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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Commissioned Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Minority Serving Institutions: America's Underutilized Resource for Strengthening the STEM Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25257.
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Appendix E

Commissioned Literature Review

ANALYSIS OF RESEARCH PERTAINING TO UNDER REPRESENTED MINORITIES (URMS), MINORITY SERVING INSTITUTIONS (MSIS) AND STEM

Marybeth Gasman, University of Pennsylvania
Andrés Castro Samayoa, Boston College
Alice Ginsberg, University of Pennsylvania
Penn Center for Minority Serving Institutions

Prepared for
National Academy of Sciences Ad Hoc Committee

Closing the Equity Gap: Securing Our STEM Education and Workforce
Readiness Infrastructure in the Nation’s Minority Serving Institutions

August 6, 2017; revised September 3, 2017; revised November 2, 2017

Search #1:

Literature Collection Strategy for Research on Under Represented Minorities (URMs) and STEM

A total of 78 articles, reports, journal articles, book chapters, dissertations, and proceedings were identified as relevant for examination in this review of the literature focused on STEM education and underrepresented minorities (URMs). The committee-directed criteria for examination in this review was as follows:

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Commissioned Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Minority Serving Institutions: America's Underutilized Resource for Strengthening the STEM Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25257.
×
  • Manuscript had to be in publication no later than 2006 (and up through 2017) and indexed in either EBSCO, ERIC, Google Scholar, ProQuest Dissertations, and/or PubMed.
  • The substantive focus of the manuscript had to focus on specific practices, policies, and/or programs that were focused on supporting students’ success in STEM fields.
  • Reports that primarily offered an overview of enrollment/completion/persistence and/or other broad-level aggregate data by racial/ethnic groups in STEM were excluded from inclusion.

Search terms:

“underrepresented minority” and STEM (false positives reduced by using full phrasing)

URM and STEM

“underrepresented minority” and “science, technology, engineering, and mathematics”

“underrepresented minority” and “promising practices”

“students of color” and “science, technology, engineering, and mathematics”

“Meyerhoff” and “science, technology, engineering, and mathematics”

Common Findings in Research Studies Pertaining to MSIs Across the studies, we identified three recurring themes:

  • The importance of undergraduate research experience in STEM
  • Peer support groups improve students’ persistence
  • Curricular structures affect students’ persistence in STEM

Overall Assessment of Research Pertaining to URMs and STEM

A preponderance of research focused on URMs and STEM is framed through self-reported data collected via surveys. These studies explore various domains of students’ experiences: from their participation in undergraduate research experiences, to their relationship with faculty. There are other studies that focus on case studies, either single institution programs or programs supported through federal funds.

Note, also, that there were findings that were excluded but are nonetheless worth mentioning. For example, there is evidence of randomized controlled trials exploring the effectiveness of mentoring in undergraduate education. However, these were not focused on STEM and were thus ineligible. Similarly, we noted previous efforts from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to examine literature in the field focused on underrepresented minori-

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Commissioned Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Minority Serving Institutions: America's Underutilized Resource for Strengthening the STEM Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25257.
×

ties (e.g. an assessment of National Institutes of Health Minority research and training programs). However, these were excluded as they were published beyond the 10-year window of time of publication.

Search #2:

Literature Collection Strategy for Research on Minority Serving Institutions and Student Success and Best Practices

A total of 30 articles, reports, journal articles, book chapters, dissertations, and proceedings were identified as relevant for examination in this review of the literature focused on Minority Serving Institutions and student success and best practices. The committee-directed criteria for examination in this review were as follows:

  • Manuscript had to be in publication no later than 2006 (and up through 2017) and indexed in either EBSCO, ERIC, Google Scholar, ProQuest Dissertations, Scopus, and/or Web of Science (WOS).
  • The substantive focus of the manuscript had to be on specific practices, policies, and/or programs that were focused on supporting students’ success.
  • Reports that primarily offered an overview of enrollment/completion/persistence and/or other broad-level aggregate data by racial/ethnic groups were excluded from inclusion.

Search terms:

“Minority Serving Institutions” and “race” and “ethnicity”

“Minority Serving Institutions” and “student success”

“Historically Black Colleges and Universities” or “HBCUs” and “student success”

“Hispanic Serving Institutions” or “HSI” and “student success”

“Tribal Colleges and Universities” or “TCU” and “student success”

“Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander Serving Institutions” or “AANAPISIs” and “student success”

“Historically Black Colleges and Universities” or “HBCUs” and best practices

“Hispanic Serving Institutions” or “HSI” and best practices

“Tribal Colleges and Universities” or “TCU” and best practices

“Minority Serving Institutions” and “best practices”

“Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander Serving Institutions” or “AANAPISIs” and “student success”

“Minority Serving Institutions” and “RISE” (no results as RISE is not a logged search term)

“Historically Black Colleges and Universities” and “RISE (no results as RISE is not indexed)

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Commissioned Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Minority Serving Institutions: America's Underutilized Resource for Strengthening the STEM Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25257.
×

“Hispanic Serving Institutions” and “RISE” no results as RISE is not indexed)

Common Findings in Research Studies Pertaining to MSIs Across the studies, we identified four recurring themes:

  • The MSI environment and its link to academic and student success
  • The role of MSIs in promoting college completion
  • The importance of culturally relevant approaches to learning
  • The role of MSIs in promoting developmental education

Overall Assessment of Research Pertaining to MSIs

The committee’s standards for inclusion include quasi-experimental design, experimental design, multisite case studies, or rich and deep single-site case studies. The majority of literature on MSIs is focused on understanding the sector and its contributions to higher education. Other areas of exploration are student success, student identity, learning, and developmental education. The majority of MSI research uses a case study methodology and is multisite in nature. A small number of research studies use propensity score matching and is mainly focused on degree attainment.

What are the common or distinct challenges faced by MSI students? What are best practices at the various MSI types?

Regardless of MSI type and the racial and ethnic group of students, similar findings surface across the various studies. These include: the need for students to embrace their full identities, the power of culturally relevant assignments in retention efforts, the importance of collaboration over competition, and the vital nature of peer support and peer-to-peer mentoring.

Search #3:

Literature Collection Strategy for Research on Minority Serving Institutions and STEM

A total of 64 articles, reports, journal articles, book chapters, dissertations, and proceedings were identified as relevant for examination in this review of the literature focused on STEM Education and Minority Serving Institutions. The committee-determined criteria for examination in this review were as follows:

  • Manuscript had to be in publication no later than 2006 (and up through 2017) and indexed in either EBSCO, ERIC, Google Scholar, ProQuest Dissertations, Scopus, and/or Web of Science (WOS).
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Commissioned Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Minority Serving Institutions: America's Underutilized Resource for Strengthening the STEM Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25257.
×
  • Minority Serving Institutions overall or by individual sector had to be explicitly identified within the author(s)’ discussion. The study did not need to only focus on MSIs for inclusion, as a study could also be comparative in nature.
  • The substantive focus of the manuscript had to focus on specific practices, policies, and/or programs that were focused on supporting students’ success in STEM fields.
  • Reports that primarily offered an overview of enrollment/completion/persistence and/or other broad-level aggregate data by racial/ethnic groups in STEM were excluded from inclusion.

Search terms:

“Minority Serving Institutions” and “STEM”

“Historically Black Colleges and Universities” or “HBCUs” and “STEM”

“Hispanic Serving Institutions” or “HIS” and “STEM”

“Tribal Colleges and Universities” or “TCU” and “STEM”

“Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander Serving Institutions” or “AANAPISIs” and “STEM”

“RISE” (no results, as RISE is not an indexed term in database)

Common Findings in Research Studies Pertaining to MSIs and STEM: Across the studies, we identified six recurring themes:

  • The importance of sustained and personalized faculty and peer mentoring throughout the undergraduate and graduate experience
  • Opportunities to do hands-on and culturally relevant research
  • Early recruitment of students and the importance of summer bridge programs
  • Opportunities to engage in summer institutes and other STEM-related extracurricular community activities
  • More sequenced and comprehensive courses, with special attention to Gateway courses
  • Improving career counseling and helping students with the transition to graduate school and into the STEM workforce

Overall Assessment of Research Pertaining to MSIs and STEM

The committee’s standards for inclusion include: quasi-experimental design, experimental design, multisite case studies, or rich and deep single-site case studies. Very few studies meet this standard, limiting the research quality and generalizability. The majority of studies are multisite case studies.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Commissioned Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Minority Serving Institutions: America's Underutilized Resource for Strengthening the STEM Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25257.
×

What are the common and distinct challenges faced by students in STEM at the various MSI types?

Whereas Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs) and Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander Serving Institutions (AANAPISIs) tend to have more developed infrastructure and research facilities, Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and Tribal Colleges and Universities (TCUs) need additional resources in order to attract students and provide opportunities in STEM.

HBCUs and TCUs have more low-income students and more Pell grant-eligible students than HSIs and AANAPISIs; however, all MSI types have more low-income and Pell grant-eligible students than the national average. Due to the large numbers of low-income students at all MSI types, students face common challenges that influence retention and degree attainment.

Students in STEM at TCUs and HSIs face greater resistance from families when they want to move to another state for graduate STEM programs.

Additional Significant Findings Pertaining to MSIs and STEM

These findings surfaced in some of the research studies but were not as prevalent as those mentioned above. In addition, there was little research to support these findings beyond one case study at one MSI.

  • The importance of the “welcoming” and communal nature of MSIs, which encourages students to support each other and increases student confidence.
  • MSIs should look for “diamonds in the rough” (e.g., students who are not STEM superstars but have strong potential).
  • The importance of family support for STEM majors and higher education overall.
  • Hiring more minority STEM faculty is essential to student success.
  • Students need more opportunities to present their research at conferences.

The following is the bibliography showing results from the commissioned literature review. Search limits were quasi-experimental design, experimental design, multisite case studies, or rich and deep single-site case studies. Additional studies that pertain to URMs and STEM were also considered by the committee but are not listed below.

  1. Carpi, A., Ronan, D. M., Falconer, H. M., Boyd, H. H., and Lents, N. H. (2013). Development and implementation of targeted STEM retention strategies at a Hispanic-serving institution. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 12(3), 280-299.
  2. Carpi, A., Ronan, D. M., Falconer, H. M., and Lents, N. H. (2017). Cultivating minority scientists: Undergraduate research increases self-efficacy and career ambitions for underrepresented students in STEM. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 54(2), 169-194.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Commissioned Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Minority Serving Institutions: America's Underutilized Resource for Strengthening the STEM Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25257.
×
  1. Chun, H., Marin, M., Schwartz, J., Pham, A., and S. Castro-Olivo, (2016). Psychosociocultural structural model of college success among Latina/o students in Hispanic-serving Institutions. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 9(4), 385-400.
  2. Conrad, C., and Gasman, M. (2015). Educating a diverse nation: Lessons from Minority Serving Institutions. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  3. Corwin, L. A., Graham, M. J., and Dolan, E. L. (2015). Modeling Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences: An Agenda for Future Research and Evaluation. CBE Life Sciences Education, 14(1). https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.14-10-0167
  4. Crisp, G., Nora, A., and Taggart, A. (2009). Student characteristics, pre-college, college, and environmental factors as predictors of majoring in and earning a STEM degree: An analysis of students attending a Hispanic serving institution. American Educational Research Journal, 46(4), 924-942.
  5. Drew, J. C., Galindo-Gonzalez, S., Ardissone, A. N., and Triplett, E. W. (2016). Broadening Participation of Women and Underrepresented Minorities in STEM through a Hybrid Online Transfer Program. CBE Life Sciences Education, 15(3). https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.16-01-0065.
  6. Eagan, M. K., Hurtado, S., Chang, M. J., García, G. A., Herrera, F. A., and Garibay, J. C. (2013). Making a Difference in Science Education: The Impact of Undergraduate Research Programs. American Educational Research Journal, 50(4), 683–713. https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831213482038
  7. Flores, S. and Park, T. (2013). Race, ethnicity, and college success: Examining the continued significance of the Minority-Serving Institution. Educational Researcher, 42(3), 115-128.
  8. Flores, St. and Park, T. (2015). The effect of enrolling in a Minority-Serving Institution for Black and Hispanic students in Texas, Research in Higher Education, 56(3), 247-276.
  9. Gasman, M. and Nguyen, T. (2016) HBCUs as Leaders in STEM. Philadelphia, PA: Penn Center for Minority Serving Institutions.
  10. Gasman, M., Nguyen, T. H., Conrad, C. F., Lundberg, T., and Commodore, F. (2017). Black male success in STEM: A case study of Morehouse College. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 10(2), 181.
  11. García, G. and Okhidoi, O. (2015). Culturally relevant practices that “serve” students at a Hispanic Serving Institution, Innovative Higher Education, 40(4), 345-357.
  12. Gasiewski, J., Eagan, M.K., García, G., Hurtado, S., and M. Chang (2011). From gatekeeping to engagement: A multicontextual mixed method study of student academic engagement in introductory STEM courses. Research in Higher Education, 53(2), 229-261.
  13. Hubbard, S. M., and Stage, F. K. (2010). Identifying comprehensive public institutions that develop minority scientists. New Directions for Institutional Research, 148, 53-62.
  14. Hurtado, S., Eagan, M.K., Tran, M., Newman, C., Chang, M., and P. Velasco (2011). “We do science here”: Underrepresented students’ interactions with faculty in different college contexts. Journal of Social Issues, 67(3), 553-579.
  15. Kim, M. and Conrad, C. (2006). The impact of Historically Black Colleges and Universities on the academic success of African American students. Research in Higher Education, 47(4), 399-427.
  16. Nguyen, T. (2015). Exploring Historically Black College and Universities’ Ethos of Racial Uplift: STEM Students’ Challenges and Institutions’ Practices for Cultivating Learning and Persistence in STEM.
  17. Parker, T. (2012). The role of Minority-Serving Institutions in redefining and improving developmental education. Atlanta, GA: Southern Education Foundation.
  18. Perna, L., Lundy-Wagner, V., Drezner, N. D., Gasman, M., Yoon, S., Bose, E., and Gary, S. (2009). The contribution of HBCUs to the preparation of African American women for STEM careers: A case study. Research in Higher Education, 50(1), 1-23.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Commissioned Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Minority Serving Institutions: America's Underutilized Resource for Strengthening the STEM Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25257.
×
  1. Schultz, P. W., Hernandez, P. R., Woodcock, A., Estrada, M., Chance, R. C., Aguilar, M., and Serpe, R. T. (2011). Patching the Pipeline: Reducing Educational Disparities in the Sciences Through Minority Training Programs. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 33(1). https://doi.org/10.3102/0162373710392371.
  2. Slovacek, S., Whittinghill, J., Flenoury, L., and Wiseman, D. (2012). Promoting minority success in the sciences: The minority opportunities in research programs at CSULA. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 49, no. 2 (2012): 199-217.
  3. Stassun, K., Burger, A. and Lange, E. (2010) The Fisk-Vanderbilt Masters-to-PhD Bridge Program: A model for broadening participation of underrepresented groups in the physical sciences through effective partnerships with Minority-Serving Institutions. Journal of Geoscience Education: May 2010, 58(3), 135-144.
  4. Teranishi, R., Martin, M., Pazich, L., Alcantar, C., and T. Nguyen, (2014). Measuring the impact of MSI-funded programs on student success: Findings from the evaluation of Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving Institutions. Los Angeles, CA: National Commission on Asian American and Pacific Islander Research in Education.
  5. Thao, M., Lawrenz, F., Brakke, M., Sherman, J., and M. Matute, (2016). Insights into implementing research collaborations between research-intensive universities and Minority-Serving Institutions, Natural Sciences Education, 45(1), 1-12.
  6. Toven-Lindsey, B., Levis-Fitzgerald, M., Barber, P. H., and Hasson, T. (2015). Increasing Persistence in Undergraduate Science Majors: A Model for Institutional Support of Underrepresented Students. CBE Life Sciences Education, 14(2). https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.14-05-0082.
  7. Woodcock, A., Hernandez, P. R., and Schultz, P. W. (2016). Diversifying Science: Intervention Programs Moderate the Effect of Stereotype Threat on Motivation and Career Choice. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 7(2), 184–192. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550615608401.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Commissioned Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Minority Serving Institutions: America's Underutilized Resource for Strengthening the STEM Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25257.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Commissioned Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Minority Serving Institutions: America's Underutilized Resource for Strengthening the STEM Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25257.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Commissioned Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Minority Serving Institutions: America's Underutilized Resource for Strengthening the STEM Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25257.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Commissioned Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Minority Serving Institutions: America's Underutilized Resource for Strengthening the STEM Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25257.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Commissioned Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Minority Serving Institutions: America's Underutilized Resource for Strengthening the STEM Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25257.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Commissioned Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Minority Serving Institutions: America's Underutilized Resource for Strengthening the STEM Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25257.
×
Page 224
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Commissioned Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Minority Serving Institutions: America's Underutilized Resource for Strengthening the STEM Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25257.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Commissioned Literature Review." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Minority Serving Institutions: America's Underutilized Resource for Strengthening the STEM Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25257.
×
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There are over 20 million young people of color in the United States whose representation in STEM education pathways and in the STEM workforce is still far below their numbers in the general population. Their participation could help re-establish the United States’ preeminence in STEM innovation and productivity, while also increasing the number of well-educated STEM workers.

There are nearly 700 minority-serving institutions (MSIs) that provide pathways to STEM educational success and workforce readiness for millions of students of color—and do so in a mission-driven and intentional manner. They vary substantially in their origins, missions, student demographics, and levels of institutional selectivity. But in general, their service to the nation provides a gateway to higher education and the workforce, particularly for underrepresented students of color and those from low-income and first-generation to college backgrounds. The challenge for the nation is how to capitalize on the unique strengths and attributes of these institutions and to equip them with the resources, exceptional faculty talent, and vital infrastructure needed to educate and train an increasingly critical portion of current and future generations of scientists, engineers, and health professionals.

Minority Serving Institutions examines the nation’s MSIs and identifies promising programs and effective strategies that have the highest potential return on investment for the nation by increasing the quantity and quality MSI STEM graduates. This study also provides critical information and perspective about the importance of MSIs to other stakeholders in the nation’s system of higher education and the organizations that support them.

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