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Page 132
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidelines for Traversability of Roadside Slopes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25539.
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Page 132
Page 133
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidelines for Traversability of Roadside Slopes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25539.
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Page 133
Page 134
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidelines for Traversability of Roadside Slopes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25539.
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Page 134

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132 1. NHTSA. 2003. Initiatives to Address the Mitigation of Vehicle Rollover. Docket No. NHTSA-2003-14622, Notice 1. Washington D.C. 2. Viner, J. G. 1995. “Rollovers on Sideslopes and Ditches.” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 27, No. 4. pp. 483–491. 3. Glennon, J. C., T. R. Neuman, and J. E. Leisch. 1983. Safety and Operational Considerations for Design of Rural Highway Curves. FHWA, Washington, D.C. 4. Glennon, J. C. 2007. Roadside Clear Zones on Roadway Curves—Can We See Clearly Now? http://www. crashforensics.com/papers.cfm?PaperID=45. Retrieved July 6, 2012. 5. Rice, R. S., and F. Dell’Amico. 1974. An Experimental Study of Automobile Driver Characteristics and Capabilities. Calspan Report No. ZS-5208-k-1. 6. Peters, S. C. 2006. Modeling, Analysis, and Measurement of Passenger Vehicle Stability. Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 7. AASHTO. 2011. Roadside Design Guide. Washington, D.C. 8. Ross, H. E., Jr., E. R. Post, J. F. Nixon, D. Hustace, and E. V. Kristaponis.1973. “Warrants for Guardrails on Embankments.” Highway Research Record 460. Highway Research Board, Washington, D.C., pp. 85–96. 9. Sicking, D. L., K. A. Lechtenberg, and S. Petersen. 2009. NCHRP Report 638: Guidelines for Guardrail Implementation. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. 10. Bligh, R. P., S. R. Miaou, and K. K. Mak. 2004. “Recovery Area Distance Relationships for Highway Roadside.” Preliminary Draft Final Report. Prepared for NCHRP Project 17-11. Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. 11. Segal, D. J. 1976. “Highway Vehicle Object Simulation Model—1976.” Report Numbers FHWA-RD-76-162 to 165, FHWA, Washington, D. C. 12. Weaver, G. D., E. L. Marquis, and R. M. Olsen. 1975. NCHRP Report 158: Selection of Safe Roadside Cross Sections. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. 13. Ross, H. E., Jr. and E. R. Post. 1975. “Dynamic Behavior of an Automobile Traversing Selected Curbs and Medians.” Research Report 140-6, Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University System, College Station, Texas. 14. Ross, H. E., Jr., H. S. Perera, D. L. Sicking, and R. P. Bligh. 1989. NCHRP Research Report 318: Roadside Safety Design for Small Vehicles. Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. 15. Ross, H. E., Jr., H. S. Perera, and K. K. Mak. 1990. “Clear Zones as a Function of Side Slopes for Rural Arterial Roadways.” Final Report for Texas DOT Research Study 2-9-90/1-990, Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University System, College Station, Texas. 16. Mak, K. K., and R. L. Mason. 1980. “Accident Analysis—Breakaway and Nonbreakaway Poles Including Sign and Light Standards Along Highways.” Final Report for NHTSA/FHWA, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas. 17. Mak, K. K., and L. R. Calcote. 1983. “Accident Analysis of Highway Narrow Bridge Sites.” Report No. FHWA/ RD-82/139, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C. 18. Mak, K. K., D. L. Sicking, and H. E. Ross, Jr. 1986. “Real-World Impact Conditions for Run-Off-the-Road Accidents.” Transportation Research Record 1065. Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. 19. Ross, H. E., Jr., R. R. Bligh, and J. Liu. 1993. “Evaluating the Benefits of Slope Rounding.” Report 0468F. Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University System, College Station, Texas. 20. Thomson, R., and J. Valtonen. 2002. “Vehicle Impacts in V-Shaped Ditches.” Transportation Research Record 1797. Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. References

References 133 21. Ivey, D. L., A. J. Stocker, E. P. Wittich, E. French, R. D. Ervin, R. D. Young, R. F. Hellmuth, R. H. Gardner, E. R. Post, and D. L. Millikan. 1971. Input Response Tests of Selected Small Passenger Cars. Final report. 22. Buth, C. E., W. L. Campise, L. I. Griffin III, M. L. Love, and D. L. Sticking. 1986. Performance Limits of Longitudinal Barrier Systems. Report No. FHWA/RD-86/153. FHWA, U. S. DOT, Washington, D.C. 23. NHTSA. 2011. 2010 FARS Analytic Reference Manual 1975–2010. Report Number: DOT HS 811 529. NHTSA, Washington, D.C. 24. NHTSA. 2011. 2010 FARS Coding and Validation Manual. Report Number: DOT HS 811 530. NHTSA, Washington, D.C. 25. NHTSA. 2011. NASS/GES 2010 Coding and Editing Manual. Report Number: DOT HS 811 531. NHTSA, Washington, D.C. 26. NHTSA. 2011. NASS/GES Analytical Users Manual 2010. Report Number: DOT HS 811 532. NHTSA, Washington, D.C. 27. NHTSA, 2011. NASS/CDS Analytical Users Manual 2010 File. NHTSA, Washington, D.C. 28. NHTSA. 2011. NASSystem/CDS 2010 Coding and Editing Manual. NHTSA, Washington, D.C. 29. Lohr, S. L. 2010. Sampling: Design and Analysis. Second Edition. Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning, Boston, Massachusetts. 30. Mak, K. K., D. L. Sicking, and B. A. Coon. 2010. NCHRP Report 665: Identification of Vehicle Impact Conditions Associated with Serious Ran-Off-Road Crashes. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. 31. 4N6XPRT Systems, Expert AutoStats, 2012 Release, 4N6XPRT Systems. Forensic Expert Software, California. 32. Boyd, P. L. 2005. “NHTSA’s NCAP Rollover Resistance Rating System.” Proceedings of the 19th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles. Washington, D.C. 33. AASHTO. 2009. Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware. AASHTO Subcommittee on Bridges and Structures, Washington, D.C. 34. TRB. 2002. Special Report 265: The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s Rating System for Rollover Resistance: An Assessment. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. 35. Ferdous, M. R. 2011. Placement of Traffic Barriers on Roadside and Median Slopes. Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas. 36. James, M. E. Jr., and H. E. Ross, Jr. 1974. HVOSM User’s Manual. Research Report 140-9, Research Study 2-10-69-140, Texas Transportation Institute, College Station, Texas. 37. Ross, H. E. Jr., and R. E. Post. 1972. Comparisons of Full-scale Embankment Tests with Computer Simulations—Volume 1, Test Results and Comparisons. Research Report 140-7, Research Study 2-5-69-140, Texas Transportation Institute, College Station, Texas. 38. Weaver, G. D., E. L. Marquis, and A. R. Luedecke, Jr. 1972. The Relation of Side Slope Design to Highway Safety. Report 626A-1, Texas A&M Research Foundation, Texas Transportation Institute, College Station, Texas. 39. Grimes, W. D., J. A. Balasa, and E. J. Hunter. 2006. Analyzing the Trip-Phase of Soft-Soil Rollovers. Technical Paper 2006-01-1558, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pennsylvania. 40. Cooperrider, N. K., S. A. Hammoud, and J. Colwell. 1998. Characteristics of Soil-Tripped Rollovers. Technical Paper 980022, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pennsylvania. 41. Viner, J. G. 1995. Risk of Rollover in Ran-off-Road Crashes. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1500, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. pp. 112–118. 42. goodcarbadcar: auto sales data & stats. Available: http://www.goodcarbadcar.net/2017/01/usa-2016-vehicle- sales-by-model-manufacturer-brand/. Retrieved September 2, 2017. 43. Highway Loss and Data Institute. 2006. Technical Appendix. Available: http://www.iihs.org/media/f9365d6d- 8473-4d26-a4ca-97c6a4c7d7b6/127016350/Ratings/Protocols/current/tech_06.pdf. Retrieved September 2, 2017.

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Geometric design practitioners in state transportation agencies have a new set of guidelines on probability of vehicle rollover based on various roadside design features. NCHRP Research Report 911: Guidelines for Traversability of Roadside Slopes will assist practitioners in the reduction of serious injury crashes associated with rollovers on roadside slopes.

Data from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) Crashworthiness Data System (CDS) shows that one-third of single-vehicle run-off-road (SVROR) crashes result in rollovers—the leading cause of fatalities in SVROR crashes. Three-quarters of these rollover crashes involve vehicles digging into the ground on embankments or in ditches after encroaching onto the roadside. Additionally, according to NASS data, pickup trucks, utility vehicles, and vans are overrepresented in rollover crashes due to higher centers of gravity. An increase in the percentage of light trucks in the vehicle fleet necessitates additional research and updates to the roadside safety guidelines.

The researchers conducted 43,000 simulations for various combinations of roadside slope configurations and geometric conditions that represent real-world crash scenarios.

The results helped to produce this guidance on the traversability of roadside slopes for a variety of roadside conditions—shoulder width, foreslope, and foreslope width. The guidelines are presented as probability of vehicle rollover that is defined as a function of various roadside design features.

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