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45 This chapter describes proactive engagement and communications tools that airport opera- tors and managers can consider when engaging with recreational UAS remote pilot/operators. The purpose of this chapter is to familiarize airport operators and managers with the UAS- specific tools currently available to be leveraged for engagement and communication purposes. The clear target audience for this research is airports. However, beyond airports, there are large collections of UAS stakeholders that airports should be aware of in order to appropriately tailor their outreach methods. Table 12 displays the UAS stakeholder categories that will be discussed in this guidance document. 5.1 Websites Websites provide an online multimedia platform for individuals, groups, and organizations to host, communicate, as well as collect information or materials for various purposes and func- tions, including: â¢ Information sharing, including updates and archives â¢ Information and/or document hosting (such as directories, databases, and downloadable files) â¢ Peer-to-peer exchange platforms, interaction, and user forums â¢ Business transactions of products or services (including promotion and marketing) To evaluate the efficacy of using a website as a UAS communication and engagement mech- anism, Table 13 summarizes the benefits and challenges of using this tool. In addition to the resources provided above, the website also provides a UAS Toolkit (ICAO, 2018), which serves as a guide to assist its member states to develop their individual UAS guidance, regulations, and to provide them the guidance necessary to operate UAS within their respective airspace in a safe and efficient manner. The website also incorporates existing UAS regulations from around the world as a guide to new member states venturing into this field. This provides a platform for the regulatory environment on global integration of UAS around the world. As summarized in Table 13, websites are highly accessible. Websites enable groups and orga- nizations to disperse information quickly, as well as control specific information they may want to share with different stakeholders. From a website hostâs standpoint, it may require dedicated personnel and capacity to ensure the presented information and materials remain relevant with ongoing support and real-time updates. As a result, one of the risks of relying on websites as a communication tool is consistency C H A P T E R 5 Engagement and Communication Tools
46 Airports and Unmanned Aircraft Systems of information. In this case, certain functions of websites may fare more effectively than others, such as blogs, peer-to-peer exchange platforms, and user forums, which allow informal conver- sations to take place among website users. For airport operators, websites can be effective communication tools in general, as most U.S. airports already have their official websites developed. Larger airports may have more capacity than smaller, regional airports to operate and keep their websites up to date, and therefore their websites may have more effective usability and reliability for the latest available information. At the same time, all airports should have the capacity to link information to other organizationsâ websites that have more expertise and focus on UAS-related information, and therefore infor- mation should still be communicated. 5.2 Social Media Similar to websites, social media provides various online platforms and approaches to reach stakeholders. Some prominent social media platforms include LinkedIn, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Instagram, SnapChat, and Reddit. Table 14 provides a summary of the benefits and challenges of social media as an engagement and outreach tool. AIRPORT TYPES INDUSTRY UAS OPERATORS Towered and non- towered airports General aviation and commercial airports Joint use airports UAS manufacturers Direct service providers (external; âUAS as a serviceâ) Indirect service providers (e.g., insurance claims inspection, cargo delivery, and inspection), which include operations conducted by an organization for their own benefit or for the benefit of their stakeholders Support services (e.g., maintenance, logistics, insurance coverage) Manned aviation (commercial and civil pilots and operators) ATC/Operations Construction Civil operators (Part 107, COA with Section 333 Exemption, SAC) Governmental (Public; including law enforcement, fire services, and other civic function) Commercial (service providers and internal use) Education and training UAS remote pilots/operators Recreational education (Part 101/Section 336) Clubs and other organized recreational users such as the Drone Racing League ASSOCIATIONS / PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS REGULATORS / LAW MAKERS CBOs Advocacy Professional (e.g., AUVSI) Federal State Local (county, city, town, tribal) Table 12. List of categories of UAS stakeholders.
Engagement and Communication Tools 47 Social media platforms allow for targeted, real-time stakeholder outreach. These platforms offer the targeted audience various ways to react to the information being shared as well, such as the use of the âLikeâ button, comment box, and sharing functions. Overall, for airports, social media platforms can be resourceful as an informal way to reach out to UAS stakeholders, but in a creative manner that perhaps would keep them more engaged. These social media platforms can also help spread information quickly through social media users themselves. Larger airports may have more effective use of social media, as these platforms require dedicated resources and personnel for upkeep. 5.3 In-Person Information Sessions Information sessions represent a method commonly used to present specific information to an affected population (e.g., a regulatory body presenting the details of a proposed regula- tory change to a user population). Sessions can be conducted independently, as a standalone WEBSITE/PAGE FUNCTION EXAMPLES BENEFITS CHALLENGES Information, documentation, multimedia hosting and curation Calendar, Schedule Directories (point of contact identification) Regulation-oriented, government agencies: FAA: www.faa.gov/uas/ International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO): www.icao.int/ National Association of State Aviation Officials: www.nasao.org/ Advocacy groups: Ability to disseminate information for stakeholders âon the goâ and/or real-time updates Serving as a one-stop portal for information and resources Allowing quick access to materials Consistency and reliability of information and documents Legitimacy of website and information being communicated; for wiki pages, peer review is not confirmed Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI): www.auvsi.net/home Academy of Model Aeronautics (AMA): www.modelaircraft.org/ R/C Airplane World: www.rc-airplane- world.com/ UAS users (including manufacturers or sellers, or service offers): Dronethusiast: www.dronethusiast.com/ Sensefly (blog): waypoint.sensefly.com/ UAV Expert News: www.uavexpertnews.com/ Commercial UAV News: www.expouav.com/news /latest/ Providing direct access and connection with other UAS stakeholders through blogs and peer- exchange forums Enabling flexibility in level of detail of information; ability to cater to specific, targeted audience Providing opportunities for direct engagement with UAS stakeholders Ability to monitor audience traffic for better understanding of what they are looking for Beneficial for addressing specific issues, shared experience among stakeholders Requiring regular maintenance to keep information relevant and updated Requiring dedicated capacity to ensure timely responses for information submission pages or contact forms Ensuring the appropriate /useful information or data are being collected Technology bugs that may cause the apps to crash or not display information properly Databases Data collection, information submission News, updates (active, non- active, level of activity) Peer-to-peer sharing Wikis Blogs Applications (apps) User forums Table 13. Summary of benefits and challenges of websites.
48 Airports and Unmanned Aircraft Systems function hosted by the presenter, or as an element of a larger event (e.g., conference or sympo- sium). Examples include briefings and presentations, seminars, webinars, town hall meetings, or community roundtables. Some examples of UAS-related information sessions include: â¢ San Diego sUAS FAA Safety Team, sUAS (DRONE) Airspace Notification Authorizations and Waivers Updates (https://www.faasafety.gov/SPANS/event_details.aspx?eid=80661&caller=/ SPANS/events/EventList.aspx) â¢ FAA (FAA TV), UAS Integration Pilot Program Webinar (https://www.faa.gov/tv/ ?mediaId=1713) â¢ Mohawk Valley Community Collegeâs Center for Corporate & Community Education and the STEM Center and SkyOp, LLC, Drone/Unmanned Aerial Systems Training Information Session (https://www.skyop.com/drone-training-solutions/college-and-higher-education/) 5.4 Free Education/Training Examples of free training/education include workshops or courses, such as massive online open courses (MOOC) or computer-based training featuring self-paced learning modules. These options may feature reduced interaction, information exchange, or assessment and require less time commitment and/or interaction than paid versions, for both instructors and students. For example, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University hosts a UAS MOOC for participants from a variety of backgrounds including recreational UAS users, potential commercial users, and those potentially impacted by UAS operations to become acquainted with the UAS operations and industry standards. It also serves as a forum for participants to ask questions or voice concerns regarding the certification and integration challenges of the industry. Some examples of UAS- related free education/training sessions include: â¢ FAA Safety Team, ALC-451: Part 107 small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS) (https:// www.faasafety.gov/gslac/ALC/course_content.aspx?cID=451&sID=726&crID=1437198) SOCIAL MEDIA CATEGORY EXAMPLES BENEFITS CHALLENGES SOCIAL NETWORKING senseFLY: www.facebook.com/sen seFlyDrones/ AOPA: https://twitter.com/AO PA Ability to quickly share information and reach new audience Offering more interactive platforms to engage and communicate with targeted audience Utilizing the engaged audience to help spread communication Requires users to subscribe or âfollowâ a service Dependent on host organization/group to upkeep information MULTIMEDIA SHARING YouTube AMA model aircraft: www.youtube.com/mod elaircraft Drone Cast: https://www.instagram. com/dronecast/ Ability to provide creative mediums to share information Requiring resources and capacity for developing creative multimedia products for sharing Table 14. Summary of benefits and challenges of social media as an engagement and outreach tool.
Engagement and Communication Tools 49 â¢ Embry-Riddle Aeronautical UniversityâWorldwide, Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS)âKey Concepts for New Users [MOOC] (https://www.canvas.net/browse/erau/ courses/small-unmanned-aircraft) â¢ University of Bath, From State Control to Remote Control: Warfare in the 21st Century [MOOC] (https://www.futurelearn.com/courses/remote-control-warfare) 5.5 Paid Education/Training Examples include workshops and seminars (with evaluation), individual courses, and certifi- cate, workforce/professional development, or higher-learning degree programs (e.g., associate, bachelor, master, or doctorate). The level of interaction among peers (students), instructors, and other parties is typically higher than free versions. Additionally, the programming may be sub- ject to third-party endorsement and auditing (e.g., accreditation and review) and may require completion of pre-requisite and/or co-requisite, such as admission criteria, materials purchase (textbooks), and course sequencing. Further programming may feature evaluation of unique knowledge, skills, and/or abilities. Some examples of paid education/training sessions include: â¢ ASSOCIATES DEGREE PROGRAMS â Cochise Community College, Associate of Applied Sciences-Unmanned Aircraft Systems and Operations (https://www.cochise.edu/cfiles/files/catalog/web/2015-2016%20Catalog/ unmanned-aircraft-systems-and-operations---associate-of-applied-science-major-code--- uas.htm) â Sinclair Community College, Associate of Applied Science-Unmanned Aerial Systems (http:// www.sinclair.edu/program/params/programCode/UAS-S-AAS/) â Hinds Community College, Associates of Applied Science-UAS concentration (https:// www.hindscc.edu/programs-of-study/career-and-technical-programs/Transportation-and- Logistics/Aviation/unmanned-aircraft-systems-program#gsc.tab=0) â¢ BACHELORS DEGREE PROGRAMS â Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, BS in UAS Science (https://erau.edu/degrees/ bachelor/unmanned-aircraft-systems-science/) â Indiana State University, BS in Unmanned Systems (https://www.indstate.edu/academics/ undergraduate/majors/unmanned-systems) â Liberty University, BS in Aeronautics with UAS Cognate (https://www.liberty.edu/academics/ aeronautics/index.cfm?PID=12602) â Kansas State Polytechnic, Bachelorâs in Unmanned Aircraft Systems (https://polytechnic. k-state.edu/aviation/uas/curriculum.html) â University of North Dakota, BS in Aeronautics with a Major in Unmanned Aircraft System Operations (http://aviation.und.edu/prospective-students/undergraduate/uas- operations.aspx) â¢ GRADUATE DEGREE PROGRAMS â Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, MS in Unmanned Systems (https://erau.edu/ degrees/master/unmanned-systems/) â Oklahoma State University, MS in Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering with UAS Option (https://unmanned.okstate.edu/node/12) â University of North Carolina Wilmington, MS in Computer Science and Information Systems (https://csb.uncw.edu/MSCSIS/advancedstudy/mscsis-unmanned-aerial-vehicles.html) â¢ PROFESSIONAL TRAINING â Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Small UAS Professional Program (https://proed. erau.edu/programs/small-unmanned-aircraft-systems/)
50 Airports and Unmanned Aircraft Systems â West Valley College, UAS Technology Program (http://westvalley.edu/academics/applied_ arts_sciences/aviation/index.html) â Unmanned Safety Institute, Professional Remote Operator Certification (https:// www.unmannedsafetyinstitute.org/pro/) 5.6 Conferences and Symposiums Conferences and symposiums represent scheduled programming that occurs over a period of hours to days, among a population focused on a common unifying theme (e.g., professional, industry, or academic). They typically feature distribution of related multimedia material, including images, videos, live-stream, proceedings, and printed material. Engagement at conferences and symposiums occurs through interpersonal exchange among attendees, hosts, presenters, and sponsors, at displays/booths, social networking events, workshops, and briefings/presentations. Some examples of conferences and symposiums include: â¢ Conferences â AUVSI, XPonential Conference (http://www.xponential.org/xponential2018/public/ enter.aspx) â Commercial UAV Expo (https://www.expouav.com/welcome-drone-world-expo- constituents/) â International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (http://www.icuas.com/) â Small Unmanned Systems Business Expo (http://susbexpo.com/) â¢ Symposiums â FAA UAS Symposium (https://www.auvsi.org/events/faa-uas-symposium-2019) â International Civil Aviation Organization, UAS Industry Symposium (https://www.icao.int/ meetings/UAS2017/Pages/default.aspx) â UAS West Symposium (http://www.uaswest.com/) 5.7 Documentation The exchange of documentation provides the opportunity to share information to a desired audience through materials that can be distributed using websites or through direct exchange (physical or digital) with a target audience of individuals or groups. Unlike websites, documents are appropriate for information that is relatively static and needs to be conveyed with an appro- priate level of authority. Table 15 provides a summary of benefits and challenges of using documents as an engagement and outreach tool. A variety of document types can be used for stakeholder engagement. As the table demon- strates, each has its own strengths and weaknesses regarding their efficacy in engagement with the stakeholder communities that an organization seeks to engage with. Reports, research papers, and peer-reviewed articles provide a means of conveying more detailed knowledge to the audience, and provide a citable source that can be referenced. Regulations and policies document official requirements, guidelines, and required practices to the stakeholder community. Briefings, pre- sentations, and press releases can be shared as documents to provide access to a wider community regarding information that the organization wishes to share in response to some event or public issue, and represent a formal public statement from the organization. Magazines and newsletters provide more accessible knowledge and information than reports, research papers, and peer- reviewed articles, and provide opportunities to share community information, regulation and policy updates, best practices, and public service advertisements to the stakeholder community. Manuals and guidebooks allow an organization to convey guidance regarding procedures and
Engagement and Communication Tools 51 DOCUMENTATION CATEGORY EXAMPLES BENEFITS CHALLENGES REPORTS Unmanned Systems in Homeland Security (DHS, 2015-a) FAA - MicroUAS Aviation Rulemaking Committee Final Report Aerial Drones Provide Rail Safety from the Sky Permits distribution of knowledge to target audience Provides a citable and authoritative source for information conveyed Generally written for members of the community and less accessible to outside parties POLICIES AND REGULATIONS Title 14 CFR Part 107 (U.S. Government Publishing Office, n.d.-b) Memorandum: Educational Use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) (FAA, 2016-b) Establishes clear guidelines on what is and is not permissible within a jurisdiction, system, or organization. Provides authoritative reference Documents can be inaccessible to new entrants into a community Establishes limits and expected practices, but provides limited guidance on best practices RESEARCH/PEER- REVIEWED ARTICLES NASA UAS Traffic Management Research Documents Website (NASA, n.d.) AIAA Aerospace Research Central (AIAA, n.d.-c) Conveys technical knowledge and research to an audience. Peer review establishes a metric of quality upon the document For the UAS community, end-users such as commercial operators and recreational UAS users are less likely to engage with research articles Timescale of peer review process makes information lag behind technological advances BRIEFINGS/ PRESENTATIONS/ PRESS RELEASES AIAA Public Policy Speeches and Testimony (AIAA, n.d.-d) FAA UAS Test Site Designation (Cifuentes, 2014) AAAE Press Releases (AAAE, n.d.-b). Briefings document official statements from organizations regarding a topic of stakeholder interest Presentations provide access to information presented to stakeholders for those unable to attend presentation Press releases provide news media and the community with the organizationâs statement on events or activities relevant to the stakeholder community Briefings are typically tailored to the attended audience and may be less accessible to wider audiences Presentation slides and similar materials lack the spoken information conveyed in the actual presentation Reach of press release is variable based on interest of media, and less often passively reviewed by stakeholder community MAGAZINES AND NEWSLETTERS AUVSI Unmanned Systems Magazine (AUVSI, n.d.-c) Academy of Model Aeronautics (AMA) Today News Letter (AMA, n.d.-b) Convey information accessible to its target stakeholder community Subscribers are typically seeking information regarding the subjects covered Engagement limited to subscriber population Table 15. Summary of benefits and challenges of documentation outreach tool. (continued on next page)
52 Airports and Unmanned Aircraft Systems best practices for functions within the stakeholder community targeted to membersâ roles, responsibilities, and interests. Textbooks, study guides, and workbooks provide members of the stakeholder community with authoritative references for preparation for certification and general training. Finally, information and fact sheets provide a concise mechanism for conveying accessible and pertinent information to the community. 5.8 Community Partnerships/Affiliations In addition to the previously described UAS-specific communication methods, a range of collaborative efforts, including working groups, partnerships, and coalitions, has emerged as a result of the dispersed nature of UAS regulation and heretofore limited availability of guidance for independent users. Collaborations among UAS users serve distinct purposes, depending on the specific participants. In addition to belonging to the categories indicated in Table 12, including airports, govern- ment agencies, and professional UAS remote pilots/operators or service providers, users may affiliate with the following, more specific categories: â¢ Academic/Institutional: conducting research and education activities at universities, colleges, and other institutions; â¢ Environmental: weather monitoring, conservation and wildlife, and/or disaster recovery and relief; â¢ Entertainment: supplementing attendee experience, and/or supporting major sports, music, theater, and other entertainment events (such as security monitoring and crowd control); DOCUMENTATION CATEGORY EXAMPLES BENEFITS CHALLENGES TECHNICAL MANUALS AND GUIDEBOOKS FAA Interpretation of the Special Rule for Model Aircraft (FAA, 2014) ACRP Report 144: Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) at Airports: A Primer (Neubauer et al., 2015) Provide clear instructions and guidance regarding procedures, safety guidelines, best practices, and suitable knowledge Engagement limited to those engaging in utilizing the materials, and does not engage with a wider audience TEXTBOOKS / STUDY GUIDES / WORKBOOKS Knowledge Test Study Guide (FAA, 2016-g) Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems Guide (Terwilliger et al., 2017) Provide clear and well- organized learning materials to stakeholder community Supports efforts for training and certification Costs of materials can limit reach of material for engagement. Tailored to specific members of stakeholder community with limited wider reach FACT / INFORMATION SHEETS Operations of Small Unmanned Aerial Systems in the United States National Airspace System (AMA, n.d.-c) How to Label your Drone (FAA, n.d.-a) Low development costs to produce Convey key information with high accessibility to stakeholder members While summarizing key information, they are not an authoritative source Costs for distribution of physical materials Table 15. (Continued).
Engagement and Communication Tools 53 â¢ Consumer Products and Services: for furthering specific commercial uses, such as consumer product delivery or tracking; â¢ Communications: supporting journalistic endeavors of news and media organizations, including newspapers, television channels, and broadcasting companies; â¢ Insurance/Construction: facilitating inspection, site-planning, and building efforts; and â¢ Identity-based: providing support and networking opportunities for UAS users of particular identities or groups (e.g., gender, minority-based, geographic). Table 16 details examples of coalitions, working groups, and/or collaborative partnerships formed within some of these UAS user categories. GROUP NAME MEMBERS / PARTICIPANTS SECTORS(S) DESCRIPTION LINKS CLOUD-MAP Oklahoma State University, University of Kentucky, University of Nebraska, University of Oklahoma Academic/ Institutional; Environmental Four universities collaborating to educate students on UAS and improve the use of UAS for weather monitoring http://www.cloud- map.org/?q=team Small UAV Coalition 3D-Robotics, Parrot, DJI, Airware, Amazon, Google, GoPro, etc. (see website for complete list) Consumer Products/ Services sUAS users belonging to various major technology companies, provides information on relevant regulations and education regarding the benefits of small UAS http://www.small uavcoalition.org/ Media-Virginia Tech Mid-Atlantic Aviation Partnership Advance Publications, Inc.; A.H. Belo Corp.; The Associated Press; Gannett Co., Inc.; Getty Images (US), Inc.; NBCUniversal, Inc.; The New York Times Company; The E.W. Scripps Company; Sinclair Broadcast Group, Inc.; The Washington Post Communications; Academic/ Institutional Partnership among 10 major news/media companies and Virginia Tech to research how UAS are used for news coverage https://khqa.com/ news/local/coaliti on-to-test- newsgathering- unmanned-aircraft- systems Women of Commercial Drones Individual members, see website for details Identity-based Provides resources and support for women leaders in the UAS and technology development industries http://womenofco mmercialdrones.or g/ Table 16. Example UAS partnership organizations. (continued on next page)
54 Airports and Unmanned Aircraft Systems Commercial Drone Alliance CAPE; droneUp; Ford; Red Mountain Scientific; DGS; SkySafe; Talon Aerolytics; DataWing Global; Security Industry Association (see website for complete list) Consumer Products/ Services; Academic/ Institutional; Professional UAS remote pilots/ operators or service providers Promotes use of UAS through advocacy and policy efforts, nonprofit with members ranging from industry to entrepreneurs to academia https://www.com mercialdroneallianc e.org/ AAAE UAS Working Group AAAE Airports Subgroup of the AAAE Operations, Safety, Planning and Emergency Management Committee, represents the views of industry members regarding UAS information in press release of FAA report; https://www.aaae. org/aaae/AAAEM emberResponsive/ Advocacy/Regulat ory_Affairs/Regul atory_Alerts/2016 /FAA_Releases_M icroUAS040716.as px Digital Notice and Awareness Systemâ¢ (D- NAS) AAAE; AirMap Airports/ Professional UAS remote pilot/ operators or service providers Collaborative digital monitoring effort to detect drones and notify airports of drone location https://www.prne wswire.com/news- releases/airmap-- the-american- association-of- airport-executives- aaae-launch-uas- notice-system- 300242406.html Tribal Interest Group for UAS DOIâs Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA); NOAA UAS; tribal representatives Government; Identity-based Working group formed as part of the FAA UAS workshop to share experiences, discuss potential areas for collaboration with federal efforts, and explore interest in UAS in tribal communities https://uas.noaa.g ov/News/ArtMID /6699/ArticleID/ 357/Tribal- Interest-Group- for-Unmanned- Aircraft-Systems- UAS-at-the- Federal-UAS- Workshop Property Drone Consortium Allstate, American Family Insurance; Auto Owners Insurance; EagleView Technologies (see website for complete list) Insurance/ Construction; Environmental Supports infrastructure and insurance companies, trade associations, and academic institutions that rely on small- UAVs to facilitate inspections and post-catastrophe recovery work http://propertydro ne.org/ Coalition of UAS Professionals Undisclosed Consumer Products/ Services; Academic/ Institutional Promotes safety among UAV operators in small businesses across the United States; education and policy updates http://uascoalition .org/about-us/ GROUP NAME MEMBERS / PARTICIPANTS SECTORS(S) DESCRIPTION LINKS Table 16. (Continued).
Engagement and Communication Tools 55 Some of the benefits of the collaborations listed above include: â¢ Clarification: Affiliation with coalitions keeps members informed about the latest UAS rules and regulations. â¢ Communication/Networking: Members follow industry trends, meet others in the field, and have access to support services. â¢ Promotion/Advocacy: Members benefit from professional opportunities and collectively promote awareness about UAS development, internal and external to the industry. â¢ Safety: Collaborations increase awareness among members of the public and the industry, and aid in the development of safety campaigns. Some limitations or issues associated with the collaborations listed above include: â¢ Exclusivity: Collaborations may be internal to companies, particularly in the private sector, and therefore not widely available or known to the community at large. â¢ Ad-hoc: Committees or partnerships may exist informally under established organizations or agencies and therefore may be difficult to find. Working groups may be formed for confer- ences or events and dissolve afterwards. â¢ Inaccessibility: Some collaborations are only open to those with financial means to participate/ join or to individuals of a specific industry, status, or identity, either explicitly or inexplicitly.