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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Convergence of Infectious Diseases and Noncommunicable Diseases: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25535.
×

THE CONVERGENCE OF
INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND
NONCOMMUNICABLE DISEASES

PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP

V. Ayano Ogawa, Cecilia Mundaca Shah, Yamrot Negussie,
and Anna Nicholson, Rapporteurs

Forum on Microbial Threats

Board on Global Health

Health and Medicine Division

images

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Convergence of Infectious Diseases and Noncommunicable Diseases: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25535.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and EcoHealth Alliance; Infectious Diseases Society of America; Johnson & Johnson (10003710); Merck & Co., Inc.; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases/National Institutes of Health (10003226); Sanofi Pasteur; The University of Hong Kong; Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (10003626); U.S. Agency for International Development; U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (10001249); U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (10002642); U.S. Department of Homeland Security (10003591); U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (10003353); and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (10002125). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-49614-8
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-49614-4
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25535

Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2019 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The convergence of infectious diseases and noncommunicable diseases: Proceedings of a workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25535.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Convergence of Infectious Diseases and Noncommunicable Diseases: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25535.
×

Image

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president.

The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.

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Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Convergence of Infectious Diseases and Noncommunicable Diseases: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25535.
×

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Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Convergence of Infectious Diseases and Noncommunicable Diseases: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25535.
×

PLANNING COMMITTEE ON BREAKING DOWN SILOS: THE CONVERGENCE OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND NONCOMMUNICABLE DISEASES1

PETER DASZAK (Chair), President, EcoHealth Alliance

DAVID BRETT-MAJOR, Sanford Chair in Tropical Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

KEIJI FUKUDA, School Director and Clinical Professor, School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong

JESSE L. GOODMAN, Professor of Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Director, Center on Medical Access, Safety, and Stewardship, Georgetown University

KENT E. KESTER, Vice President and Head, Translational Science and Biomarkers, Sanofi Pasteur

RIMA F. KHABBAZ, Director, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

PETER R. LAMPTEY, Distinguished Scientist and President Emeritus, FHI360

MOSA MOSHABELA, Dean and Head, School of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal

RACHEL NUGENT, Vice President, Global Noncommunicable Diseases, RTI International

JULIE PARSONNET, George DeForest Barnett Professor in Medicine, Professor of Medicine and of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University

PADMA SHETTY, Senior Infectious Disease Advisor, Emerging Threats Division, U.S. Agency for International Development

Health and Medicine Division and Board on Global Health Staff

CECILIA MUNDACA SHAH, Project Director, Forum on Microbial Threats

V. AYANO OGAWA, Senior Program Officer, Forum on Microbial Threats

YAMROT NEGUSSIE, Program Officer, Forum on Microbial Threats (from August 2019)

EDITH AMPONSAH, Research Associate, Forum on Microbial Threats (from August 2019)

___________________

1 The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published Proceedings of a Workshop rests with the rapporteurs and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Convergence of Infectious Diseases and Noncommunicable Diseases: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25535.
×

STEPHEN CHUKWURAH, Senior Program Assistant, Forum on Microbial Threats (from August 2019)

NATALIE LUBIN, Research Assistant, Forum on Microbial Threats (until May 2019)

JULIE PAVLIN, Director, Board on Global Health

National Academy of Medicine Staff

JARRETT NGUYEN, Program Specialist (from May 2019)

BHUMI SHAH, Intern (from June to August 2019)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Convergence of Infectious Diseases and Noncommunicable Diseases: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25535.
×

FORUM ON MICROBIAL THREATS1

PETER DASZAK (Chair), President, EcoHealth Alliance

KENT E. KESTER (Vice Chair), Vice President and Head, Translational Science and Biomarkers, Sanofi Pasteur

MARY E. WILSON (Vice Chair), Clinical Professor of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco

KEVIN ANDERSON, Senior Program Manager, Science and Technology Directorate, U.S. Department of Homeland Security

TIMOTHY BURGESS, Director, Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

DENNIS CARROLL, Director, Global Health Security and Development Unit, U.S. Agency for International Development

EMILY ERBELDING, Director, Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health

MARCOS A. ESPINAL, Director, Communicable Diseases and Health Analysis, Pan American Health Organization

KEIJI FUKUDA, School Director and Clinical Professor, The University of Hong Kong School of Public Health

JENNIFER GARDY, Senior Scientist, BC Centre for Disease Control; Associate Professor, School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Canada

JESSE L. GOODMAN, Professor of Medicine and Infectious Diseases; Director, Center on Medical Product Access, Safety, and Stewardship, Georgetown University

EVA HARRIS, Professor, Division of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, University of California, Berkeley

ELIZABETH D. HERMSEN, Head, Global Antimicrobial Stewardship, Merck & Co., Inc.

RIMA F. KHABBAZ, Director, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

MICHAEL MAIR, Acting Director, Office of Counterterrorism and Emerging Threats, U.S. Food and Drug Administration

JONNA A. K. MAZET, Professor of Epidemiology and Disease Ecology; Executive Director, One Health Institute, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis

___________________

1 The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s forums and roundtables do not issue, review, or approve individual documents. The responsibility for the published Proceedings of a Workshop rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Convergence of Infectious Diseases and Noncommunicable Diseases: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25535.
×

SALLY A. MILLER, Professor of Plant Pathology and State Extension Specialist for Vegetable Pathology, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University

SUERIE MOON, Director of Research, Global Health Centre, Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva

DAVID NABARRO, Advisor, Health and Sustainability, 4SD—Skills, Systems, and Synergies for Sustainable Development

RAFAEL OBREGON, Chief of Communications for Development, United Nations Children’s Fund

KUMANAN RASANATHAN, Board Member, Health Systems Global

GARY A. ROSELLE, Chief of Medical Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center; Director, National Infectious Disease Services, Veterans Health Administration

PETER A. SANDS, Executive Director, The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria

THOMAS W. SCOTT, Distinguished Professor, Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of California, Davis

JAY P. SIEGEL, Retired Chief Biotechnology Officer, Head of Scientific Strategy and Policy, Johnson & Johnson

PAIGE E. WATERMAN, Assistant Director for Biological Threat Defense, White House Office of Science and Technology Policy

MATTHEW ZAHN, Medical Director, Division of Epidemiology and Assessment, Orange County Health Care Agency

Health and Medicine Division and Board on Global Health Staff

CECILIA MUNDACA SHAH, Project Director, Forum on Microbial Threats

V. AYANO OGAWA, Senior Program Officer, Forum on Microbial Threats

YAMROT NEGUSSIE, Program Officer, Forum on Microbial Threats (from August 2019)

EDITH AMPONSAH, Research Associate, Forum on Microbial Threats (from August 2019)

STEPHEN CHUKWURAH, Senior Program Assistant, Forum on Microbial Threats (from August 2019)

NATALIE LUBIN, Research Assistant, Forum on Microbial Threats (until May 2019)

JULIE PAVLIN, Director, Board on Global Health

National Academy of Medicine Staff

JARRETT NGUYEN, Program Specialist (from May 2019)

BHUMI SHAH, Intern (from June to August 2019)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Convergence of Infectious Diseases and Noncommunicable Diseases: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25535.
×

Reviewers

This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings:

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by DAVID R. CHALLONER, University of Florida. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteurs and the National Academies.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Convergence of Infectious Diseases and Noncommunicable Diseases: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25535.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Convergence of Infectious Diseases and Noncommunicable Diseases: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25535.
×

Acknowledgments

The Forum on Microbial Threats staff and planning committee deeply appreciate the many valuable contributions from individuals who assisted us with this project. Thank you to Charlanne Burke, Bridgette Charles, and Naveen Rao for graciously hosting the workshop at The Rockefeller Foundation, and Tara Hoda and Anthony Ramos from the EcoHealth Alliance for their invaluable assistance organizing the logistics of the workshop. The workshop and this Proceedings of a Workshop would not be possible without the presenters and discussants at the workshop, who gave so generously of their time and expertise. A full list of the speakers and moderators and their biographical information may be found in Appendix C.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Convergence of Infectious Diseases and Noncommunicable Diseases: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25535.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Convergence of Infectious Diseases and Noncommunicable Diseases: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25535.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Convergence of Infectious Diseases and Noncommunicable Diseases: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25535.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Convergence of Infectious Diseases and Noncommunicable Diseases: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25535.
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Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Convergence of Infectious Diseases and Noncommunicable Diseases: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25535.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Convergence of Infectious Diseases and Noncommunicable Diseases: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25535.
×

Acronyms and Abbreviations

BMI body mass index
CDR crude death rate
CMA cow’s milk allergy
COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
CVDRF cardiovascular disease risk factor
DALY disability-adjusted life year
EBV Epstein-Barr virus
GLUT2 glucose transporter 2
GWAS genomewide association study
HMP Human Microbiome Project
HPV human papillomavirus
NCD noncommunicable disease
OTU operational taxonomic unit
PEPFAR The President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief
TB tuberculosis
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Convergence of Infectious Diseases and Noncommunicable Diseases: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25535.
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USAID U.S. Agency for International Development
WHO World Health Organization
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Convergence of Infectious Diseases and Noncommunicable Diseases: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25535.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Convergence of Infectious Diseases and Noncommunicable Diseases: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25535.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Convergence of Infectious Diseases and Noncommunicable Diseases: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25535.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Convergence of Infectious Diseases and Noncommunicable Diseases: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25535.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Convergence of Infectious Diseases and Noncommunicable Diseases: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25535.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Convergence of Infectious Diseases and Noncommunicable Diseases: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25535.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Convergence of Infectious Diseases and Noncommunicable Diseases: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25535.
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Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Convergence of Infectious Diseases and Noncommunicable Diseases: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25535.
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Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Convergence of Infectious Diseases and Noncommunicable Diseases: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25535.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Convergence of Infectious Diseases and Noncommunicable Diseases: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25535.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Convergence of Infectious Diseases and Noncommunicable Diseases: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25535.
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On June 11 and June 12, 2019, the National Academies convened a workshop to explore the growing understanding of how the interplay between humans and microbes affects host physiology and causes noncommunicable diseases. Discussions included an overview of colliding epidemics, emerging research on associations between infectious and noncommunicable diseases, risks posed by chronic diseases to the development and severity of infectious diseases, and the influence of the microbiome. Workshop participants also examined the challenges and opportunities of convergence, the integration of health care delivery models and interventions, potential approaches for research, policy, and practice in the immediate-term, and potential directions for the long-term. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

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