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NCHRP Web-Only Document 253, Vol. 1: Legal Landscape 104 References References denoted with an asterisk (*) are directly cited in the report. Other references may provide background or supplementary information. *Anderson, J., N. Kalra, K. Stanley, P. Sorensen, C. Samaras, and O. Oluwatola. Autonomous Vehicle Technology: A Guide for Policymakers. RAND, Santa Monica, CA, 2014. *ANWB. Experiments on Autonomous and Automated Driving: An Overview 2015, Apr. 2015. http://www.anwb.nl/bestanden/content/assets/anwb/pdf/over- anwb/persdienst/rapport_inventarisatie_zelfrijdende_auto.pdf. Australian Broadcast News. First Driverless Car Trials in Southern Hemisphere to be held In Adelaide, Coinciding with International Conference, Jul. 21, 2015. http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-07- 21/driverless-car-trials-held-in-adelaide/6636334. *Boeglin, J. The Costs of Self-Driving Cars: Reconciling Freedom and Privacy with Tort Liability in Autonomous Vehicle Regulation. Yale Journal of Law & Technology, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2015. http://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1112&context=yjolt. Boske, L. and R. Harrison. Transportation Policy Brief No. 2: Autonomous Vehicles in Texas. Prepared for TxDOT, Project No. 0-6581, by the Center for Transportation Research and Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs, Dec. 2014. http://library.ctr.utexas.edu/ctr- publications/policy/0-6581_task19-2.pdf. Brett, J. A. Thinking Local about Self Driving Cars: A Local Framework for Autonomous Vehicle Development in the U.S, MS thesis, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 2016. https://digital.lib.washington.edu/researchworks/bitstream/handle/1773/36852/Brett_washington_ 0250O_16021.pdf?sequence=1. *California Department of Motor Vehicles. Proposed Driverless Testing and Deployment Regulations. Initial Statement of Reasons, Mar. 10, 2017a. https://www.dmv.ca.gov/portal/dmv/detail/vr/autonomous/auto. *California Department of Motor Vehicles. Proposed Driverless Testing and Deployment Regulations. Autonomous Vehicles Express Terms, Mar. 10, 2017b. https://www.dmv.ca.gov/portal/dmv/detail/vr/autonomous/auto. *California Department of Motor Vehicles. Driverless Testing Regulations. Final Statement of Reasons and Adopted Regulatory Text, Feb. 26, 2018. https://www.dmv.ca.gov/portal/dmv/detail/vr/autonomous/auto. California State Legislature. Senate Bill (SB) 1298, Chapter 570. Filed with the Secretary of State on Sep. 25, 2012. https://leginfo.legislature.ca.gov/faces/billNavClient.xhtml?bill_id=201120120SB1298. *Casey, A. J., and A. Niblet. Self-Driving Laws, Jun. 15, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2804674 or https://ssrn.com/abstract=2804674. *Casey, B. A Loophole Large Enough to Drive an Autonomous Vehicle Through: The ADA’s ‘New Van’ Provision and the Future of Access to Transportation. Stanford Law Review [Online], Dec., 2016. https://www.stanfordlawreview.org/online/loophole-large-enough/. *Chesteron, S. Do Driverless Cars Dream of Electric Sheep? Sep. 2016. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2833701. *City of Boston. Mayor Walsh Announced Autonomous Vehicle Initiative, Sep. 14, 2016. https://www.boston.gov/news/mayor-walsh-announces-autonomous-vehicle-initiative. City of Chicago. City Council Meeting: Sep. 14, 2016a [Transcript of meeting]. https://chicago.legistar.com/Transcript.aspx?ID1=566 or https://chicago.legistar.com/Calendar.aspx. City of Chicago. Proposed Ordinance Amending Municipal Code by Adding New Section 9-76-240 to Prohibit Operation of Autonomous Vehicles on Roadways, Sep. 14, 2016b. file:///D:/D_Users/Downloads/O2016-6465.pdf or

NCHRP Web-Only Document 253, Vol. 1: Legal Landscape 105 https://chicago.legistar.com/LegislationDetail.aspx?ID=2835036&GUID=AD9F5ECB-A793- 4C5D-B9D4-42CF0A64D6C7&Options=Advanced&Search. *CityMobile2. Cities Demonstrating Automated Road Passenger Transport. About CityMobile2: Funded by EU’s Seventh Framework Program for Research and Technological Development. Not dated. http://www.citymobil2.eu/en/About-CityMobil2/Overview/ on Oct. 23, 2015. *CityMobile2. La Rochelle. Large Scale Demonstration. http://www.citymobil2.eu/en/City- activities/Large-Scale-Demonstration/La-Rochelle/. *City of Coeur D’Alene ID. Ordinance No 3488, council Bill no 14-1012. amending sections 4.05.030, 4.25.080, 4.25.120 and adding a new section 10.02.030 to provide a definition of robot, authorize the use of robots on public property and the use of autonomously operated vehicles on city streets; providing repeal of conflicting ordinances; providing severability; providing the publication of a summary and providing an effective date, Aug. 5, 2014. http://www.sterlingcodifiers.com/codebook/getBookData.php?pending_id=16898. *Coles, C. Automated Vehicles: A Guide for Planners and Policymakers. MS thesis, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA, Apr. 2016. http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/theses/1534/. *Consumer Watchdog. Letter to Hon J. Perez, California. Re SB 1298 Oppose Unless Amended, May 30, 2012. http://www.consumerwatchdog.org/resources/ltrgoogdrive053012.pdf. *Crane, D. A., K. D. Logue, and B. C. Pilz. Survey of Legal issues Arising from the Deployment of Autonomous and Connected Vehicles. The University of Michigan Mobility Transformation Center, Apr. 2016. https://www.law.umich.edu/events/automatedvehicles/Documents/University%20of%20Michiga n%20Discussion%20Draft.Apr.%202016.pdf. *Davidson, P, and A. Spinoulas. Autonomous vehicles: what could this mean for the future of transport? In Australian Institute of Traffic Planning and Management (AITPM) National Conference, 2015, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, 2015. Department of Motor Vehicles, Nevada. NAC, Chapter 482A—Autonomous Vehicles (Rev. 4-14). http://www.leg.state.nv.us/NAC/NAC-482A.html. *Department of Motor Vehicles, California. Autonomous Vehicles in California: Deployment of Autonomous Vehicles for Public Operation. http://apps.dmv.ca.gov/about/lad/pdfs/auto_veh2/adopted_txt.pdf/. *Department of Transport United Kingdom. The Pathway to Driverless Cars: Summary Report and Action Plan, Feb. 2015. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/401562/pathway- driverless-cars-summary.pdf. Douma, F., and S. Aue Palodichuk. Criminal Liability Issues Created by Autonomous Vehicles, Santa Clara Law Review, Vol. 52, 2012, pp. 1157. Duffy, S. and J. P. Hopkins. Sit, Stay, Drive: The Future of Autonomous Car Liability. Southern Methodist University Science and Technology Law Review, Vol. 453, 2013, pp. 118-122. Economic Commission for Europe-Inland Transport Committee, European Agreement Supplementing the Convention on Road Traffic Opened for Signature at Vienna on 8 Nov. 1968 and Done at Geneva on 1 May 1971. E/ECE/TRANS/567 Amend, 2. http://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/conventn/crt1968e.pdf. Electronic Privacy Information Center. Comments to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration: Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Event Data Recorders, Feb. 11, 2013. https://epic.org/privacy/edrs/EPIC-Coal-NHTSA-EDR-Cmts.pdf. Elfin, D. Missouri Governor Vetoes Pilot Truck Platooning Program. Transport Topics, Jul. 11, 2016. http://www.ttnews.com/articles/missouri-governor-vetoes-pilot-truck-platooning-program *ENO Center for Transportation. Subscriber Only Articles. Eno Transportation Weekly, Sep. 19, 2017. Not publicly available.

NCHRP Web-Only Document 253, Vol. 1: Legal Landscape 106 European Parliament: Directorate-General for Internal Policies, 2016. Research for TRAN Committee – Self Piloted Cars: The future of Road Transport. Prepared by Steer Davis Gleave for the European Parliament. www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/.../IPOL_STU(2016)573434_EN.pdf European Union Truck Platooning. Not dated. https://www.eutruckplatooning.com/About/Exemption+process/default.aspx). Federal Trade Commission. Comment: Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Regarding Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards: Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V), Docket No. NHTSA-2014-0022, Oct. 20, 2014. https://www.ftc.gov/system/files/documents/advocacy_documents/federal-trade- commission-comment-national-highway-traffic-safety-administration-regarding- nhtsa/141020nhtsa-2014-0022.pdf. Federal Trade Commission. Fair Information Practice Principals, 2009. https://web.archive.org/web/20090513043908/http://www.ftc.gov/reports/privacy3/fairinfo.shtm. *Federal Communications Commission. FCC Unlocks New Airwaves for Vehicular Radar Use, Jul. 13, 2017. https://www.fcc.gov/document/fcc-unlocks-new-airwaves-vehicular-radar-use. *Federal Communications Commission. Report and Order, FCC 17-94A1, Jul. 13, 2017a. http://transition.fcc.gov/Daily_Releases/Daily_Business/2017/db0718/FCC-17-94A1.pdf. *FMCSA. FMCSA to Hold Public Listening Session on Highly Automated Commercial Vehicles, Apr. 13, 2017. https://www.fmcsa.dot.gov/newsroom/fmcsa-hold-public-listening-session-highly- automated-commercial-vehicles *Federal Trade Commission. FTC and NHTSA Seek Input on Benefits and Privacy and Security Issues Associated with Current and Future Motor Vehicles, Mar. 20, 2017. https://www.ftc.gov/system/files/attachments/press-releases/ftc-nhtsa-conduct-workshop-Jun.-28- privacy-security-issues-related-connected-automated- vehicles/notice_connected_cars_workshop_with_nhtsa_1.pdf *Federal Trade Commission. Connected Cars: Privacy Security Issues Related to Connected Automated Vehicles, Jun. 27, 2017a. https://www.ftc.gov/news-events/events-calendar/2017/06/connected- cars-privacy-security-issues-related-connected Finish Transport Safety Agency (Trafi). Automated Vehicle Trails in Finland Fact Sheet, Apr. 2016. http://www.trafi.fi/filebank/a/1475139801/c715fc7cabf057b9320be4bbd6714cbe/22483- Testing_automated_vehicles_in_Finland_2016.pdf. *FixedOpsBuiness. Consumer Watchdog: Robot Car Deployment Rules are Premature, Apr. 25, 2017. https://www.fixedopsbusiness.com/articles/130-consumer-watchdog-robot-car-deployment-rules- are-premature Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles. Florida Autonomous Vehicle Report, Feb. 10, 2014. http://www.flhsmv.gov/html/HSMVAutonomousVehicleReport2014.pdf. Foresman, C. Google Faces $50 million Lawsuit over Android Location Tracking. Ars Technica, Apr. 30, 2011. http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2011/04/google-faces-50-million-lawsuit-over-android- location-tracking/. **Fortune. New California Law Allows Test of Autonomous Shuttle with No Driver, Sep. 29, 2016. http://fortune.com/2016/09/29/california-law-test-autonomous-shuttle/. Froomkin, A. M. Government Data Breaches. Berkeley Tech. Law Journal, Vol. 24, No. 3, 2009, pp. 1019-1059. Funkhouser, K. Paving the Road Ahead: Autonomous Vehicles, Products Liability, and the Need for a New Approach. Utah Law Review, Vol. 437, 2013. Examiner. TxDOT Tracks Drivers to Mine Data Without their Consent, Jun. 2, 2015. http://www.examiner.com/article/txdot-tracks-drivers-to-mine-data-without-their-consent. German Federal Law Gazette II. Gesetz zur Änderung der Artikel 8 und 39 des Übereinkommens vom 8. Nov. 1968 über den Straßenverkehr (Act to Amend Articles 8 and 39 of the Convention on Road Traffic of Nov. 8, 1968), Bundesgesetzblatt (BGBl). Federal Law Gazette II at 1306. Dec. 7, 2016.

NCHRP Web-Only Document 253, Vol. 1: Legal Landscape 107 https://www.bgbl.de/xaver/bgbl/start.xav?startbk=Bundesanzeiger_BGBl&jumpTo=bgbl216s130 6.pdf. *Glancy, D. Privacy in autonomous vehicles. Santa Clara Law Review, Vol. 52, 2012, pp. 1171. *Glancy, D. Sharing the Road: Smart Transportation Infrastructure. Fordham Urban Law Journal, Vol. 41, 2014, pp. 1617. Glancy, D., R. Peterson, and K. Graham. A Look at the Legal Environment for Driverless Vehicles: pre- publication draft prepared for Transportation Research Board of the National Academies of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 2015. *Glaskin, M. Safe and Secure. Vision Zero International. Jun. 2014, pp. 40-43. Gosselin, K. Navigating the Policy Landscape to Bring Autonomous Vehicle Legislation to your State. N.Y.U. J. of Legislation and Public Policy Quorum, 2015, pp. 85-109. *Government Accountability Office, United States. Intelligent Transportation Systems: Vehicle-to- Vehicle Technologies Expected to Offer Safety Benefits but A Variety of Deployment of Challenges Exist. GAO Report 14-03, Nov. 1, 2013. http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-14-13. *Government Accountability Office, United States. Intelligent Transportation Systems: Vehicle-to- Infrastructure Technologies Expected to Offer Safety Benefits but A Variety of Deployment of Challenges Exist. GAO Report 15-775, Sep. 15, 2015. http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-15- 775. *Government Accountability Office, United States. Mobile Device Location Data: Additional Federal Action Could Help Protect Consumer Privacy. GAO Report 12-903, Oct., 2012. http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-12-903 *Government Accountability Office, United States. Vehicle Cybersecurity: DOT and Industry Have Efforts Under Way, but DOT Needs to Define Its Role in Responding to a Real-world Attack. GAO Report 16-350, 2016. http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-16-350 *Government of France: Elysee France. Compete-rendu du Conseil des ministres due Mercredi 3 Août 2016. http://www.elysee.fr/conseils-des-ministres/article/compte-rendu-du-conseil-des-ministres- du-mercredi-3-aout-201/. *Government of Japan: Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. Autonomous Driving: Creating an Optimal Relationship Between People and Automobiles. Meti Journal, 2014a http://www.meti.go.jp/english/publications/pdf/journal2014_03a.pdf. *Government of Japan: Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport of Tourism, 2012. ITS Initiatives in Japan. http://www.mlit.go.jp/road/ITS/pdf/ITSinitiativesinJapan.pdf. *Government of Japan: Cabinet Office (JCSTI). Workshop on Connected and Automated Driving Systems, 2014b. http://www8.cao.go.jp/cstp/gaiyo/sip/workshop201411.html. *Government of Japan; Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. Outline of METI FY 2017 Budget Request, 2016. http://www.meti.go.jp/english/aboutmeti/policy/fy2016/outline.html. *Government of Ontario, Regulatory Registry. A Pilot Project to Safety Test Autonomous Vehicles. Registry Number 011-9707, 2013. http://www.ontariocanada.com/registry/showAttachment.do?postingId=14802&attachmentId=22 912. *Government of South Australia: Attorney General’s Department of Motor Vehicles (Trials of Automotive Technologies) Amendment Bill 2015. HA GP 334-1 OPC 112, 2015a. http://www.legislation.sa.gov.au/LZ/B/CURRENT/MOTOR%20VEHICLES%20%28TRIALS% 20OF%20NEW%20AUTOMOTIVE%20TECHNOLOGIES%29%20AMENDMENT%20BILL %202015.aspx on Oct. 27, 2015. *Government of South Australia: Department of Planning, Transport and Infrastructure (DPTI). South Australia Leads Nation on Driverless Car Legislation, 2015b. http://dpti.sa.gov.au/news/?a=177492. *Government UK. Driverless Cars in the UK: A Regulatory Review, 2015a. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/driverless-cars-in-the-uk-a-regulatory-review.

NCHRP Web-Only Document 253, Vol. 1: Legal Landscape 108 *Government UK. The Pathway to Driverless Cars: Code of Practice for Testing of Automated Vehicle Technologies, 2015b. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/446316/pathway- driverless-cars.pdf. *Governor of Virginia. Governor McAuliffe Announces New Partnership to Make Virginia a Leader in Automated-Vehicle Industry, Press Release, Jun. 2, 2015. https://governor.virginia.gov/newsroom/newsarticle?articleId=8526#sthash.W3FXQR9x.dpuf. *Graham, M. Driverless Cars Could be Banned by Chicago City Council. The Chicago Tribune, Sep. 14, 2016. http://www.chicagotribune.com/bluesky/originals/ct-driverless-cars-uber-ban-ordinance- chicago-bsi-20160914-story.html. *Greenberg, A. Hackers Remotely Kill a Jeep on the Highway: With Me in It. Wired, 2015a. https://www.wired.com/2015/07/hackers-remotely-kill-jeep-highway/. *Greenberg, A. Chrysler and Harman Hit with a Class Action Complaint After Jeep Hack. Wired, 4 2015b. https://www.wired.com/2015/08/chrysler-harman-hit-class-action-complaint-jeep-hack/. Gurney, J. K. Sue My Car, Not Me: Products Liability and Accidents Involving Autonomous Vehicles. University of Illinois Journal of Law, Technology & Policy, 2013, pp. 264-265. Gursten, S. Why Isn’t Michigan Following Fed’s Lead on Driverless Cars with SB 995? Michigan Auto Law, Nov. 17, 2016. http://www.michiganautolaw.com/blog/2016/11/17/driverless-cars-sb-995/. *Hagan, S. Uber launches Self-Driving Cars in Arizona After California Ban. Bloomberg Technology, Feb. 21, 2017. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-02-21/uber-launches-self-driving- cars-in-arizona-after-california-ban. *Harris, M. The Man Who Built Google’s First Self-Driving Car Is Now a Trucker. Backchannel, 2016a. https://backchannel.com/the-man-who-built-googles-first-self-driving-car-is-now-a-trucker- aa1726d3a36f#.r5hy61k6j). *Harris, M. How Otto Defied Nevada and Scored a $680 Million Payout from Uber. Backchannel, 2016b. https://backchannel.com/how-otto-defied-nevada-and-scored-a-680-million-payout-from-uber- 496aa07f5ba2#.ryumgn7hs). *Henkel, F., J. Nowak, N. Smirra, and A. Reiner. Autonomous Vehicles: The Legal Landscape in Germany. Norton Rose Fulbright, Aug. 11, 2016. http://www.nortonrosefulbright.com/knowledge/publications/141945/autonomous-vehicles-the- legal-landscape-in-germany. *Hedlund, J. Prepared for Governors Highway Safety Association. Autonomous Vehicles Meet Human Drivers: Traffic Safety Issues for States, 2017. http://www.ghsa.org/resources/spotlight-av17. Insurance Information Institute. Self-Driving Cars and Insurance, 2015. http://www.iii.org/issue- update/self-driving-cars-and-insurance. International Organization for Standards. ISOfocus: Issue 106, Sep.-Oct. 2014. http://www.iso.org/iso/isofocus_106.pdf. ITS International. Motor insurance for autonomous vehicles ‘will shift from drivers to OEMs’, Oct. 27, 2015. https://bit.ly/2ILbR4j *The Japan Times. Fully Automated Vehicles Excluded from Tests on Japan’s Roads, May 26, 2016. http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2016/05/26/business/tech/fully-automated-vehicles-excluded- tests-japans-public-roads/. *Jenkins, R. Autonomous Vehicles Ethics and Law: Toward an Overlapping Consensus. New America, Sep. 2016. https://www.newamerica.org/digital-industries-initiative/policy-papers/autonomous- vehicles-ethics-law/. Kalra, N., J. M. Anderson, and M. Wachs, M. Liability and Regulation of Autonomous Vehicle Technologies. California PATH Research Report UCB-ITS-PRR-2009-28, 2009, pp. 31. *Kane, M. Auto Insurer Might Sue Tesla Over Autopilot-Related Crash. Inside EVs, 2016. http://insideevs.com/auto-insurer-might-sue-tesla-autopilot/. *Kerr, O. S. The Case for the Third-Party Doctrine. Michigan Law Review, 2009, pp. 561-601.

NCHRP Web-Only Document 253, Vol. 1: Legal Landscape 109 Kim, M. K., Y. Heled, I. Asher, and M. Thompson. Comparative Analysis of Laws on Autonomous Vehicles in the U.S. and Europe. AUVSI’s Unmanned Systems Conference, Orlando, Florida, May 2014. http://www.auvsishow.org/auvsi2014/Custom/Handout/Speaker8657_Session789_1.pdf. *Kockelman, K. S., P. Boyles, C. Avery, L. Claudel, L. Loftus-Otway, D. Fagnant, P. Bansal, M. Levin, Y. Zhao, J. Liu, L. Clements, W. Wagner, D. Stewart, G. Sharon, M. Albert, P. Stone, J. Hanna, R. Patel, H. Fritz, T. Choudhary, T. Li, A. Nichols, K. Sharma, and M. Simoni. Bringing Smart Transport to Texans: Ensuring the Benefits of a Connected and Autonomous Transport System in Texas-Final Report. Technical Report 0-6838-2, Nov. 2016. https://library.ctr.utexas.edu/ctr- publications/0-6838-2.pdf *Kohler, W. and A. Colbert-Taylor. Current Law and Potential Legal Issues Pertaining to Automated, Autonomous and Connected Vehicles. Santa Clara High Tech. Law Journal, Vol. 31, 2015, pp. 99. *Krompier, J. Thoughts on California’s New Self-Driving Car Regulations. Mar. 15, 2017. https://selfdrivecentral.com/a-few-notes-on-californias-proposed-self-driving-car-regulations- 7d8ac203ad04 Kurzweil. A French Autonomous Car. Jan. 13, 2012. http://www.kurzweilai.net/a-french-autonomous- car. *Lafrance, A. How Self-Driving Cars Will Threaten Privacy. The Atlantic, Mar. 21, 2016. http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2016/03/self-driving-cars-and-the-looming- privacy-apocalypse/474600/. *Lenth, D. Chapter 570: Paving the Way for Autonomous Vehicles. McGeorge Law Review, Vol. 44, 2013, pp. 788. *Los Angeles County Development Corporation’s e4 Mobility Alliance (LAEDC e4). Comments on Proposed Revision of California DMV Autonomous Vehicle Regulations, Oct. 19, 2016. http://laedc.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/Response-to-DMV-Autonomous-Vehicles-Draft- Guidelines_FINAL.pdf. *Loveday, E. Consumer Watchdog Calls for Recall of Tesla Autopilot Feature. Inside EVs, Dec. 1, 2016. http://insideevs.com/consumer-watchdog-calls-for-recall-of-tesla-autopilot-feature/. *Lutz, L. S. Automated Vehicles in the EU: A Look at Regulations and Amendments. Genre, Mar. 2016. http://www.genre.com/knowledge/publications/cmint16-1-en.html. Marant, G. E. and R. A. Lindor. The Coming Collision Between Autonomous Vehicles and the Liability System. Santa Clara Law Review, Vol.52, 2012, pp. 1335. *Markey, E. [Senator]. Tracking and Hacking: Security & Privacy Gaps Put American Drivers at Risk. Feb. 2015. http://www.markey.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/2015-02-06_MarkeyReport- Tracking_Hacking_CarSecurity%202.pdf. McCarthy, C., K. Harnett, A. Carter, and C. Hatipoglu. Assessment of the Information Sharing and Analysis Center Model. (Report No. DOT HS 812 076). Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2014. www.nhtsa.gov/Research/Crash+Avoidance/ci.Office+of+Crash+Avoidance+Research+Technica l+Publications.print. *McCarthy, C., K. Harnett, and A. Carter. A Summary of Cybersecurity Best Practices. (Report No. DOT HS 812 075). Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2014a. www.nhtsa.gov/Research/Crash+Avoidance/ci.Office+of+Crash+Avoidance+Research+Technica l+Publications.print. *McCarthy, C., K. Harnett, and A. Carter. Characterization of Potential Security Treats in Modern Automobiles: A Composite Modeling Approach. (Report No. DOT HS 812 074). Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2014b. www.nhtsa.gov/Research/Crash+Avoidance/ci.Office+of+Crash+Avoidance+Research+Technica l+Publications.print.

NCHRP Web-Only Document 253, Vol. 1: Legal Landscape 110 *McCarthy, C. and K. Harnett. National Institute of Standards and Technology Cybersecurity Risk Management Framework Applied to Modern Vehicles (Report No. DOT HS 812 073), 2014. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. www.nhtsa.gov/Research/Crash+Avoidance/ci.Office+of+Crash+Avoidance+Research+Technica l+Publications.print. *Ministry of Transportation Ontario, Canada. Ontario First to Test Automated Vehicles on Roads in Canada, Press Release, Oct. 13, 2015. http://news.ontario.ca/mto/en/2015/10/ontario-first-to-test- automated-vehicles-on-roads-in-canada.html?_ga=1.54572776.233983492.1445620525. Mead, D. Nissan’s Autonomous Car is Road Legal in Japan. Motherboard, Sep. 27, 2013. http://motherboard.vice.com/blog/nissans-autonomous-car-is-road-legal-in-japan *National Archives and Records Administration: Federal Register. Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations: Highly Automated Commercial Vehicles; Public Listening Session. Apr. 17, 2017. https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2017/04/17/2017-07723/federal-motor-carrier-safety- regulations-highly-automated-commercial-vehicles-public-listening *National Conference of State Legislatures. Security Breach Notification Laws. Jan., 4, 2016. http://www.ncsl.org/research/telecommunications-and-information-technology/security-breach- notification-laws.aspx. *National Conference of State Legislatures. Privacy of Event Data Records: State Statutes. Dec. 12, 2016. www.ncsl.org/research/telecommunications-and-information-technology/privacy-of-data-from- event-data-recorders.aspx. *National Conference of State Legislatures. Website, not dated. http://www.ncsl.org/research/transportation/autonomous-vehicles.aspx. NHTSA. Notice of Proposed Rulemaking: Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and Event Data Recorders. Title 49 CFR, Pt 571, 2012a. http://www.nhtsa.gov/cars/rules/rulings/edrnprm4-- Jun.1/part2.html; on Oct. 25, 2015 *NHTSA. U.S. DOT proposes broader Use of Event Data Recorders to Help Improve Vehicle Safety. Press Release 46-10, Dec. 7, 2012, 2012b. http://www.nhtsa.gov/About+NHTSA/Press+Releases/U.S.+DOT+Proposes+Broader+Use+of+E vent+Data+Recorders+to+Help+Improve+Vehicle+Safety [hereinafter EDR Press Release]. *NHTSA. Preliminary Statement of Policy Concerning Automated Vehicles. US Department of Transportation, 2013. http://www.nhtsa.gov/staticfiles/rulemaking/pdf/Automated_Vehicles_Policy.pdf on Oct. 5, 2015. NHTSA. Advanced Notice for Proposed Rulemaking: Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards: Vehicle- to-Vehicle Communications. Title 49 CFR 571, US Federal Register: Vol. 79, No. 161, 2014a. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2014-08-20/pdf/2014-19746.pdf. *NHTSA. U.S. Department of Transportation Announces Decision to Move forward with Vehicle- toVehicle Communication Technology for Light Vehicles, Press Release, 2014b. https://www.nhtsa.gov/press-releases/us-department-transportation-announces-decision-move- forward-vehicle-vehicle. *NHTSA. Transportation Secretary Foxx announces steps to accelerate road safety innovation. Press Release, 2015a. http://www.nhtsa.gov/About+NHTSA/Press+Releases/2015/nhtsa-will- accelerate-v2v-efforts. *NHTSA. US Department of Transportation Issues Advanced Notice of Proposed rulemaking to Begin Implementation of Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications Technology, Press Release, 2015b. http://www.nhtsa.gov/About+NHTSA/Press+Releases/NHTSA-issues-advanced-notice-of- proposed-rulemaking-on-V2V-communications *NHTSA. DSRC-Unlicensed Device Test Plan. Version 3.5.3, 2015c. http://www.its.dot.gov/research_archives/connected_vehicle/pdf/DSRC_TestPlanv3.5.3.pdf. *NHTSA. Request for Public Comment on Proposed Collection of Information, 2015d. https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2015/10/29/2015-27480/reports-forms-and- recordkeeping-requirements-agency- information-collection-activity.

NCHRP Web-Only Document 253, Vol. 1: Legal Landscape 111 *NHTSA. Notice of Proposed Rulemaking: Request for Approval of New Information Collection. Title 80 CFR, Pt. 61269, 2015e. https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2015/10/09/2015- 25798/request-for-approval-of-a-new-information-collection. *NHTSA. Notice of Proposed Rulemaking: Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and Event Data Recorders. Title 49 CFR, Pt 571, 2016a. *NHTSA. ODI Resume Investigation PE 16-007. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2016b. https://www- odi.nhtsa.dot.gov/acms/cs/jaxrs/download/doc/UCM530776/INOA-PE16007-7080.PDF. *NHTSA. U.S. DOT and IIHS announce historic commitment of 20 automakers to make automatic emergency braking standard on new vehicles. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2016c. https://www.nhtsa.gov/press-releases/us-dot-and-iihs-announce-historic- commitment-20-automakers-make-automatic-emergency. NHTSA. Vehicle Performance Guidance for Automated Vehicles - a 15-point Safety Assessment. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2016d. https://www.nhtsa.gov/sites/nhtsa.dot.gov/files/avfactsheet_vehicle_performance_guidance.pdf. *NHTSA. Federal Automated Vehicles policy: Accelerating the Next Revolution in Roadway Safety. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2016e. https://one.nhtsa.gov/nhtsa/av/pdf/Federal_Automated_Vehicles_Policy.pdf. 2017. *NHTSA. Cybersecurity Best Practices for Modern Vehicles. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2016f. https://www.nhtsa.gov/staticfiles/nvs/pdf/812333_CybersecurityForModernVehicles.pdf. *NHTSA. U.S. DOT Announces public Meeting on Federal Automated vehicles Policy. Press release, Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2016g. https://www.nhtsa.gov/press-releases/us-dot-announces-public-meeting-federal-automated- vehicles-policy. NHTSA. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards. V2V Communications. Docket No. NHTSA-016- 0126, Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2016h. https://www.nhtsa.gov/press-releases/us-dot-advances-deployment-connected-vehicle- technology-prevent-hundreds-thousands. *NHTSA. Automated Driving Systems 2.0 A Vision for Safety, 2017. https://www.nhtsa.gov/document/automated-driving-systems-20-voluntary-guidance *National Transport Commission of Australia. Website home page on preparing for More Automated Road and Rail Vehicles, not dated. https://www.ntc.gov.au/current-projects/preparing-for-more- automated-road-and-rail-vehicles/. *National Transport Commission of Australia. Regulatory Reforms for Automated Road Vehicles. Policy Paper, Nov. 2016, 2016a. https://www.ntc.gov.au/Media/Reports/(32685218-7895-0E7C-ECF6- 551177684E27).pdf. *National Transport Commission of Australia. National Guidelines for Automated Vehicle Trials. Discussion Paper, Nov. 2016, 2016b. https://www.ntc.gov.au/Media/Reports/(FEAAC3B0-8F38- 2C35-5FBC-4968034E6565).pdf. *Nevada Revised Statutes Chapter 482: Autonomous Vehicles (Rev. 2014). Nevada State Legislature. 2014. https://www.leg.state.nv.us/nrs/NRS-482A.html *Nikkei Asian Review. Japanese Companies, ministries Come Together to Hasten Development, Feb. 26, 2015. http://asia.nikkei.com/Business/Trends/Japanese-companies-ministries-come-together-to- hasten-development. *Nikkei Asian Review. Drones, Self-driving Cars Need Laws Too, Dec. 11, 2014. http://asia.nikkei.com/Tech-Science/Tech/Drones-self-driving-cars-need-laws-too. *Norton Rose Fulbright. Autonomous Vehicles: The legal landscape in the US and Germany. Whitepaper, Aug. 11, 2016. http://www.nortonrosefulbright.com/knowledge/publications/141782/autonomous-vehicles-the- legal-landscape-in-the-us-and-germany.

NCHRP Web-Only Document 253, Vol. 1: Legal Landscape 112 OECD International Transport Forum, Corporate Partnership Board. Automated and Autonomous Driving: Regulation Under Uncertainty, 2015. http://www.internationaltransportforum.org/pub/pdf/15CPB_AutonomousDriving.pdf on Oct. 30, 2015. *Ontario ministry of Transportation. Automated Vehicles – Driving Innovation in Ontario Website. Not dated. http://www.mto.gov.on.ca/english/vehicles/automated-vehicles.shtml. *Otto Launch Website. May 16, 2016. https://blog.ot.to/introducing-otto-the-startup-rethinking- commercial-trucking-cfdc502ef452#.48r2o2qvn. Palodichuk, S.A. Driving into the Digital Age: How SDVs Will Change the Law and Its Enforcement. Minn. J.L. Sci. & Tech., Vol. 827, 2015, pp. 16. *Partners for Advanced Transportation Technology at the University of Berkeley California Website. http://www.path.berkeley.edu/research/automated-and-connected-vehicles/california-department- motor-vehicle-dmv-automated-vehicle. Polin, D. Proof of Manufacturer’s’ Liability for Defective Software. Am. Jur. Proof of Facts 3d § 333 (Updated Apr. 2015), 2015, pp. 68. Risen, T. Snowden: NSA Wants to Own Your Phone. U.S. News & World Report, Oct. 7, 2015a. http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2015/10/07/snowden-nsa-is-copying-uk-phone-hacking- program. Risen, T. How Safe is a Self-Driving Car? U.S. News and World Report, Oct. 8, 2015b. http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2015/10/08/nhtsa-volvo-seek-cybersecurity-privacy-for- driverless-cars. *Autonomous Vehicles. In NASA Formal Methods Symposium. Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 175-190. Roseman, R. When Autonomous Vehicles Take Over the Road: Rethinking the Expansion of the Fourth Amendment in a Technology-Driven World, Richmond Journal of Law & Tecnhology, Vol. 20, 2013, pp. 1. *SAE International. On-Road Automated Vehicle Standards Committee. Standard J3016: Taxonomy and Definitions for Terms Related to Driving Automation Systems for On-Road Motor Vehicles, 2018. https://www.sae.org/standards/content/j3016_201806/on Jun. 15, 2018. *SAE International. Surface Vehicle Information Report: Human Factors Definitions for Automated Driving and Related Research Topics, 2016. http://standards.sae.org/j3114_201612/ on Dec. 20, 2016. Safe Car News. UN Amends Vienna Convention on Road Traffic to Allow Driverless Cars, May 21, 2014. http://safecarnews.com/un-amends-vienna-convention-on-road-traffic-to-allow-driverless- cars/ on Oct. 23, 2015. *Safe Road Trains for the Environment (SARTE) Project. EU Website. http://www.sartre- project.eu/en/Sidor/default.aspx. Schreurs, M. A., and S. D. Steuwer. Autonomous Driving—Political, Legal, Social, and Sustainability Dimensions. In Autonomous Driving. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2016, pp. 149-171. Scism, L. State Farm is There: As You Drive. The Wall Street Journal: Markets, Aug. 4, 2013. http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424127887323420604578647950497541958. *Scribner, M., I. Adams, and B. Szoka. In the Matter of Request for Comments on Federal Automated Vehicles Policy, Comments of The Competitive Enterprise Institute, R Street Institute, & Tech Freedom. Docket No. NHTSA-2016-0090, Nov. 2016. https://cei.org/sites/default/files/CEI%20et%20al%20- %20NHTSA%20FAVP%20guidance%20comments.pdf. *Shladover, S., and D. Gettman. Connected/Automated Vehicle Research Roadmap for AASHTO, Deliverable 2: Research Roadmap, 2015 http://apps.trb.org/cmsfeed/TRBNetProjectDisplay.asp?ProjectID=3752

NCHRP Web-Only Document 253, Vol. 1: Legal Landscape 113 *Simpson, J. Consumer Watchdog Seeks to Stop Google’s Driverless Cars on U.S. Highways Without Privacy Protections, May 30, 2012. http://www.consumerwatchdog.org/newsrelease/consumer- watchdog-seeks-stop-google%E2%80%99s-driverles-cars-us-highways-without-privacy-protec. *Slosson, M. Google gets First Self Driven Car License in Nevada. Reuters, May 8, 2012. http://www.reuters.com/article/uk-usa-nevada-google-idUSLNE84701320120508. Soni, J. Advocacy groups come out in favor of Wi-Fi Innovation Act. The Washington Examiner, Jun. 8, 2014. http://www.washingtonexaminer.com/advocacy-groups-come-out-in-favor-of-wi-fi- innovation-act/article/2565672 on Oct. 25, 2015. *Soublet, B. G. Autonomous Vehicles in California. Presented at AAMVA 2016 Workshop, 2016. http://www.aamva.org/uploadedFiles/MainSite/Content/EventsEducation/Event_Materials/2016/2 016_Workshop_and_Law_Institute/SOUBLET%20Automated%20Vehicle%20Session%20Spea ker%203%20Soublet.pdf. Sureden, H. and M. Williams. Technological Opacity, Predictability and Self-Driving Cars. Cardozo Law Review, Vol. 121, 2016. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2747491 *StreetInsider. NHTSA Probes Tesla After Fatal Model S Autopilot Crash. Jun. 30, 2016. http://www.streetinsider.com/Corporate+News/A+Tragic+Loss%3A+Tesla+Blog+%28TSLA%2 9/11792204.html. *Swedish Transport Administration. Drive Me—Self Driving Cars for Sustainable Mobility is the World’s First Large-Scale Autonomous Driving Pilot Project. Last updated Apr. 7, 2015. http://www.trafikverket.se/en/startpage/operations1/operations-road/vision-zero-academy/vision- zero-and-ways-to-work/drive-me/. Swiss Re Centre for Global Dialogue. The Autonomous Car 2015: Mapping the Road Ahead for the Re/Insurance Industry. Oct. 5, 2015. http://cgd.swissre.com/topics/The_autonomous_car_2015.html. Sustainable Mobility. Autonomous Cars Will Be on the Road Soon. Apr. 10, 2015. http://www.sustainable-mobility.org/innovating-for-tomorrow/public-policy/autonomous-cars- will-be-on-the-road-soon--.html Svarcas, F. Turning a new LEAF: A Privacy Analysis of CARWINGS Electric Vehicle Data Collection and Transmission. Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal, Vol. 29, 2012, pp. 165. Technische Univesität Braunschweig. First Automatic Driving in Real City Traffic World Wide. Nr. 134/2010, Oct. 8, 2010. https://www.tu- braunschweig.de/presse/medien/presseinformationen?year=2010&pinr=134 *Transport Topics. Pilot Platooning Programs on Course in Florida, Missouri, Feb. 24, 2016. http://www.ttnews.com/articles/basetemplate.aspx?storyid=40999&page=1. *Trucks.Com. NHTSA Tells Google That Computers Can Be Vehicle “Drivers,” Feb. 10, 2016. https://www.trucks.com/2016/02/10/nhtsa-tells-google-computers-can-be-vehicle-drivers/. *Trujillo, M. Senators Seek Privacy, Anti-Hacking Safeguards in Cars. The Hill, Jul. 21, 2015. http://thehill.com/policy/cybersecurity/248636-senators-want-privacy-hacking-safeguards-in-cars. *Uniform Law Commission Subcommittee on Issues, Study Committee on State Regulation of Driverless Cars. Revised Report of the Subcommittee on Issues: Exhibit A, Revised post Dec. 17, 2014. http://www.uniformlaws.org/Committee.aspx?title=State. *University of Washington School of Law Technology Law and Policy Clinic, Autonomous Vehicles Team. Autonomous Vehicle Law Report and Recommendations to the ULC [UWash Tech Clinic], No date. https://www.law.washington.edu/Clinics/technology/Reports/AutonomousVehicle.pdf. *United States Congress. Security and Privacy in Your Car Act of 2015 (Spy Car Act, 2015). S, 1806, 2015. https://www.congress.gov/bill/114th-congress/senate-bill/1806/all-info. *United States Congress: House of Representatives Committee on Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Digital Commerce and Consumer Protection. HR – Staff Draft on Highly Automated Vehicle Testing and Deployment. Jul. 17, 2017a. http://docs.house.gov/meetings/IF/IF17/20170719/106309/HMKP-115-IF17-20170719- SD002.pdf

NCHRP Web-Only Document 253, Vol. 1: Legal Landscape 114 *United States Congress: House of Representatives Committee on Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Digital Commerce and Consumer Protection. U.S. House. SELF Drive Act H.R. 3388, 2017b. https://www.congress.gov/bill/115th-congress/house- bill/3388?q=%7B%22search%22%3A%5B%22Highly+Automated+Vehicle+Testing+and+Deplo yment+Act%22%5D%7D&r=5 *United States Congress: House of Representatives Committee on Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Digital Commerce and Consumer Protection. U.S. House. H.R.3416. To establish in the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration a Rural and Mountainous Advisory Council to make recommendations regarding the testing and deployment of highly automated vehicles and automated driving systems in areas that are rural, remote, mountainous, insular, or unmapped, 2017c. https://www.congress.gov/bill/115th-congress/house- bill/3416?q=%7B%22search%22%3A%5B%22Highly+Automated+Vehicle+Testing+and+Deplo yment+Act%22%5D%7D&r=1 *United States Congress: House of Representatives Committee on Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Digital Commerce and Consumer Protection. U.S. House. H.R. 3401. To amend chapter 301 of subtitle VI of title 49, United States Code, to update or provide new motor vehicle safety standards for highly automated vehicles, and for other purposes, 2017d. https://www.congress.gov/bill/115th-congress/house- bill/3401/text?q=%7B%22search%22%3A%5B%22Highly+Automated+Vehicle+Testing+and+ Deployment+Act%22%5D%7D&r=2 *United States Congress: House of Representatives Committee on Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Digital Commerce and Consumer Protection. U.S. House. H.R 3401. To amend chapter 301 of subtitle VI of title 49, United States Code, to update or provide new motor vehicle safety standards for highly automated vehicles, and for other purposes, 2017e. https://www.congress.gov/bill/115th-congress/house- bill/3401?q=%7B%22search%22%3A%5B%22Highly+Automated+Vehicle+Testing+and+Deplo yment+Act%22%5D%7D&r=2 *United States Congress: Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, & Transportation. Senators Release Bipartisan Principles for Self-Driving Vehicles Legislation. Jun. 13, 2017. https://www.commerce.senate.gov/public/index.cfm/pressreleases?ID=3319E728-1F3A-4316- 8F7E-8CAF66000F8C. *United States Congress: Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, & Transportation. Safely Ensuring Lives Future Deployment and Research in Vehicle Evolution Act, 2017. https://www.congress.gov/bill/115th-congress/house-bill/3388/text *United States Conference of Mayors. Resolution 99: Support Autonomous Vehicle Technology in Municipal Transit, 2016. http://usmayors.org/resolutions/84th_Conference/proposedcommittee.asp?committee=Transportat ion%20and%20Communications. *Unites States Department of Justice: Office of the Attorney General. Cyberstalking: A New Challenge for Law Enforcement and Industry, a Report from the Attorney General to the Vice President, Aug. 1999. https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=179575. *United States Department of Transportation. Intelligent Transportations Systems—Strategic Plan 2015- 2019. No. FHWA-JPO-14-145. USDOT Joint Program Office on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 2014. http://www.its.dot.gov/landing/strategicplan2015.htm. *United States Department of Transportation. Connected Vehicle Pilot Deployment Program, 2015a. http://www.its.dot.gov/pilots/pdf/01_CVPilots_KickoffDay1.pdf. *United States Department of Transportation. CV Pilot Deployment Program, 2015b. http://www.its.dot.gov/pilots/. United States Department of Transportation. Connecter Vehicles and Your Privacy Fact Sheet, No date. http://www.its.dot.gov/factsheets/pdf/Privacy_factsheet.pdf.

NCHRP Web-Only Document 253, Vol. 1: Legal Landscape 115 United States Department of Transportation. Secretary Foxx Unveils President’s Obama’s FY17 Budget proposal of nearly $4 Billion for Automated Vehicles and Announces DOT Initiatives to Accelerate Vehicle Safety Innovations, Press release, 2016 https://www.transportation.gov/briefing-room/secretary-foxx-unveils-president- obama%E2%80%99s-fy17-budget-proposal-nearly-4-billion. *United States Government: Federal Register (Federal Register). New Car Assessment Program: Final Decision, 2015-28052, Nov. 5, 2015. https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2015/11/05/2015- 28052/new-car-assessment-program-ncap. University of Michigan, Mobility Transformation Center, Mcity Website at http://www.mtc.umich.edu/vision/news-events/u-m-offers-open-access-automated-cars-advance- driverless-research Utah Department of Transportation. Best practices for Regulation of Autonomous Vehicles on Utah’s Highways, 2016. https://www.udot.utah.gov/public/ucon/uconowner.gf?n=31049905580533240. Villasenor, J. Products Liability and Driverless Cars: Issues and Guiding Principles for Legislation, Brookings Center for Technology Innovation, 2014. *Virginia Tech Transportation Institute. Virginia Tech Transportation Institute and Partners Unveil Virginia Automated Corridors, Jun. 1, 2015. http://www.vtti.vt.edu/featured/?p=260. Vladeck, D. Machines Without Principles: Liability Rules and Artificial Intelligence. Washington Law Review, Vol. 89, 2014, pp. 117. Volvo Car Group: Global Newsroom. U.S. Urged to Establish Nationwide Federal Guidelines for Autonomous Driving, Oct. 7, 2015. https://www.media.volvocars.com/global/en- gb/media/pressreleases/167975/us-urged-to-establish-nationwide-federal-guidelines-for- autonomous-driving. *Wagner, W. and L. Loftus-Otway. Chapter 2: Policies for The Evolving Field of Autonomous Vehicles In Report I: Bringing Smart Transport to Texans: Ensuring the Benefits of a Connected and Autonomous Transport System in Texas. Report 0-6838-1, Center for Transportation Research, 2016. Walker-Smith, B. Select Legal Considerations for Shared Automated Driving. Draft Discussion Paper prepared for the Roundtable on Cooperative Mobility Systems and Automated Driving, Jun. 12, 2016. http://www.itf-oecd.org/sites/default/files/docs/select-legal-considerations-shared- automated-driving.pdf. *Walker-Smith, B. How Governments Can Promote Automated Driving, New Mexico Law Review, Vol 47, 2017. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2749375. *Walker-Smith, B. Automated Vehicles are Probably Legal in the United States. Texas A&M Law Review, Vol. 411, 2014. *Walker-Smith, B. Proximity-Driven Liability. Georgetown Law Journal, Vol. 102, 2014, pp. 1777. *Washington State. Office of Governor. Executive Order 17-02, Autonomous Vehicle Testing and Technology in Washington State and Autonomous Vehicle Work Group, Jun. 7, 2017. http://www.governor.wa.gov/office-governor/official-actions/executive-orders West, D. Moving Forward: Self Driving Vehicles in China, Europe, Japan, Korea and the United States. Brookings Center for Technology Innovation, Sep. 2016. https://www.brookings.edu/wp- content/uploads/2016/09/driverless-cars-3-ed.pdf. *Wirtschafts Woche. Dobrindt gründet Ethikkomission für automatisiertes Farhren, Sep. 8, 2016. http://www.wiwo.de/politik/europa/selbstfahrende-autos-dobrindt-gruendet-ethikkommission- fuer-automatisiertes-fahren/14513384.html. *Woodyard, C. and J. O’Donnell Jayne. Your Car Already Collects a Lot of Data about Your Driving and May Soon Collect Much More. USA Today, Mar. 25, 2013. http://www.usatoday.com/story/money/cars/2013/03/24/car-spying-edr-data- privacy/1991751/%20%20. *Yamamoto, T. Automated Driving Activities in Japan. In Road Vehicle Automation 2. Springer International Publishing, 2015, pp. 17-28.

NCHRP Web-Only Document 253, Vol. 1: Legal Landscape 116 *Yoshida, J. DOT Shifts V2V Mandate into Gear. EE Times, Dec. 14, 2016. http://www.eetimes.com/document.asp?doc_id=1330993.

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TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Web-Only Document 253: Implications of Connected and Automated Driving Systems, Vol. 1: Legal Landscape explores federal, state, and international legal activities and practices regarding Connected and Automated Vehicles and Highly Automated Vehicles (C/AV/HAVs):

  • Section 1 reviews United States federal activities within the sphere of regulating C/AV/HAVs.
  • Section 2 reviews practices in each of the 50 states and local activities that have amended motor vehicle codes. For a review of legislation that has been introduced across all 50 states (some of which has not passed out of state legislatures as law), refer to Appendix C, which is a sortable Excel spreadsheet delineating activities at the federal and state level.
  • Section 3 highlights activities being undertaken by transportation agencies within this field, specifically highlighting the American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators (AAMVA’s) activities.
  • Section 4 provides brief summaries of law journal articles that address subject matter focus areas for policy-makers and legislators to consider as C/AV/HAV market penetrations grow. It includes a review of privacy laws.
  • Section 5 provides a review of international activities being undertaken in this area. The team reviewed related activities taking place among our North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) trade partners, Canada and Mexico, as well as in European countries and the European Union, Australia, and Japan.
  • Section 6 offers conclusions based on information presented in sections 1 through 5.

View all volumes of NCHRP Web-Only Document 253:

  • Vol. 1: Legal Landscape
  • Vol. 2: State Legal and Regulatory Audit
  • Vol. 3: Legal Modification Prioritization and Harmonization Analysis
  • Vol. 4: Autonomous Vehicle Action Plan
  • Vol. 5: Developing the Autonomous Vehicle Action Plan
  • Vol. 6: Implementation Plan
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