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Implications of Connected and Automated Driving Systems, Vol. 1: Legal Landscape (2018)

Chapter: Section 3: Overview of Organization Activities

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Suggested Citation:"Section 3: Overview of Organization Activities." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Implications of Connected and Automated Driving Systems, Vol. 1: Legal Landscape. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25296.
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Page 64
Page 65
Suggested Citation:"Section 3: Overview of Organization Activities." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Implications of Connected and Automated Driving Systems, Vol. 1: Legal Landscape. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25296.
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Page 65

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NCHRP Web-Only Document 253, Vol. 1: Legal Landscape 64 Section 3: Overview of Organization Activities American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators (AAMVA) The AAMVA has been, and most likely will continue to be, the lead organization advancing law and regulatory changes for C/AVs/HAVs. AAMVA’s members include 69 states and territories in the U.S. and Canada whose members are responsible for motor vehicle administration and law enforcement. AAMVA’s charge is to promote uniformity and reciprocity and to assist its members in addressing landscape and revolutionary changes for AVs. It is working on all fronts to assist its members to prepare for new technologies such as HAVs. AAMVA has led the effort with its Autonomous Vehicle Information Sharing Group and Library and its Autonomous Vehicle Working Group, both of which will help members prepare for the impact of vehicle automation. AAMVA provided significant input to the NHTSA Model State Policy. The Association and its members will be the primary users of this research project. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) The AASHTO is a nonprofit and nonpartisan association that represents highway and transportation departments in the 50 states, D.C. and Puerto Rico. AASHTO had research conducted in 2015 to create a Connected/Automated Vehicle Roadmap (Shladover and Gettman, 2015). They identified a list of unresolved issues that were relevant to state and local agency owner/operators including institutional and policy, operational, legal and planning. Within these categories, a catalogue was created of issues, and critical needs designated for short-term research. National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) The NCSL has a dedicated website section regarding HAVs within their research section of the website under the transportation section (see http://www.ncsl.org/research/transportation/autonomous- vehicles.aspx). The NCSL represents all the states, and provides training and information, as well as conducting advocacy efforts through its committee structure. In 2017, the NCSL created a database that tracks all legislation introduced in the 50 states and D.C. The database is searchable in multiple ways. The section also has information on various AV legislative topics, such as privacy, vehicle inspection, cybersecurity, operator requirements and other pertinent areas. They also produce a map showing the progress of legislation enacted across the U.S. Governors Highway Safety Association (GHSA) The GHSA also has a webpage at http://www.ghsa.org/state-laws/issues/Autonomous-Vehicles. They also produced a report Autonomous Vehicles Meet Human Drivers: Traffic Safety Issues for States in February 2017. The report “emphasizes the importance of driver behavior during the transition period between traditional and autonomous vehicles, noting the challenges states may face in preparing human drivers” (Hedlund, 2017). This report provided five key pieces of advice as sates “grapple with the issues of AVs:” 1. Be informed 2. Be a player in your sate 3. Understand the role of states 4. Don’t rush into passing laws or establishing regulations 5. Be flexible

NCHRP Web-Only Document 253, Vol. 1: Legal Landscape 65 National Governors Association (NGA) The NGA a nonprofit and nonpartisan organization represents all the states’ governors. They have a center for best practices and government relations office along with standing committees. Like many other national associations, they are utilizing their committee structure for research and to provide materials to prepare their membership for HAVs. In December 2016, NGA hosted a webinar on “Preparing for Highly Autonomous Vehicles” (NGA, 2016). Industry Associations Quasi-governmental and private industry associations have also developed standards that bear on C/AV/HAV technology. The ISO has set many standards utilized the world over. In 2014, the ISO Technical Committee for Road Vehicles (ISO/TC22) began work to develop standards related to C/AVs/HAVs (ISO, 106: 2014). SAE International has also been a trailblazer in creating the taxonomy and definitions for the vehicles through its On-Road Automated Driving Committee. The J3016 Standard released in January 2014 (and revised in 2016 and 2018), titled Taxonomy and Definitions for Terms Related to On-Road Motor Vehicle Automated Driving Systems, was adopted by NHTSA in its September 2016 policy as the de- facto standard within the U.S. The standard was developed to provide a common taxonomy and definitions for automated driving with a goal to simplify communication and facilitate collaboration within and across policy domains. A dozen key terms were defined.Figure 2 summarizes J3016 (SAE, 2016). In December 2016, SAE released a J3016 complementary document, the J3114 surface vehicle information report, titled Human Factors Definitions for Automated Driving and Related Research Topics. The purpose of this report is to aid research and facilitate improved driver/user-vehicle-interface design and usability. The Committee began working on J3092, Dynamic Test Procedures for Verification and Validation of Automated Driving Systems, in March 2015. In March 2015, the Committee issued is J3018, Guidelines for Safe On-Road Testing of SAE Level 3, 4 and 5 Prototype Automated Driving Systems.

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TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Web-Only Document 253: Implications of Connected and Automated Driving Systems, Vol. 1: Legal Landscape explores federal, state, and international legal activities and practices regarding Connected and Automated Vehicles and Highly Automated Vehicles (C/AV/HAVs):

  • Section 1 reviews United States federal activities within the sphere of regulating C/AV/HAVs.
  • Section 2 reviews practices in each of the 50 states and local activities that have amended motor vehicle codes. For a review of legislation that has been introduced across all 50 states (some of which has not passed out of state legislatures as law), refer to Appendix C, which is a sortable Excel spreadsheet delineating activities at the federal and state level.
  • Section 3 highlights activities being undertaken by transportation agencies within this field, specifically highlighting the American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators (AAMVA’s) activities.
  • Section 4 provides brief summaries of law journal articles that address subject matter focus areas for policy-makers and legislators to consider as C/AV/HAV market penetrations grow. It includes a review of privacy laws.
  • Section 5 provides a review of international activities being undertaken in this area. The team reviewed related activities taking place among our North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) trade partners, Canada and Mexico, as well as in European countries and the European Union, Australia, and Japan.
  • Section 6 offers conclusions based on information presented in sections 1 through 5.

View all volumes of NCHRP Web-Only Document 253:

  • Vol. 1: Legal Landscape
  • Vol. 2: State Legal and Regulatory Audit
  • Vol. 3: Legal Modification Prioritization and Harmonization Analysis
  • Vol. 4: Autonomous Vehicle Action Plan
  • Vol. 5: Developing the Autonomous Vehicle Action Plan
  • Vol. 6: Implementation Plan
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