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Suggested Citation:"Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airports and Unmanned Aircraft Systems, Volume 1: Managing and Engaging Stakeholders on UAS in the Vicinity of Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25599.
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Suggested Citation:"Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airports and Unmanned Aircraft Systems, Volume 1: Managing and Engaging Stakeholders on UAS in the Vicinity of Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25599.
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Suggested Citation:"Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airports and Unmanned Aircraft Systems, Volume 1: Managing and Engaging Stakeholders on UAS in the Vicinity of Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25599.
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Suggested Citation:"Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airports and Unmanned Aircraft Systems, Volume 1: Managing and Engaging Stakeholders on UAS in the Vicinity of Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25599.
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Suggested Citation:"Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airports and Unmanned Aircraft Systems, Volume 1: Managing and Engaging Stakeholders on UAS in the Vicinity of Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25599.
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Managing and Engaging Stakeholders on UAS in the Vicinity of Airports   i Contents  1  Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 1    Background ........................................................................................................................................................ 1    Overview of Airport Management of UAS Operations ............................................................................. 1    Guidebook Audience and Format ................................................................................................................. 1    How to use this Guidebook ............................................................................................................................ 2  2  Understanding the Requirements to Manage UAS Operations ........................................ 3    Development of Concept of Operations ...................................................................................................... 3  2.1.1  System Architecture ................................................................................................................................................... 3  2.1.2  Operational Plan ......................................................................................................................................................... 5  2.1.3  Personnel Certification Requirements ..................................................................................................................... 6  2.1.4  Key Resources ............................................................................................................................................................ 7    Authorization, Approval, and Notification .................................................................................................. 7  2.2.1  Model Aircraft ............................................................................................................................................................ 7  2.2.2  Other FAA UAS Operational Approval Mechanisms .......................................................................................... 9  2.2.3  Reporting Suspected Unauthorized Use ............................................................................................................... 16  2.2.4  Segregating UAS Traffic .......................................................................................................................................... 17  2.2.5  Airport Operator Review of UAS Operational Requests ................................................................................... 18  2.2.6  Further Resources .................................................................................................................................................... 21    Privacy and Data Considerations ................................................................................................................. 22    Hyperlocal Restrictions and Federal Preemption ...................................................................................... 23  3  Safety and Emergency Management Best Practices ....................................................... 25    Safety Management Systems ......................................................................................................................... 25  3.1.1  UAS Considerations for an Airport SMS .............................................................................................................. 25  3.1.2  SMS Resources ......................................................................................................................................................... 28    UAS Contingency Management ................................................................................................................... 29  3.2.1  Elements of a Contingency Plan ............................................................................................................................ 31  3.2.2  Example: Lost Link Procedure Considerations ................................................................................................... 32  3.2.3  Airport Considerations for Contingency Management ....................................................................................... 32    Guidance for Emergency Plans for UAS Operations at Airports .......................................................... 33  3.3.1  UAS Incident/Accident Procedures ...................................................................................................................... 33  3.3.2  Communication Planning ........................................................................................................................................ 34  3.3.3  Alerts and Notifications .......................................................................................................................................... 36  3.3.4  Local Media Coordination ...................................................................................................................................... 37  3.3.5  Post-Emergency Reporting and Recovery Procedures ....................................................................................... 37  3.3.6  Emergency Planning Resources ............................................................................................................................. 38 

Managing and Engaging Stakeholders on UAS in the Vicinity of Airports   ii 4  Visual Risk Assessment Map and Factors ....................................................................... 39    Tools and Methods for Map Development ............................................................................................... 39  4.1.1  Development of Risk Factors ................................................................................................................................. 39  4.1.2  Defining Low-, Medium-, and High-Risk Areas .................................................................................................. 39    Risk Factors ..................................................................................................................................................... 43  4.2.1  Operational ............................................................................................................................................................... 44  4.2.2  Pilot in Command .................................................................................................................................................... 45  4.2.3  Environment ............................................................................................................................................................. 45    Map Elements and Risk Management ......................................................................................................... 45  4.3.1  Map Elements ........................................................................................................................................................... 46  4.3.2  Risk Management ..................................................................................................................................................... 48  5  Engagement and Communication Tools ......................................................................... 52    Websites ........................................................................................................................................................... 53    Social Media ..................................................................................................................................................... 55    In-Person Information Sessions................................................................................................................... 55    Free Education/Training .............................................................................................................................. 56    Paid Education/Training ............................................................................................................................... 56    Conferences and Symposiums ...................................................................................................................... 58    Documentation ............................................................................................................................................... 58    Community Partnerships/Affiliations ......................................................................................................... 61  6  Case Studies ...................................................................................................................... 66    Example Perspectives .................................................................................................................................... 66    Case Analysis Scenarios ................................................................................................................................. 66  6.2.1  Scenario 1: Obtaining Operational Approval ....................................................................................................... 67  6.2.2  Scenario 2: Illegal Commercial UAS Activity In-proximity to Airport ............................................................. 71  6.2.3  Scenario 3: Establishing Economic Benefit of UAS at an Airport .................................................................... 76  7  Other Resources ............................................................................................................... 80    UAS Information Resources ......................................................................................................................... 80  7.1.1  General Information ................................................................................................................................................ 80  7.1.2  UAS Operational Resources ................................................................................................................................... 81  7.1.3  Airport/Municipal UAS Outreach Examples ...................................................................................................... 82  7.1.4  Land Owner Permission .......................................................................................................................................... 83  7.1.5  Reporting ................................................................................................................................................................... 83  7.1.6  Insurance ................................................................................................................................................................... 83  7.1.7  Economic .................................................................................................................................................................. 83    Communication Resources ........................................................................................................................... 83 

Managing and Engaging Stakeholders on UAS in the Vicinity of Airports   iii 7.2.1  Communication and Marketing Strategy Development ...................................................................................... 83  7.2.2  Briefing and Educational Development ................................................................................................................ 84  7.2.3  Partnership Development and Sustainment ......................................................................................................... 85    Further Tool Examples and Details ............................................................................................................ 86  7.3.1  Social Media Examples ............................................................................................................................................ 86  7.3.2  Traditional Marketing Tools ................................................................................................................................... 88  7.3.3  Documentation ......................................................................................................................................................... 89  7.3.4  Interpersonal Engagement ...................................................................................................................................... 93  8  References ........................................................................................................................ 96    Section 1: Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 96    Section 2.1: Development of Concept of Operations .............................................................................. 96    Section 2.2: Authorization, Approval, and Notification .......................................................................... 96    Section 2.3: Privacy and Data Considerations ........................................................................................... 97    Section 2.4: Hyperlocal Restrictions and Federal Preemption ................................................................ 98    Section 2.8 ...................................................................................................................................................... 100    Section 3.1: Safety Management Systems ................................................................................................. 100    Section 3.2: UAS Contingency Management ........................................................................................... 102    Section 3.3: Guidance for Emergency Plans for UAS Operations at Airports .................................. 102    Section 3.3.6: Emergency Planning Resources ........................................................................................ 102    Section 4: Visual Risk Assessment Map and Factors .............................................................................. 103    Section 5 to 7 ................................................................................................................................................. 104       

Managing and Engaging Stakeholders on UAS in the Vicinity of Airports   iv List of Figures  Figure 1: Definition of recreational use of UAS; presented information adapted from 14 CFR §101 (2017); Section 336 (FMRA, 2012); and FAA (2016a; 2016b) ................................................................................... 7  Figure 2: 14 CFR §101 Compliant and non-compliant UAS operations; note abbreviations of educational use (Ed.) and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) ...................................................... 8  Figure 3: Federal UAS operational approval mechanisms ......................................................................................... 10  Figure 4: 14 CFR-Part 107 requirements and waiver procedures; presented information adapted from 14 CFR § 107, 2017; FAA, 2016b .................................................................................................................................. 12  Figure 5: Certificates of authorization process of for UAS operations before the Part 107 Rule; presented information adapted from FAA (2014a; 2017) ............................................................................................. 13  Figure 6: Description of the purpose of Section 333; presented information adapted from FAA (2008; 2014; 2017) ..................................................................................................................................................................... 15  Figure 7: Sample NOTAM issued for Killeen-Fort Hood Regional Airport and Southern California Logistics Airport (Neubauer 2015) .................................................................................................................................. 16  Figure 8: UAS operational approval evaluation flowchart ......................................................................................... 19  Figure 9: Notional SMS/SRA workflow for airports. ................................................................................................. 28  Figure 10: Roles and responsibilities for a lost link procedure ................................................................................. 32  Figure 11: Example of a UAS integration into emergency management communication plan ........................... 36  Figure 12: FAA safety risk management criteria (FAA 2013a) .................................................................................. 39  Figure 13: High risk level definition based on FAA Order 8040.4B. Four examples of common risk criteria are given based on research by Bard College Center for the Study of the Drone on UAS incident reports. These criteria demonstrate when a scenario may be considered high risk. (Gettinger 2015). 42  Figure 14: Medium risk level definition based on FAA Order 8040.4B. Two examples of common risk criteria are given based on research by Bard College Center for the Study of the Drone on UAS incident reports. These criteria demonstrate when a scenario may be considered medium risk. (Gettinger 2015). .................................................................................................................................................................... 42  Figure 15: Low risk level definition based on Order FAA 8040.4B. Two examples of common risk criteria are given based on research by Bard College Center for the Study of the Drone on UAS incident reports. These criteria demonstrate when a scenario may be considered low risk. (Gettinger 2015). ................ 43  Figure 16: Probability of icing based on altitude and time [http://www.rap.ucar.edu/icing/ip/]. ..................... 47  Figure 17: Sample risk map of PIT, Class B airspace, with Top and Side views. All UAS operations would be high risk in this area without a waiver or exemption. Specific geolocated features that further increase risk are identified, including surface hazards, critical infrastructure, and areas over people. It is possible to reduce the risk of a specific UAS operation to low risk, e.g., through a waiver or authorization that ensures a certain level of safety performance and mitigation measures. .................. 48  Figure 18: Flow chart describing policy and regulatory considerations for risk identification, reduction, and mitigation. Operations that are not inherently low risk may require case-by-case examination to evaluate potential risks to airports. Actions can be taken to systemically reduce risk of UAS operations around certain airports. ................................................................................................................. 49 

Managing and Engaging Stakeholders on UAS in the Vicinity of Airports   v List of Tables  Table 1: Elements of the system architecture for a UAS CONOPS .......................................................................... 3  Table 2: Guidance for airport privacy considerations ................................................................................................. 23  Table 3: UAS considerations for airport SMS .............................................................................................................. 26  Table 4: Safety Management System resources ............................................................................................................ 29  Table 5: Common UAS contingency event types ........................................................................................................ 30  Table 6: Considerations for UAS incident/accident procedure development ........................................................ 34  Table 7: Process for UAS incident/accident procedure development ..................................................................... 34  Table 8: FAA risk management criteria likelihood definitions (FAA 2013b) ......................................................... 40  Table 9: FAA risk management criteria severity definitions ...................................................................................... 40  Table 10: Risk factor definitions by category ............................................................................................................... 43  Table 11: Risk factors categorized by likelihood and severity of adverse events ................................................... 49  Table 12 List of categories of UAS stakeholders ......................................................................................................... 52  Table 13 Summary of benefits and challenges of websites’ various functions ....................................................... 53  Table 14 Summary of benefits and challenges of social media as an engagement and outreach tool ................ 55  Table 15 Summary of benefits and challenges of documentation outreach tool ................................................... 59  Table 16: Example UAS Partnership Organizations ................................................................................................... 62   

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Airports and Unmanned Aircraft Systems, Volume 1: Managing and Engaging Stakeholders on UAS in the Vicinity of Airports Get This Book
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The introduction of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) has presented a wide range of new safety, economic, operational, regulatory, community, environmental, and infrastructure challenges to airports and the National Airspace System. These risks are further complicated by the dynamic and shifting nature of UAS technologies.

The pre-publication draft of ACRP Research Report 212: Airports and Unmanned Aircraft Systems, Volume 1: Managing and Engaging Stakeholders on UAS in the Vicinity of Airports provides guidance for airport operators and managers to interact with UAS operations in the vicinity of airports. The demand for commercial UAS may increase significantly once advanced UAS operations—including beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS) operations, operations over people, and operations of multiple UAS by one pilot—are allowed through broader regulatory frameworks.

Understanding the nature of UAS operations, platforms, and applications is a topic of interest at most, if not all, airports. Currently, federal regulations allow broad commercial use of UAS in the United States for the first time. However, UAS operations directly over people are still prohibited unless the operator has received a waiver or other approval from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The activities of small UAS (those weighing less than 55 pounds) may take many forms, including multi-rotor, fixed wing, and hybrid vertical take-off and landing with fixed-wing forward flight vehicles. Some UAS operations near airports will require the ability to fly over populated areas and therefore will require waivers to allow operations over people.

As a part of managing UAS operations, it will be important for airport operators to understand the regulatory requirements and framework as well as to have the ability to obtain waivers and exemptions. This guidebook describes the regulatory frameworks that currently exist so that airport managers and operators will be in a better position to interact and guide UAS users who fly in their vicinity.

Other Resources:

Volume 2: Incorporating UAS into Airport Infrastructure—Planning Guidebook provides planning, operational, and infrastructure guidance to safely integrate existing and anticipated UAS operations into an airport environment.

Volume 3: Potential Use of UAS by Airport Operators provides airports with resources to appropriately integrate UAS missions as part of their standard operations.

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