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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Minority Serving Institutions: America's Underutilized Resource for Strengthening the STEM Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25257.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Minority Serving Institutions: America's Underutilized Resource for Strengthening the STEM Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25257.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Minority Serving Institutions: America's Underutilized Resource for Strengthening the STEM Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25257.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Minority Serving Institutions: America's Underutilized Resource for Strengthening the STEM Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25257.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Minority Serving Institutions: America's Underutilized Resource for Strengthening the STEM Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25257.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Minority Serving Institutions: America's Underutilized Resource for Strengthening the STEM Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25257.
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MINORITY SERVING INSTITUTIONS America’s Underutilized Resource for Strengthening the STEM Workforce Lorelle L. Espinosa, Kent McGuire, and Leigh Miles Jackson, Editors Committee on Closing the Equity Gap: Securing Our STEM Education and Workforce Readiness Infrastructure in the Nation's Minority Serving Institutions Board on Higher Education and Workforce Policy and Global Affairs A Consensus Study Report of PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and the ECMC Foundation (unnumbered award), the Helmsley Charitable Trusts (Award # 2016PG- EDU026, the Alfred P. Sloan foundation (Award # G-2016-7134), the W.K. Kellogg Foundation (unnumbered award) and the Wallace Foundation (unnumbered award). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25257 Additional copies of this publication are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2018 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Minority Serving Institutions: America’s Underutilized Resource for Strengthening the STEM Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/25257. PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

Committee on Closing the Equity Gap: Securing Our STEM Education and Workforce Readiness Infrastructure in the Nation’s Minority Serving Institutions Members LORELLE L. ESPINOSA (co-Chair), Vice President for Research, American Council on Education KENT MCGUIRE (co-Chair), Program Director of Education, William and Flora Hewlett Foundation JIM BERTIN, Math Instructor, Chief Dull Knife College ANTHONY CARPI, Dean of Research, Professor, Environmental Toxicology John Jay College, CUNY APRILLE J. ERICSSON, New Business Lead, Instrument Systems and Technology Division and Aerospace Engineer, Technologist, Project and Program Manager, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center LAMONT HAMES, President and CEO, LMH Strategies, Inc. WESLEY L. HARRIS, Charles Stark Draper Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology EVE HIGGINBOTHAM, Vice Dean, Office of Inclusion and Diversity, Penn Medicine and Senior Fellow, Leonard Davis Institute for Health Economics and Professor of Ophthalmology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania SPERO M. MANSON, Distinguished Professor of Public Health and Psychiatry, Director, Centers for American Indian and Alaska Native Health Colorado School of Public Health at the University of Colorado Denver and The Colorado Trust Chair in American Indian Health, Colorado School of Public Health, Anschutz Medical Center JAMES T. MINOR, Assistant Vice Chancellor and Senior Strategist for Academic Success and Inclusive Excellence, California State University LEO MORALES, Professor and Chief Diversity Officer, School of Medicine and Adjunct Professor, Health Services, School of Public Health, University of Washington ANNE-MARIE NÚÑEZ, Associate Professor, Department of Educational Studies, The Ohio State University CLIFTON POODRY, Senior Science Education Fellow, Howard Hughes Medical Institute WILLIAM SPRIGGS, Chief Economist, American Federation of Labor--Congress of Industrial Organizations, Professor, Department of Economics Howard University VICTOR TAM, Dean, Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics, Santa Rosa Junior College CRISTINA VILLALOBOS, Myles and Sylvia Aaronson Professor, School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley DOROTHY C. YANCY, President Emerita of Johnson C. Smith University and Shaw University LANCE SHIPMAN YOUNG, Associate Professor and Chair, Department of Chemistry, Morehouse College v PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

Study Staff LEIGH MILES JACKSON, Study Director BARBARA NATALIZIO, Program Officer (September 2017 –June 2018) IRENE NGUN, Research Associate (until June 2017) AUSTEN APPLEGATE Senior Program Assistant ADRIANA COUREMBIS, Financial Officer THOMAS RUDIN, Board Director, Board on Higher Education and Workforce Consultants ANDRÉS CASTRO SAMAYOA, Lynch School of Education, Boston College MARYBETH GASMAN, University of Pennsylvania, Center for Minority Serving Institutions DESHAWN PRESTON, Morehouse School of Medicine MATTHEW SOLDNER, Commissioner, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance MORGAN TAYLOR, Senior Policy Research Analyst, American Council on Education PAULA WHITACRE, Full Circle Communications vi PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

Board on Higher Education and Workforce Members RICHARD K. MILLER (Chair) (NAE), President, Olin College of Engineering LAWRENCE D. BOBO (NAS), W.E.B. Du Bois Professor of the Social Sciences, Department of Sociology, Harvard University ANGELA BYARS-WINSTON, Professor of Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison JAIME CURTIS-FISK, Scientist and STEM Education Program Leader, The Dow Chemical Company APRILLE J. ERICSSON, Capture-Mission Manager, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center RICHARD FREEMAN, Herbert Ascherman Professor of Economics, Harvard University PAUL J. LEBLANC, President, Southern New Hampshire University SALLY F. MASON, President Emerita, University of Iowa FRANCISCO RODGRIGUEZ, Chancellor, Los Angeles Community College District SUBHASH SINGHAL (NAE), Batelle Fellow Emeritus, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory KUMBLE R. SUBBASWAMY, Chancellor, University of Massachusetts, Amherst SHELLEY WESTMAN, Principal/Partner, Ernst & Young, LLP MARY WOOLLEY (NAM), President and CEO, Research! America Staff AUSTEN APPLEGATE, Senior Program Assistant ASHLEY BEAR, Program Officer LIDA BENINSON, Program Officer ALLISON BERGER, Senior Program Assistant JAIME COLMAN, Senior Program Assistant (Until December 2017) MARIA LUND DAHLBERG, Program Officer YASMEEN HUSSAIN, Associate Program officer (Until July 2017) LEIGH JACKSON, Senior Program Officer FREDERIC LESTINA, Senior Program Assistant (Until October 2018) BARBARA NATALIZIO, Program Officer (Until June 2018) IRENE NGUN, Research Associate LAYNE SCHERER, Program Officer THOMAS RUDIN, Director vii PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

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Preface Research suggests that the cultural diversity of a nation’s workforce is a key factor in its ability to innovate and compete in a global economy. This report on the role of Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs) in creating a diverse science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce is motivated by the realization that the United States is unlikely to maintain its competitive advantage in STEM without the contributions that these institutions are uniquely positioned to make. As such, the purpose of this committee’s work was to better understand contributing factors to the success and challenges that MSIs face in recruiting, retaining, and graduating students of color who are prepared to enter the STEM workforce. We further sought to identify the actions that those in the public and private sectors need to take to ensure the success and sustainability of the more than 700 MSIs that exist today, with the understanding that many more will emerge in the coming decades given our country’s demographic changes. More specifically, our charge was three-fold, to (1) identify model programs with demonstrated evidence of success; (2) examine the challenges MSIs face in preparing scientists, engineers, and other STEM professionals; and (3) surface the institutional components for scaling and sustaining effective policies and practices in STEM education. In response, we analyzed and synthesized the available evidence and highlight in the report effective and promising practices on how MSIs are bolstering success (e.g., through enrollment, persistence, retention, degree attainment, and employment) for students seeking STEM degrees and credentials. Through visits to a sample of MSIs, the committee explored with administrators, faculty, and students, the strategies they pursue in preparing STEM professionals. The committee examined the prevailing evidence on federal, state, and institutional policies that support such strategies, and collected data on institutional profiles of select MSI sectors and their contributions to their communities. Based on this evidence, the committee offers a series of findings, conclusions, and recommendations that aim to support the expansion of effective practices, and the study of promising ones, such that both can be scaled and thus reach more institutions and their students. In the body of this report are actions we think will focus, and increase, financial and other investments in MSIs in ways that produce strong returns, thus benefitting students, MSIs, their communities, the national workforce, and the overall economy. It is our hope that these recommendations will be taken on their merits and used as guideposts in efforts to improve STEM education and workforce pathways for MSI students, whatever the stakeholder vantage point—institutional leader, faculty member, business and industry partner, public official, philanthropic contributor, advocate, or student. As with any study, there are limitations and we had our share. Chief among them is the very limited, rigorous research available on MSIs generally, but especially knowledge that sheds light on how these institutions organize, deliver, and support learning opportunities for students of color in STEM. The committee reviewed all of what is available but acknowledged the fact that the strength of the evidence, especially regarding program effectiveness, varies widely. The breadth of MSI institution types and contexts is a strength of the MSI community, but proved a challenge given the committee’s charge. Available time and resources limited the committee’s ability to explore fully the rich diversity of institutional forms, missions, and socio-historical contexts that make up this set of institutions. ix PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

One of the ways we sought to overcome these limitations was to invite comment and testimony from a broad range of MSI constituencies, advocates, and beneficiaries, and to visit a diverse set of MSIs for on-the-ground observations and information gathering. We learned a great deal from the public forums and these insights have found their way into various chapters of this report, including our recommendations; we thank all who engaged the committee for their contributions. The time we spent in the field, learning about the intentionality with which MSIs work to prepare and graduate STEM professionals, was singularly important to completing our charge. We cannot thank enough the leadership, faculty, staff, students, and alumni of the colleges and universities we visited. Committee members were warmly received and the visits well organized. We recognize how much time and effort is involved in preparing for curious visitors with many questions about what you do and how you do it. The context and perspective the institutions provided was nothing short of invaluable. This has been a collective effort and thanks go to the very hard work of our committee. It has been a joy and a great privilege to work with such a knowledgeable and committed group of individuals. You have contributed in immeasurable ways to this important effort and we cannot thank you enough for your time and attention. We next appreciate greatly the support of the sponsors of this study, which include the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the ECMC Foundation, Helmsley Charitable Trust, the Wallace Foundation, and W.K. Kellogg Foundation. This work would not have been possible without the broad philanthropic support we received and we hope our recommendations will be useful as ways to advance interests in STEM education are considered. Finally, we cannot say enough about the dedication and hard work of the National Academies leadership and committee staff. It is through a combination of delicate pressure and strong support that we have emerged with this report. We are all indebted to BHEW Director, Tom Rudin for taking on the important charge of examining the role of MSIs in preparing a diverse STEM workforce. To Senior Program Officer and Study Director, Leigh Miles Jackson, thank you for seeing us through the arduous and rigorous process through which all study committees go. We could not have done this without you. Additional thanks to Program Officer, Barbara Natalizio and Senior Program Assistant, Austen Applegate for their contributions. In the end, we feel confident that this report adds to the much-needed conversation about how this country strengthens its STEM workforce and clarifies the central role of MSIs in meeting this challenge. The available data presented here makes clear that this conversation is in need of more voices and subsequent action. It also illustrates the central role of MSIs in meeting our nation’s education and workforce goals. To restate the obvious, we will not meet these goals without them. Drs. Lorelle L. Espinosa and Kent McGuire, Co-Chairs Committee on Closing the Equity Gap: Securing Our STEM Education and Workforce Readiness Infrastructure in the Nation's Minority Serving Institutions x PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

Acknowledgments This report reflects contributions from a number of individuals and groups. The committee takes this opportunity to recognize those who so generously gave their time and expertise to inform its deliberations. To begin, the committee would like to thank the sponsors of this study for their guidance and support. Support for the committee’s work was generously provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, ECMC Foundation, Helmsley Charitable Trust, Wallace Foundation, and W.K. Kellogg Foundation. The committee greatly benefited from the opportunity for discussion with individuals who attended and presented at their open session meetings (see Appendix B), as well as with the leadership, faculty, staff, students, and alumni at the nine MSIs they visited (see Appendix C). The committee is thankful for the many contributions of these individuals. The committee could not have done its work without the support and guidance provided by the National Academies project staff: Leigh Miles Jackson, study director; Barbara Natalizio, program officer; and Austen Applegate, Senior Program Assistant. We appreciate Adriana Courembis for her financial assistance on this project, and gratefully acknowledge Tom Rudin of the Board on Higher Education and Workforce for the guidance he provided throughout this important study. Many other staff within the National Academies provided support to this project in various ways. The committee would like to thank the executive office staff of Policy and Global Affairs (PGA), as well as Marilyn Baker, Karen Autrey, and Rita Johnson for the management of the report review and publication process. We would like to thank Jorge Mendoza-Torres and the National Academies Research Center staff for their assistance in the committee’s research efforts, and the National Academies Press staff. This committee is grateful to the research and writing consultants that generously contributed to this body of work. We thank the committee’s consultants Marybeth Gasman (University of Pennsylvania’s Center on Minority Serving Institutions) and Andrés Castro Samayoa (Boston College), Matthew Soldner (American Institutes of Research), and DeShawn Preston (Morehouse School of Medicine) for their invested time and support of this study. We thank Katherine Hale, Darius Singpurwalla, and Daniel Foley (National Science Foundation), Lance Selfa and colleagues (NORC at the University of Chicago), and Katherine Cardell (American Indian Education Consortium) for their generous assistance with data collection and analyses. We are particularly grateful to Morgan Taylor (American Council on Education) for her expertise, assistance, and support throughout the study process. And to the leadership, faculty, staff, students, and alumni of the colleges and universities we visited, we thank you for their gracious hospitably and for the context and perspective you provided. Finally, the committee is indebted to Paula Whitacre (Full Circle Communications) for her valuable commissioned work, Jay Labov for his expertise and advice, and Heather Phillips for her editorial assistance in preparing this report. xi PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Carlos Castillo- Chavez, Arizona State University; Kevin Christian, American Association of Community Colleges; James Dalton, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; Timothy Fong, California State University, Sacramento; Noël Harmon, Asian and Pacific Islander American Scholarship Fund; Tatiana Melguizo, University of Southern California; John Moder, Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities; Christine Nelson, University of Denver; Ivory Toldson, Howard University; Hannah Valantine, National Institutes of Health; Lydia Villa-Komaroff, Intersections SBD; and Darrell Warner, The Boeing Company. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Marigold Linton, University of Kansas and Alan Leshner, American Association for the Advancement of Science. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. xiii PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

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Contents Summary 1 11 1 Introduction Study Charge, 12 Study Approach, 14 Study Scope and Key Definitions, 16 Report Organization, 16 References, 19 2 Closing the Gap and Advancing the Nation’s STEM Workforce 21 The STEM Workforce, 22 Building a STEM Workforce in the Context of a Changing Nation, 23 The Nation’s STEM Workforce Needs, 27 Minority Serving Institutions: An Underutilized Resource, 31 References, 32 3 MSIs and the Students They Serve 37 What Are Minority Serving Institutions, 38 The MSI Community: A Model of Diversity for American Higher Education, 48 Challenges with Institutional Metrics, 63 Considering What It Means to “Serve” Minority Students, 66 Chapter Annex, 68 References, 70 4 MSI Investment and Returns on Investment 77 Federal and State Investment, 78 Overview of Investments by MSI Type, 83 Summing It Up: Why Public Investments in MSIs Matter, 91 Return on Investment, 95 Targeted Investments in MSIs and the Potential for Increased Return on Investment, 103 Chapter Annex, 105 References, 107 5 Promising Strategies that Contribute to STEM Student Success 111 Committee Research Plan, 113 Intentionality, 116 Strategies to Promote Student Success, 117 Chapter Summary, 147 References, 148 xv PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

6 A Shift in Priorities to Support the Future STEM Workforce: Recommendations for an Impactful Change 159 Recommendations, 160 Appendixes A Biographical Sketches for Committee Members and Staff 169 B Public Session Agendas 183 C Site Visit Overview 187 D Reference Links to Illustrative Examples of Promising Programs at MSIs that Support Students in STEM 193 E Commissioned Literature Review 197 F Supplemental Data 205 xvi PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

Boxes, Figures, and Tables BOXES S-1 An Overview of Minority Serving Institutions and Their Students, 2 1-1 Previous National Academies Efforts Relevant to the Study Charge, 12 1-2 Committee Statement of Task, 13 1-3 Key Definitions, 17 2-1 Demographic Research in a Changing Nation, 26 2-2 A Reflection: Relying on Foreign-Born Talent to Support Domestic Workforce Needs, 28 2-3 Diversity in the Workforce, 29 3-1 Diversity within Historically- and Enrollment-Defined MSIs, 39 3-2 MSI Growth: The Case of “Emerging HSIs”, 46 3-3 Students of Color and College Choice, 49 3-4 The Critical Importance of Two-Year Institutions and STEM Education, 55 4-1 Examples of Federal Programs that Support STEM at MSIs, 82 4-2 Reducing Duplication, Increasing Competitiveness, 85 5-1 Definition of Student Success in STEM, 112 5-2 Committee’s Research Plan, 113 5-3 The Alaska Native Science and Engineering Program, 120 5-4 Achieving the Dream, 123 5-5 The Louis Stokes Alliances for Minority Participation (LSAMP) Program, 126 5-6 The Math Engineering Science Achievement (MESA) Program, 130 5-7 A Student-Centered ENtrepreneurship Development (ASCEND) Program, 135 5-8 Building Infrastructure Leading to Diversity (BUILD) Initiative, 136 xvii PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

5-9 MSI STEM Research and Development Consortium (MSRDC), 141 5-10 SBIR and STTR Awards, 145 FIGURES 2-1 Changing U.S. demographics from 1965-2065, Percent of the total population, 24 2-2 The racial and ethnic composition of U.S. children under age 18 (in percent), 25 2-3 Percentage distribution of students enrolled in public elementary and secondary schools, by race/ethnicity, fall 1995 through fall 2026, 25 3-1 MSI locations throughout the United States, 38 3-2 Number of Federally Eligible HSIs after the 1992 Reauthorization of the Higher Education Act, 45 3-3 Percent distribution of students at MSIs (averages), by race/ethnicity, type and sector, compared to non-MSIs, 2015 data, 50 3-4 Percentage of students enrolled in STEM fields versus non-STEM fields at four-year MSIs, compared to four-year non-MSIs, 2016 data, 51 3-5 Percentage distribution of students in STEM at four-year MSIs, by race/ethnicity, type and sector, compared to non-MSIs, 2016 data, 52 3-6 Percentage of adult learners (aged 25-64) at two- and four-year MSIs, 2015 data, 54 3-7 Percentage distribution of full-time instructional staff with faculty status at MSIs (averages), by race/ethnicity, type and sector, compared to non-MSIs, 2015 data, 58 3-8 Percentage distribution of U.S-trained science & engineering postsecondary faculty at MSIs, by race/ethnicity, compared to non-MSIs, 2015 data, 59 3-9 Percentage distribution of presidents at MSIs and non-MSIs, by race/ethnicity, 2016 data, 60 3-10 Percentage of financial aid awarded to undergraduate students at MSIs by type and control, compared with non-MSIs, fiscal year 2015 data, 62 4-1 Percentage of investments by source, public and private (nonprofit) four-year HBCUs and non-HBCUs, 83 4-2 Percentage of investments by source at TCUs and public non-TCUs, 86 xviii PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

4-3 Federal appropriations per Native student at TCUs, authorized versus allocated, 87 4-4 Percentage of investments by source at public two- and four-year HSIs and non-HSIs, 88 4-5 Per-student investments in public two- and four-year HSIs and non-HSIs, 1999-2012, 89 4-6 Percentage of investments by source, AANAPISI and non- AANAPISI public institutions, 2011, 90 4-7 Total completions in STEM versus non-STEM fields, at MSIs compared to non-MSIs, 2016 Data, 97 4-8 Percent total of STEM bachelor's degrees earned by Black students at HBCUs compared to non-HBCUs, Asian American students at AANAPISIs compared to non-AANAPISIs, and Hispanic students at HSIs compared to non-HSIs, 2016 data, 98 TABLES 3-1 Historically-Defined Minority Serving Institutions, 40 3-2 Enrollment-Defined Minority Serving Institutions, as Defined by the U.S. Department of Education, 43 3-3 Enrollment Intensity Patterns at HBCUs, AANAPISIs, and HSIs, 53 3-4 Enrollment Intensity Patterns at TCUs, 53 3-5 Four-Year Outcomes (200 Percent Normal Time) at Two-Year MSIs: Fall 2007 Cohort, 64 3-6 Six-Year Outcomes (150 Percent Normal Time) at Four-Year MSIs: Fall 2007 Cohort, 65 4-1 Federal Investments in Institutions of Higher Education (IHE) and the Percentage of IHE funds awarded to HBCUs, by Federal Agency, 2013, 84 4-2 Investments in MSIs and Non-MSIs per Full-Time Equivalent (FTE) Student, 92 4-3 MSI and Non-MSI Spending per Full-Time Equivalent (FTE) Student, 93 4-4 Endowment Assets per Full-Time-Equivalent (FTE) Enrollment by MSI Type (Four-year Institutions), 95 4-5 Student Mobility Rates, by MSI Type and Sector, 101 5-1 Types of Mechanisms Available for Collaborative Research Partnerships, 138 xix PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNEDITED PROOFS

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There are over 20 million young people of color in the United States whose representation in STEM education pathways and in the STEM workforce is still far below their numbers in the general population. Their participation could help re-establish the United States’ preeminence in STEM innovation and productivity, while also increasing the number of well-educated STEM workers.

There are nearly 700 minority-serving institutions (MSIs) that provide pathways to STEM educational success and workforce readiness for millions of students of color—and do so in a mission-driven and intentional manner. They vary substantially in their origins, missions, student demographics, and levels of institutional selectivity. But in general, their service to the nation provides a gateway to higher education and the workforce, particularly for underrepresented students of color and those from low-income and first-generation to college backgrounds. The challenge for the nation is how to capitalize on the unique strengths and attributes of these institutions and to equip them with the resources, exceptional faculty talent, and vital infrastructure needed to educate and train an increasingly critical portion of current and future generations of scientists, engineers, and health professionals.

Minority Serving Institutions examines the nation’s MSIs and identifies promising programs and effective strategies that have the highest potential return on investment for the nation by increasing the quantity and quality MSI STEM graduates. This study also provides critical information and perspective about the importance of MSIs to other stakeholders in the nation’s system of higher education and the organizations that support them.

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