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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Offshore Well Completion and Stimulation: Using Hydraulic Fracturing and Other Technologies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25439.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Offshore Well Completion and Stimulation: Using Hydraulic Fracturing and Other Technologies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25439.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Offshore Well Completion and Stimulation: Using Hydraulic Fracturing and Other Technologies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25439.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Offshore Well Completion and Stimulation: Using Hydraulic Fracturing and Other Technologies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25439.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Offshore Well Completion and Stimulation: Using Hydraulic Fracturing and Other Technologies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25439.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Offshore Well Completion and Stimulation: Using Hydraulic Fracturing and Other Technologies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25439.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Offshore Well Completion and Stimulation: Using Hydraulic Fracturing and Other Technologies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25439.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Offshore Well Completion and Stimulation: Using Hydraulic Fracturing and Other Technologies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25439.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Offshore Well Completion and Stimulation: Using Hydraulic Fracturing and Other Technologies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25439.
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Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Offshore Well Completion and Stimulation: Using Hydraulic Fracturing and Other Technologies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25439.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Offshore Well Completion and Stimulation: Using Hydraulic Fracturing and Other Technologies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25439.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Offshore Well Completion and Stimulation: Using Hydraulic Fracturing and Other Technologies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25439.
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OFFSHORE WELL COMPLETION AND STIMULATION Using Hydraulic Fracturing and Other Technologies PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP Linda Casola, Rapporteur Roundtable on Unconventional Hydrocarbon Development Board on Earth Sciences and Resources Water Science and Technology Board Division on Earth and Life Studies

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation under grant no. G-2015-14016, the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Foundation, the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement under contract no. E15PC00008, the Colorado School of Mines, The Cynthia & George Mitchell Foundation, the Environmental Defense Fund, Flinders University, GE Oil & Gas, The Ohio State University, Schlumberger Limited, Texas A&M University, the U.S. Department of Energy under award no. DE-FE0027898, West Virginia University, and XTO Energy Inc. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-49236-2 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-49236-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25439 Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2019 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Cover image: Shutterstock by Andrey Suslov. Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Offshore Well Completion and Stimulation: Using Hydraulic Fracturing and Other Technologies: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/25439.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the char- ter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contri- butions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and ad- vice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

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PLANNING COMMITTEE FOR THE WORKSHOP ON OFFSHORE WELL COMPLETION AND STIMULATION: USING HYDRAULIC FRACTURING AND OTHER TECHNOLOGIES* MELISSA BATUM, Co-Chair, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC JOE LIMA, Co-Chair, Schlumberger Services, Inc., Denver, Colorado DAVID A. DZOMBAK (NAE), Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania WENDY J. HARRISON, Colorado School of Mines, Golden JAN MARES, Resources for the Future, Washington, DC ELENA S. MELCHERT, Office of Fossil Energy, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC KRIS J. NYGAARD, ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company, Spring, Texas MICHAEL P. PARKER, Parker Environmental Consultants, LLC, Huffman, Texas SANDRA WIEGAND, Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Staff ELIZABETH A. EIDE, Director K. JOHN HOLMES, Scholar MARK HUTCHINS, Senior Program Officer NICHOLAS D. ROGERS, Financial Associate YASMIN ROMITTI, Research Associate ERIC J. EDKIN, Program Coordinator BRENDAN R. MCGOVERN, Research Assistant/Senior Program Assistant DIAMOND ABNEY, Consultant * Planning Committee and Staff and their affiliations current as of 2017. v

BOARD ON EARTH SCIENCES AND RESOURCES ISABEL P. MONTAÑEZ, Chair, University of California, Davis ESTELLA A. ATEKWANA, University of Delaware, Newark BRENDA B. BOWEN, The University of Utah, Salt Lake City CHRISTOPHER (SCOTT) CAMERON, Geological Consulting, LLC, Houston, Texas NELIA W. DUNBAR, New Mexico Bureau of Geology & Mineral Resources, Socorro RODNEY C. EWING (NAE), Stanford University, California CAROL P. HARDEN, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville ROBERT L. KLEINBERG (NAE), Institute for Sustainable Energy, Boston University, Massachusetts THORNE LAY (NAS), University of California, Santa Cruz ZELMA MAINE-JACKSON, Washington State Department of Ecology, Richland MICHAEL MANGA (NAS), University of California, Berkeley MARTIN W. MCCANN, Stanford University, Menlo Park, California JEFFREY N. RUBIN, Tualatin Valley Fire & Rescue, Tigard, Oregon JAMES A. SLUTZ, National Petroleum Council, Washington, District of Columbia SHAOWEN WANG, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ELIZABETH J. WILSON, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire Staff ELIZABETH A. EIDE, Senior Board Director ANNE M. LINN, Scholar DEBORAH GLICKSON, Senior Program Officer SAMMANTHA L. MAGSINO, Senior Program Officer NICHOLAS D. ROGERS, Financial Associate COURTNEY R. DEVANE, Administrative Coordinator ERIC J. EDKIN, Program Coordinator CARLY BRODY, Senior Program Assistant RAYMOND (REMY) CHAPPETTA, Senior Program Assistant vi

WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BOARD CATHERINE L. KLING (NAS), Chair, Iowa State University, Ames NEWSHA K. AJAMI, Stanford University, California JONATHAN D. ARTHUR, Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee FRANCINA DOMINGUEZ, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign DAVID A. DZOMBAK (NAE), Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania WENDY D. GRAHAM, University of Florida, Gainesville MARK W. LECHEVALLIER, American Water, Voorhees, New Jersey MARGARET A. PALMER, University of Maryland, College Park DAVID L. SEDLAK (NAE), University of California, Berkeley DAVID WEGNER, Washington State Department of Ecology, Richland P. KAY WHITLOCK, Christopher B. Burke Engineering, Ltd., Rosemont, Illinois Staff ELIZABETH A. EIDE, Senior Board Director LAURA EHLERS, Senior Staff Officer STEPHANIE JOHNSON, Senior Staff Officer JEANNE AQUILINO, Financial and Administrative Associate COURTNEY R. DEVANE, Administrative Coordinator ERIC J. EDKIN, Program Coordinator BRENDAN R. MCGOVERN, Research Assistant/Senior Program Assistant CARLY BRODY, Senior Program Assistant vii

Acknowledgments This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and respon- siveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings: Elmer “Bud” Danenberger III, Independent Consultant Samantha Joye, University of Georgia Michael Parker, Parker Environmental and Consulting, LLC Azra Tutuncu, Colorado School of Mines Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and sug- gestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by Christine Ehlig-Economides, University of Houston. She was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Respon- sibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteur and the National Academies. ix

Contents 1 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................ 1 Workshop Motivations and Proceedings Overview, 1 2 ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS DEVELOPMENT: RESOURCE RECOVERY, ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP, AND SAFETY.................................5 Keynote Presentations, 5 Moderated Discussion, 9 3 OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS DEVELOPMENT 101..................................... 13 Panel Presentations, 13 Moderated Discussion, 18 4 OFFSHORE TECHNOLOGIES IN PRACTICE......................................... 21 Panel Presentations, 21 Moderated Discussion, 27 5 SAFETY IN THE OFFSHORE ENVIRONMENT..................................... 31 Panel Presentations, 32 Moderated Discussion, 36 6 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS, ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES, AND SOLUTIONS................................. 39 Panel Presentations, 39 Moderated Discussion, 46 REFERENCES............................................................................................................ 49 APPENDIXES A Workshop Agenda............................................................................................ 51 B Members of the Roundtable on Unconventional Hydrocarbon Development............................................................................. 55 C Biographies of the Workshop Planning Committee....................................... 57 D Biographies of the Workshop Moderators and Presenters............................. 61 E Workshop Participants..................................................................................... 69 F Glossary............................................................................................................ 73 xi

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While the public is generally aware of the use of hydraulic fracturing for unconventional resource development onshore, it is less familiar with the well completion and stimulation technologies used in offshore operations, including hydraulic fracturing, gravel packs, “fracpacks,” and acid stimulation. Just as onshore technologies have improved, these well completion and stimulation technologies for offshore hydrocarbon resource development have progressed over many decades.

To increase public understanding of these technologies, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine established a planning committee to organize and convene a workshop on Offshore Well Completion and Stimulation: Using Hydraulic Fracturing and Other Technologies on October 2-3, 2017, in Washington, DC. This workshop examined the unique features about operating in the U.S. offshore environment, including well completion and stimulation technologies, environmental considerations and concerns, and health and safety management. Participants from across government, industry, academia, and nonprofit sectors shared their perspectives on operational and regulatory approaches to mitigating risks to the environment and to humans in the development of offshore resources. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

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