to integrate the two systems. Distributed energy resources (DER) Decentralized energy generation and storage systems. Energy arbitrage Purchasing and storing energy at low price times and selling stored or generated energy into the market at higher priced times. Grid-connected microgrid A microgrid that has a physical connection to a wider electricity distribution network. It can provide power to facilities within the microgrid during non-emergencies while exchanging power with the distribution grid as well as offering ancillary services. Macrogrid A main power transmission and distribution system. Microgrid A group of interconnected loads and DER within clearly defined electrical boundaries that acts as a single controllable entity with respect to the grid. A microgrid can connect and disconnect from the grid to enable it to operate in grid-connected or island mode. Performance contract A financing mechanism based on anticipated efficiency gains that allows the customer the ability to avoid up-front capital costs.

Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) A contract between two parties, one which generates electricity (the seller) and one which is looking to purchase electricity (the buyer). Private debt Debt from a loan by a private entity, such as a bank. It may be guar- anteed by the official sector. This could also include debt issued as bonds sold into the private sector. Private equity In finance, private equity is an asset class consisting of equity secu- rities and debt in operating companies that are not publicly traded on a stock exchange. A private equity investment will generally be made by a private equity firm, a venture capital firm, or an angel investor. Each investor category has its own set of goals, prefer- ences, and investment strategies; however, all provide working capital to a target company to nurture expansion, new-product development, or restructuring of the company’s operations, management, or ownership. Service contract A contract between two parties, one which provides services (such as management of a microgrid to provide energy) and one which is looking to purchase services (such as outsourcing of operations and maintenance of a microgrid and the energy or other benefits it produces). Transactive energy or services A software-defined, low-voltage distribution grid that enables market participation by DER bidding generation of megawatts (MW) or kilowatts (kW) or ancillary services, such as frequency regulation, spinning reserves, and operating reserves.

A B B R E V I A T I O N S AC Alternating Current BESS Battery Energy Storage System CHP Combined Heat and Power C-PACE Commercial Property Assessed Clean Energy CPUC California Public Utilities Commission DC Direct Current DER Distributed Energy Resources DG Distributed Generation DOD Department of Defense (U.S.) DOE Department of Energy (U.S.) EPRI Electric Power Research Institute ESS Energy Storage System GHG Greenhouse Gas ISO Independent System Operator ITC Investment Tax Credit kW Kilowatt kWh Kilowatt-Hour MW Megawatt NEMA National Electrical Manufacturers Association NREL National Renewable Energy Laboratory NYCHA New York City Housing Authority NYSERDA New York State Energy Research and Development Authority O&M Operations and Maintenance PCC Point of Common Coupling PPA Power Purchase Agreement PTC Production Tax Credit PURPA Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 P3 Public-Private Partnership ROI Return On Investment RPS Renewable Portfolio Standard RTO Regional Transmission Organization SGIP Self-Generation Incentive Program (a CPUC program) Solar PV Solar Photovoltaic SREC Solar Renewable Energy Certificate

Next: Summary »
Microgrids and Their Application for Airports and Public Transit Get This Book
×
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) have released a joint report, ACRP Synthesis 91 / TCRP Synthesis 137: Microgrids and Their Application for Airports and Public Transit. The report describes microgrids that airports and public transit agencies can implement to increase resilience of their critical infrastructure. A microgrid is described as a collection of loads, on-site energy sources, local energy storage systems, and an overarching control system. Developments in control technologies have seen advanced microgrid controllers expand microgrid functionality to create new value streams and revenue opportunities, increasing microgrid viability to many more sectors. This synthesis describes the benefits, challenges, costs, revenue streams, and ownership structures relevant to airports and public transit entities.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!