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Managing and Engaging Stakeholders on UAS in the Vicinity of Airports Â 80 7 Other Resources The following materials, including websites and resources can be used to support airport outreach and engagement activities. These resources include those specific to UAS information, communication, and further details of previously discussed engagement tools. UAS Information Resources 7.1.1 General Information FAA UAS Resources ï· UAS main page: https://www.faa.gov/uas/ ï· UAS FAQ: https://www.faa.gov/uas/faqs/ ï· Getting Started: https://www.faa.gov/uas/getting_started/ ï· Beyond the Basics: https://www.faa.gov/uas/beyond_the_basics/ ï· Report and Accident: https://www.faa.gov/uas/report_accident/ ï· Resources: https://www.faa.gov/uas/resources/ ï· Flight Standards District Offices (FSDO): https://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/field_offices/fsdo/ ï· UAS Facility Maps: https://www.faa.gov/uas/request_waiver/uas_facility_maps/ ï· FAA Drone Zone Portal (register UAS [Part 107 or Section 336] and report an accident): https://faadronezone.faa.gov/ Know Before You Fly ï· Main page: http://knowbeforeyoufly.org/ ï· Fly Responsibly o Recreational User: http://knowbeforeyoufly.org/for-recreational-users/ o Business User: http://knowbeforeyoufly.org/for-business-users/ o Government Entity: http://knowbeforeyoufly.org/for-public-entities/ o Educational Use: http://knowbeforeyoufly.org/education-use/ o U.S. Airspace Map: http://knowbeforeyoufly.org/air-space-map/ o Register Your Drone: http://knowbeforeyoufly.org/register-your-drone/ o UAS Best Practices: http://knowbeforeyoufly.org/uas-best-practices/ ï· Facts o Quick Facts: http://knowbeforeyoufly.org/facts/ o FAQ: http://knowbeforeyoufly.org/frequently-asked-questions/ ï· Resources: http://knowbeforeyoufly.org/resources/
Managing and Engaging Stakeholders on UAS in the Vicinity of Airports Â 81 ï· News: http://knowbeforeyoufly.org/news/ Academy of Model Aeronautics (National Community-based Organization) ï· AMA main page: https://www.modelaircraft.org/ ï· About AMA: https://www.modelaircraft.org/about-ama ï· Membership: https://www.modelaircraft.org/membership/enroll ï· Programs: https://www.modelaircraft.org/member-programs ï· AMA Safety Code: https://www.modelaircraft.org/sites/default/files/105.pdf ï· AMA Documents: https://www.modelaircraft.org/documents 7.1.2 UAS Operational Resources FAA Resources ï· B4UFly Mobile App: https://www.faa.gov/uas/where_to_fly/b4ufly/ ï· Airspace Restrictions: https://www.faa.gov/uas/where_to_fly/airspace_restrictions/ ï· Request a Part 107 Waiver or Operation in Controlled Airspace: https://www.faa.gov/uas/request_waiver/ ï· Petitioning for Exemption under Section 333: https://www.faa.gov/uas/beyond_the_basics/section_333/how_to_file_a_petition/ ï· NOTAMS, TFRs, and Aircraft Safety Alerts: https://www.faa.gov/pilots/safety/notams_tfr/ ï· TFR List: http://tfr.faa.gov/tfr2/list.html ï· Visualize It: See FAA UAS Data on a Map: https://www.arcgis.com/apps/webappviewer/index.html?id=9c2e4406710048e19806ebf6a 06754ad ï· PilotWeb Home: https://pilotweb.nas.faa.gov/PilotWeb/ Department of Homeland Security ï· UAS Critical Infrastructure: https://www.dhs.gov/uas-ci ï· UAS FAQ: https://www.dhs.gov/unmanned-aircraft-systems-faq ï· Considerations for Law Enforcement: https://www.dhs.gov/uas-law-enforcement Other Resources ï· U.S. Department of the Interior: https://www.doi.gov/aviation/uas ï· AOPA Best Practices for Flying Your Drone Within Five Miles of an Airport: https://www.aopa.org/go-fly/aircraft-and-ownership/drones/best-practices-for-flying- your-drone-near-an-airport
Managing and Engaging Stakeholders on UAS in the Vicinity of Airports Â 82 ï· North Carolina Department of Transportation, Unmanned Aircraft Systems: https://www.ncdot.gov/divisions/aviation/uas/Pages/default.aspx ï· International Fire Chiefs Association Unmanned Aerial Systems Toolkit: https://www.iafc.org/topics-and-tools/resources/resource/unmanned-aerial-systems-uas- toolkit ï· National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice UAS for Public Safety Resource Links: https://www.justnet.org/uas/resources.html 7.1.3 Airport/Municipal UAS Outreach Examples ï· Tampa International Airport Unmanned Aircraft Systems (Drones): http://www.tampaairport.com/UAS ï· St. Pete-Clearwater International, Unmanned Aircraft Operations (Drones): https://www.fly2pie.com/aviation-business/drones ï· NC Airport Technical Assistance Program (AirTap), Understanding Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) for Airport Operators: https://itre.ncsu.edu/wp- content/uploads/2016/05/NCAirTAP_UAS_NCAA_RegMtgs_Sep2016-1.pdf ï· Bellingham International Airport Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS): https://www.portofbellingham.com/816/Unmanned-Aircraft-Systems-UAS ï· Santa Monica Municipal Airport UAS/Drone Operators: https://www.smgov.net/Departments/Airport/Pilots/UAS/Drone_Operators.aspx ï· Port of Portland Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Operations: https://www.portofportland.com/Programs/Drones ï· City of Durango Drones and UAS: http://www.durangogov.org/index.aspx?NID=1043 ï· City of Salem Unmanned Aircraft Systems (Drones): https://www.cityofsalem.net/Pages/unmanned-aircraft-systems-drone.aspx ï· La Crosse Regional Airport UAV/UAS/Drone Operations: https://www.lseairport.com/content/uav-uas-drone-operations ï· Redmond Municipal Airport Drone Information and Regulations: http://www.flyrdm.com/?Drone-InformationRegulations ï· Fresno Yosemite International Airport UAS/Drones: https://flyfresno.com/drone-info/ ï· Telluride Regional Airport Drones and UAS: https://tellurideairport.com/drones-and-uas/ ï· Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport Fly Your Drone Responsibly: https://www.skyharbor.com/Business/RulesAndRegulations/drones ï· San Bernardino International Airport Drone Flight Information: http://www.sbdairport.com/drone_information/ ï· Cable Airport UAS/Drone Q&A: http://cableairport.com/uasdrone-qa/
Managing and Engaging Stakeholders on UAS in the Vicinity of Airports Â 83 ï· Reno-Stead Airport FAA Designated Test Site: https://renoairport.com/reno-stead/faa- designated-uav-uas-test-site 7.1.4 Land Owner Permission ï· University of Cincinnati: https://www.uc.edu/content/dam/uc/af/financialpolicies/Docs/UASFAQs.pdf ï· University of Colorado Boulder: https://www.colorado.edu/today/uas-policy-frequently- asked-questions ï· Princeton University: https://drones.princeton.edu/learn-more/frequently-asked-questions 7.1.5 Reporting ï· FAA Drone Zone Portal: https://faadronezone.faa.gov/#/ ï· FAA: https://www.faa.gov/uas/where_to_fly/airspace_restrictions/#airports ï· FAA: https://www.faa.gov/uas/resources/uas_sightings_report/ 7.1.6 Insurance ï· Unmanned Risk Management: http://unmannedrisk.com/about/ ï· AIG Insurance: https://www.aig.com/business/insurance/specialty/unmanned-aircraft- system ï· Aerial Pak: http://www.aerialpak.com/details.jsp ï· Bullock Agency INC.: http://www.bullockagency.com/ 7.1.7 Economic ï· Jak Linkel & Russell Wolfe; AUVSI XPONENTIAL: https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20180002816.pdf ï· FAA: https://www.faa.gov/data_research/aviation/aerospace_forecasts/ ï· Darryl Jenkins, Bijan Vashigh, Clint Oster, and Tulinda Larsen; Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University: https://news.erau.edu/-/media/files/news/forecast-commercial-uas-package- delivery-market.pdf?la=en Communication Resources 7.2.1 Communication and Marketing Strategy Development ï· U.S. Office of Personnel Management Communications Strategies: https://www.opm.gov/services-for-agencies/workforce-succession- planning/communications-strategies/
Managing and Engaging Stakeholders on UAS in the Vicinity of Airports Â 84 ï· U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Office of Adolescent Health Strategic Communications Toolkit (training): https://www.hhs.gov/ash/oah/resources-and- training/online-learning-modules/strategic-communications-toolkit/index.html ï· United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women Key steps in designing a communications strategy: http://www.endvawnow.org/en/articles/1235-key- steps-in-designing-a-communications-strategy.html?next=1236 ï· Harvard Business Review Four Steps to Building Strategic Communications Capability: https://hbr.org/2012/03/four-steps-to-building-a-strat ï· Berghof Foundation Designing Effective Communication Strategy: https://www.berghof- foundation.org/fileadmin/redaktion/Publications/Other_Resources/Strategic_Frameworks /Framework_Communication_Strategies_final.pdf ï· Center for Business Planning Marketing Plan: http://businessplans.org/guide/market/ 7.2.2 Briefing and Educational Development ï· GUIDE Inc. How to Organize a Town Hall Meeting: A Planning Guide: https://guideinc.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Organizing-a-Town-Hall- Meeting.pdf ï· David Lazer, the Harvard Kennedy School and Northeastern University; Michael Neblo, The Ohio State University; Kevin Esterling, University of California-Riverside and Kathy Goldschmidt, Congressional Management Foundation; Congressional Management Foundation: http://www.congressfoundation.org/storage/documents/CMF_Pubs/online- town-hall-meetings.pdf ï· Marshfiled Clinic: https://northwoodscoalition.org/wp- content/uploads/2016/10/Chapter-1-Tips-on-Writing-a-Press-Release.pdf ï· National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB): https://www.ntsb.gov/news/speeches/RSumwalt/Documents/Sumwalt_121029.pdf ï· FAA: https://www.faa.gov/news/stay_connected/ ï· U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT): https://www.transportation.gov/social ï· John C. Bertot, Paul T. Jaeger, Justin M. Grimes; Government Information Quarterly: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.giq.2010.03.001 ï· Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): https://www.epa.gov/international- cooperation/public-participation-guide-tools-inform-public ï· FAA: https://www.faa.gov/news/safety_briefing/2018/media/SepOct2018.pdf ï· University of Washington: http://www.washington.edu/teaching/teaching- resources/preparing-to-teach/designing-your-course-and-syllabus/#Course ï· Alexandra M. Pickett; State University of New York: https://commons.suny.edu/cotehub/files/2015/05/Final2-N2OLManual-2015.pdf
Managing and Engaging Stakeholders on UAS in the Vicinity of Airports Â 85 ï· Ashton Anderson, Daniel Huttenlocher, Jon Kleinberg, & Jure Leskovec; Cornell University: https://www.cs.cornell.edu/home/kleinber/www14-courses.pdf ï· edX MOOC; Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University: https://courses.edx.org/c4x/edX/edX101/asset/edX_MOOC_Development_Checklist- a11y.pdf ï· University of Minnesota Library: http://open.lib.umn.edu/humanresourcemanagement/chapter/8-4-designing-a-training- program/ ï· Dawna Rosenkranz & Dr. CÃ©sar O. MalavÃ©; Texas A&M Engineering: http://ppo.tamu.edu/ppo/media/documents/Continuing%20Education/Guide-To- Continuing-Education.pdf ï· Community Tool Box: https://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/structure/training-and- technical-assistance ï· Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine: https://www.imperial.ac.uk/media/imperial-college/administration-and-support- services/staff-development/public/ipd/Preparing-an-effective-briefing.pdf ï· Massachusetts Institute of Technology: https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/urban-studies-and- planning/11-225-argumentation-and-communication-fall-2006/lecture-notes/guide_pres.pdf 7.2.3 Partnership Development and Sustainment ï· FAA: https://www.faa.gov/uas/programs_partnerships/ ï· FAA: https://www.faa.gov/uas/programs_partnerships/uas_integration_pilot_program/ ï· The Aspen Institute: http://www.skilledtradesplaybook.org/10-steps-form-sustain- partnership/ ï· Bruce Eckfeldt, Business Insider: https://www.businessinsider.com/how-to-build-and- maintain-great-business-partnerships-2015-5 ï· AmeriCorps & Senior Corps: https://www.nationalservice.gov/special-initiatives/days- service/martin-luther-king-jr-day-service/toolkits/other-resources/tips ï· Meg Skizim, Nick Harris, Claudia Leonardi, and Richard Scribner, Ethnicity and Disease Journal: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5684776/ ï· Richard Klophaus, Journal of Airport Management: https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/hsp/cam/2016/00000010/00000002/art00009 ï· Ryan R. J. McAllister Bruce M. Taylor Ben P. Harman; Policy Studies Journal: https://doi.org/10.1111/psj.12103 ï· Vivien Lowndes & Helen Sullivan, Local Government Studies Journal: https://doi.org/10.1080/0300393042000230920 ï· John Snow, Inc. (JSI): https://www.jsi.com/JSIInternet/Inc/Common/_download_pub.cfm?id=14333&lid=3
Managing and Engaging Stakeholders on UAS in the Vicinity of Airports Â 86 ï· Aida Giachello; March of Dimes: http://www.aapcho.org/wp/wp- content/uploads/2012/02/Giachello-MakingCommunityPartnershipsWorkToolkit.pdf Further Tool Examples and Details The following represent additional details regarding the previously discussed tool types; the applicability will be dependent upon individual communication strategies, past experience, and level of user familiarity. 7.3.1 Social Media Examples Facebook Facebook is one of the most popular social media platforms with the largest geographical range of users when compared to any other social media platform (Dunn, 2017). Facebook offers amenities such as creating interactive âgroupsâ or âpagesâ to convene audiences with common interests and promoting specific products and/or services that would reach a specific, targeted audience using algorithms. Facebook also enables real-time sharing of information from other Internet sources, visual demonstrations through posting photos and live-streaming videos, and immediate commentary or reactions on the information being shared. Facebook provides a suite of tools to the advertiser to measure viewings, interactions, etc., which provide a better understanding of the effectiveness of the content being shared. At the same time, due to the interactive nature of Facebook, it requires extensive efforts to continually manage posts, engage with users, and maintain popularity and relevance in usersâ ânews feeds.â There are also far-reaching privacy concerns with the use of Facebook and other social media tools, which collect personal information. Appropriate safeguards that control the privacy of users as well as airport data should be considered before fully utilizing this tool. YouTube YouTube provides a platform to create a âchannelâ and post videos. YouTube users can subscribe to those channels to receive updates when new content is posted. YouTube videos have the most opportunity of all the platforms discussed in this section for sharing and having popular videos reach large numbers of users. For instance, the FAA published a video to highlight its knowb4ufly campaign, which garnered over 285,000 views (YouTube, 2014). Despite its potential wide reach, the content for the YouTube videos could be challenging to create, as videos require more resources to create and the channel requires maintenance to stay relevant to its subscribers. Twitter Twitter provides an arena to share real-time updates in limited text. Advertisers and users can begin or follow important trending news using the # symbol to tag important keywords. Twitter allows users to follow and repost (retweet) content from any account. The accounts are easy to set up and only allow a 280-character limit for each post. Individual accounts also have the potential to reach larger numbers of users. For instance, the FAA Twitter account (@FAANews) has over 265,000 followers (Twitter, 2018). The platform can be used for quick updates with less focus on the video/picture visual.
Managing and Engaging Stakeholders on UAS in the Vicinity of Airports Â 87 Links to UAS-community Relevant Social Media Accounts ï· Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association o Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/AOPApilots/ o LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/aopa/ o Twitter: https://mobile.twitter.com/AOPA ï· Alliance for System Safety of UAS through Research Excellence (FAA UAS Center of Excellence) o Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/ASSUREuas o LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/9266738 o Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/ASSUREuas ï· Association of Commercial Unmanned Aircraft Systems o Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ProfessionalUAS/ o LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/association-of-commercial- unmanned-aircraft-systems/ o Twitter: https://mobile.twitter.com/professionaluas ï· Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International o Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/AUVSI-316376653645/ o LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/auvsi/ o Twitter: https://mobile.twitter.com/AUVSI o YouTube: https://m.youtube.com/user/AUVSI ï· Federal Aviation Administration o Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/FAA/ o Flickr: https://www.flickr.com/photos/faanews o LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/faa/ o Twitter: https://mobile.twitter.com/FAANews o YouTube: https://m.youtube.com/user/FAAnews ï· Los Angeles International Airport o Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/LAInternationalAirport/ o Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/flyLAXairport/ o Twitter: https://mobile.twitter.com/flyLAXairport o YouTube: https://m.youtube.com/user/LAXairport1 ï· Know Before You Fly o Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Know-Before-You-Fly-1048685898499732/ o Twitter: https://twitter.com/FlyResponsibly ï· North Carolina Department of Transportation o Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/NCDOT
Managing and Engaging Stakeholders on UAS in the Vicinity of Airports Â 88 o Flickr: https://www.flickr.com/photos/ncdot o Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/ncdotcom/ o LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/ncdot/ o Twitter: https://twitter.com/ncdot o YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/ncdotcommunications ï· U.S. Forest Service o Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/USForestService/ o Flickr: https://www.flickr.com/groups/3120876@N22/ o Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/u.s.forestservice/ o LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/usda-forest-service/about/ o Twitter: https://mobile.twitter.com/forestservice o YouTube: https://m.youtube.com/user/usdaForestServiceÂ 7.3.2 Traditional Marketing Tools Television Advertisements via television (TV) can reach a wide variety of audiences and offer visual and auditory representations of a product or service. TV advertisements provide similar opportunities to online social media. However, high costs are associated with TV advertisements due to the components necessary to develop the content, air time, and the necessary repetition of airing the advertisement to have the most benefit from this medium. Radio Radio can provide opportunities for auditory information sharing. Radio programs and advertisements do not have high costs associated with them and can been created in a short period of time. A benefit as well as a challenge of this medium is that radio networks tend to be localized. Therefore, while radio can be a convenient resource to communicate information that may only be relevant to specific locations, advertisements on radio networks can also be limited in their ability to reach others beyond the targeted local audience. Radio can be used by airports to broadcast information regarding safety practices of UAS near airports, or regulators can utilize radio news briefings to inform the public of any special situations (e.g. presidential visit) resulting in UAS operations being temporarily suspended (such information should also be available to UAS operators via NOTAMs and the b4ufly mobile app). Relative to other engagement tools (such as online applications), radio may be outdated and less frequently utilized. However, using the radio could reach segments of the population who would otherwise not be familiar with the other commonly used forms of public outreach tools. Print Printed materials such as mailers, brochures, documents, and posters make information more tangible to users and serve as strong supplements to other forms of marketing such as conferences and presentations. Printed materials pose challenges when targeting stakeholders because of the integration of technology in society. This method may be perceived as out of date and difficult to distribute, as using paper is not a sustainable medium.
Managing and Engaging Stakeholders on UAS in the Vicinity of Airports Â 89 Online Online marketing can be an effective way to reach targeted individuals, groups, and organizations, including web-based banners and pages, podcasts, and emails. Advertisements on high-traffic websites can be viewed by a large number of people. Although these advertisements can be costly, the repetitive viewings will reach key stakeholders. Podcasts Podcasts are another medium available online that provides an auditory prompt for a product or program. Targeting the right audience with a podcast may be challenging due to the wide-variety of podcasts and topics covered. For instance, the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA) informative podcasts range from Part 107 explanations to other pilot certifications (AOPA, 2018). Email Email blasts through platforms like Constant Contact is another way to market. Challenges with email blasts include determining the appropriate distribution list, being mistaken for as spam in email filters, and competing entities that are also using email blasts. Also, the target stakeholder may not open or view the email. Email may be beneficial to closed groups or identified groups, i.e. interested community UAS operators that give permission for email contact through an airport operator. 7.3.3 Documentation Reports Reports are published documents (print or electronic) presenting informational or technical knowledge to convey facts regarding a topic of interest to its target audience. Reports can communicate an organizationâs position regarding a topic of interest to engage a stakeholder community. The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) publishes an annual report on key public policy issues impacting the instituteâs membership (AIAA, n.d.-a) and they publish reports online that are informational, convey opinion, or establish the instituteâs position on public policy (AIAA, n.d.-b). AUVSI provides updates to the community regarding the unmanned systems market such as economic reports (AUVSI, 2013), waivers under Part 107 (AUVSI, n.d.-a), and the organizationâs strategic plan (AUVSI, n.d.-b). A report can convey an organizationâs current capabilities, intent, roadmap, etc. a topic to convey information to that topicâs stakeholders. The DHS has published a report in 2015, âUnmanned Systems in Homeland Security,â which summarized the how unmanned systems could be leveraged for homeland security, their advantages, disadvantages, and constraints (DHS, 2015-a). Reports can summarize research findings. Another DHS report, âCounter-Unmanned Aerial Systems,â presented a market survey of counter-UAS technologies that can be âcommercially available for purchase by emergency responder agencies in the United Statesâ (DHS, 2017-b, pp. 6). Precision Hawk shared the FAA Pathfinder Program Phase I research results addressing its demonstration of extended visual line-of-sight via a technical report published on its website (Precision Hawk, 2016). Reports can also feature the presentation of the outcomes of meetings and other events. For instance, each of the recent FAA Aviation Rulemaking Committees (ARC)s
Managing and Engaging Stakeholders on UAS in the Vicinity of Airports Â 90 published reports sharing the findings of the ARC including its recommendations (FAA, 2015-a, FAA, 2016-c, and FAA, 2017-a). Regulations and Policies Documents can be used to share regulations and policies with a stakeholder community. A prime example of using documents to share regulation and policy is the FAA and ICAO, which shares regulations, orders, advisory circulars, airworthiness directives, etc. with the aviation community (FAA Regulation). Federal regulations can be accessed online through eCFR.gov (U.S. Government Publishing Office, n.d.-a), which is an electronic repository for the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR); for example, the regulatory laws established by the FAA under Title 14 of the CFR (U.S. Government Publishing Office, n.d.-b) define regulations for aviation within the National Airspace System. For international UAS regulation, policy, and guidance, ICAO maintains an online portal providing access to international regulation and policy (ICAO, n.d.). For domestic UAS community- specific regulations, policies, and other documents, the FAA maintains an online portal to provide broader access and reach to these materials (FAA, n.d.-a). Examples of domestic policy and regulation documents include: ï· Summary of the Part 107 Rule (FAA, 2016-e) ï· Advisory Circular 107-2: Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS) (FAA, 2016-f) ï· Memorandum: Educational Use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) (FAA, 2016-b) Non-governmental entities can also draft their own policies to establish required practices or capabilities for utilization of its services and resources. These documents are supported by the authority of the authoring organization. One important consideration, especially for regulation and policies related to disruptive technologies such as UAS, is that they can evolve rapidly to address emergent needs, lessons learned, changes to local, state, and/or federal laws. Artifacts such as effective date, author, and revision history can assist the reader in determining the validity and applicability of a regulation or policy. Research/Peer-Reviewed Articles Research and peer-reviewed articles are documents that share the findings of a study to its target audience. Following a peer review, the audience is aware that the document has passed a significant benchmark regarding the quality and validity of the information conveyed. These documents are typically targeted toward research and development, policy, or academic interests and may provide focused topical coverage, however due to the time intensive processes of research (i.e., development, analyses, and documentation) and peer review (evaluation and revision), the communicated information is less timely than other forms of documentation. Research groups, trade/professional organizations, and other organizations can distribute these findings through journals, conference proceedings, document repositories, or their general website. The NASA UAS Traffic Management (UTM) program maintains a document repository of its technical reports and research articles presenting technology development and evaluation results (NASA, n.d.). The FAA maintains a repository of technical reports from its research partners (FAA, n.d.-c). The AIAA, a professional society, maintains a digital repository for its journal articles, conference proceedings, standards, and other documents (AIAA, n.d.-c). The Northeast UAS Airspace Integration Research Alliance (NUAIR), an FAA-designated UAS test site, shared a peer-
Managing and Engaging Stakeholders on UAS in the Vicinity of Airports Â 91 reviewed conference article regarding research it supports in ground-based detect-and-avoid technology on its website (Young, 2017). Briefings/Presentations/Press Releases Public briefings, presentations, and press releases permit an organization to share a written statement addressing a topic of interest to the industry such as newsworthy events, statements regarding public or organizational issues, or share presentationâs slides and other materials. Briefings can be distributed as either prepared written statements or transcripts of the briefing. AIAA and American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE) both provide pages on their website to distribute digital copies of past briefings to congress and other government entities (AIAA, n.d.-d and [doc]AAAE, n.d.-a). Presentations can be shared in print or digital formats (e.g. PDF or Microsoft PowerPoint) to the stakeholder community. For example, the Lone Star UAS Test Site shared on its website a briefing, âFAA UAS Test Site Designation,â to share with the UAS community, state and local governments, state and local communities regarding the impact of their UAS test site designation (Cifuentes, 2014). As another example, a briefing to the UAS community announcing the Cable News Network (CNN)âs participation under the FAAâs Pathfinder program was shared online, âPathfinder Focus Area 1: Operations Over People,â,â providing information regarding the program to the UAS community unable to witness the briefing in person (CNN, n.d.). Press releases are typically shared with the media to convey newsworthy information to the public including the organizationâs stakeholder community. The media utilizes press releases to gain awareness of newsworthy information. The AAAE shares its press release with its membership online (AAAE, n.d.-b). AUVSI provides a repository of press releases made by AUVSI (AUVSI, n.d.-c) and by its corporate members (AUVSI, n.d.-d). Numerous airports or transit authorities issue press releases addressing public concern, events, airport changes, service disruption, etc. Examples include Daytona Beach International Airport (Daytona Beach International Airport, n.d.), Seattle- Tacoma International Airport via the Port of Seattle (Port of Seattle, n.d.), and Philadelphia International Airport (Philadelphia International Airport, n.d.). Magazines and Newsletters Magazines and newsletters provide a means of sharing periodical information with an audience. Professional societies, recreational UAS organizations, and other communities utilize these engagement tools to provide opinion, news, educational articles, etc. through short form articles and advertisements. Magazines typically address one major theme, topic, or community and can be distributed in print and/or digital formats. AUVSI provides a monthly magazine, Unmanned Systems (AUVSI, 2018), which provides industry updates, advocacy updates, calls for community engagement, advertisements, and technical articles. The Academy of Model Aeronautics (AMA) publishes and distributes a Model Aviation Magazine (AMA, n.d.-a) for its membership. Newsletters (both print and digital) function like magazines but are much shorter in length and on a compressed timescale. Given their limited size, the development, print, and distribution costs of newsletters are substantially less than magazines. Print newsletters, like magazines, can feature articles, opinion pieces, updates of news and events, and/or provide a call to action. Digital newsletters are like their print counterparts but can utilize hyperlinks to provide readers with access to materials published elsewhere. In both cases, it is not uncommon for newsletters to include
Managing and Engaging Stakeholders on UAS in the Vicinity of Airports Â 92 advertisement space. The AMA provides a free digital newsletter to its membership, AMA Today (AMA, n.d.-b). Technical Manuals and Guidebooks Technical manuals and guidebooks provide procedures and/or guidance to a target audience. Uses include instructions on the use or maintenance of a system, procedures to be followed to adhere to a set of requirements or best practices. One example of this type of document in use includes the FAAâs Interpretation of the Special Rule for Model Aircraft (FAA, 2014), which provides more accessible guidance for the recreational UAS community seeking to operate under the special rules under Section 336 of the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012. Example guidebooks include: ï· Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) at Airports: A Primer, was published by the ACRP to provide initial guidance to airports regarding UAS integration considerations and policies (NASEM, 2015). ï· The Department of Homeland Security has published the guidebook, Best Practices for Protecting Privacy, Civil Rights & Civil Liberties in Unmanned Aircraft Systems Programs, as guidance for best practices regarding the issues identified in the documentâs title for other agencies considering the development of a UAS program (DHS, 2015-b). ï· The Academy of Model Aircraft provides a guidebook on its safety code to its membership (AMA, 2014). ï· The Police Foundation provides a guidebook for law enforcement seeking to use UAS for public safety, Community Policing & Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS): Guidelines to Enhance Community Trust (Valdovinos, et al, 2016). ï· The Embry-Riddle sUAS Consumer Guide, an online guidebook, provides information to recreational and commercial operators regarding the various options of small UAS on the market (ERAU, n.d.), but was maintained digitally to accommodate the rapid changes to the marketplace. Textbooks, Study Guides, and Workbooks Textbooks, study guides, and workbooks can serve a similar role and function as technical manuals and guidebooks, but these are generally written for broader education and training. Study guides and workbooks provide primarily a self-directed learning opportunity. For example, the FAA has developed training resources for individuals seeking a Remote Pilot Certificate with Small UAS rating including: ï· Airmen Certification Standards (FAA, 2016-d) ï· Knowledge Test Study Guide (FAA, 2016-g) ï· Knowledge Test Sample Questions (FAA, 2017-b) ï· Pilotâs Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge (FAA, 2016-a) Textbooks are typically written to support curriculum for a course, but can also be consumed by readers for their informational value. For example, the Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems Guide, functions as a textbook for academic courses, short courses, and workshops regarding sUAS history,
Managing and Engaging Stakeholders on UAS in the Vicinity of Airports Â 93 subsystems, applications, and safety practices, while also serving as a guidebook for novice members of the UAS operational community (Terwilliger et al., 2017). Another example of a UAS textbook which addresses safety risk assessment is Drones: Safety Risk Management for the Next Evolution of Flight (Wolf, 2017). Fact/Information Sheets Fact and information sheets are typically one-page documents, brochures, postcards, or similar handout materials that can be shared physically or digitally to provide concise and accessible information to the target community. These documents typically combine high-impact visuals with limited text. The FAA provides a number of different fact sheets relating to UAS operations for a variety of stakeholder communities. For example, the FAA provides a Manufacturerâs Digital Tool Kit (FAA, n.d.-d), which provides a printable information card to share pertinent safety information to consumers purchasing a small UAS. The FAA also provides a simple information sheet regarding the various UAS applications and weight categories to inform operators about which regulations and policies are relevant for their intended use (FAA, n.d.-e). The FAAâs âHow to Label Your UASâ (FAA, n.d.-f) provides a fact sheet regarding registration markings for small UAS. Another example of an FAA fact sheet is the FAAâs âLaw Enforcement Reference Cardâ (FAA, n.d.-g) providing law enforcement with guidance in how to observe and report unauthorized or unsafe UAS activities to the FAA. Fact and information sheets can also be used to provide an overview of a business, facility, service, etc. to the public with a summary of key details of relevance to their target community. The NASA UTM program provides the âNASA UTM Fact Sheet,â which summarizes the program, its relevant partners, and planned development schedule with milestones (NASA, 2016). The Alaska Center for UAS has developed a promotional flyer for UAS businesses, end-user communities, and legislative advocacy groups (University of Alaska-Fairbanks, 2015). DHS utilizes fact sheets to summarize its various programs including UAS activities (DHS, n.d.). For example, the DHS âUnmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS): Addressing Critical Infrastructure Security Challengesâ (DHS, 2017-a) summarizes the threats that UAS pose to critical infrastructure and what actions can be taken to intervene in these threats. Numerous organizations provide fact sheets for a variety of target audiences related to UAS interests and progress. The AMA provides its members with the âOperations of Small Unmanned Aerial Systems in the United States National Airspace Systemâ fact sheet (AMA, n.d.-c). The Department of Transportation distributes the âUAS Integration Pilot Program White House Fact Sheet (White House, 2017). The International Air Transport Association (IATA), provides a UAS fact sheet (IATA, 2017) summarizing the impact of UAS to safety, security, airspace efficiency, regulation, and standards. 7.3.4 Interpersonal Engagement Meeting/Symposium/Conference Organization A conference is a large-scale formal gathering of persons from different walks of life, who convene to discuss expert opinions or viewpoints on select topics, usually with a view to chart a way forward through proposals that may go on to be published and accepted as the norm. A symposium is also a formal gathering, but usually on a smaller scale than a conference and normally convened by a person or larger organization to discuss matters of a topic which largely affects those attending the meeting and often, a larger stakeholder group. The FAA UAS Symposium is a typical example of
Managing and Engaging Stakeholders on UAS in the Vicinity of Airports Â 94 such gathering that âprovides stakeholders with the opportunity to talk face-to-face with a cross- section of government and industry representatives about regulations, research and initiatives to integrate unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS)â (FAA, 2018). Such avenues provide more clarity than the more common social media communication system in that an actual interaction can take place and a wide range of experts can be on hand. SMS/Texting Short Message Services (SMS) and/or texting is very common for communication among a very wide variety of persons today. For instance, in January 2018, the Federal Emergency Management Agency allowed San Francisco International Airport (SFO) to become the first airport to send mass texts to any cellphone on SFO grounds (Baskas, 2018). The prevalence of mobile devices makes this form of communication very portable and ubiquitous. These forms of interpersonal communication have been called a hyper-personal form of interpersonal communication in some quarters. This is because these forms of indirect personal communication not only allow the users to create and present a deliberate personality in communication, it also allows an informal environment and personal expressions in ways that would otherwise be stifled by face-to-face communication (Reid & Reid, 2004). Historically, SMS/texting was limited to between two individuals. However, the creation of mobile applications today has created virtual meeting rooms/fora in which larger numbers of people can discuss topics in the comfort of their remote locations. With this form of communication, discussions can be held over long period of times, not geographically or time-zone limited, and the presence of particular persons is not required for a discussion to be held. Others can join in and catch up with what they have missed and still make contributions that are as meaningful as the contributions from those present at the time of the active conversation. However, the amount of information that can be passed through this channel is severely limited. Large files and some media files require other channels of communication to be used. Additionally, the security of information communicated through this channel cannot be overlooked. The potential for cybersecurity theft, technological glitches and network coverage are also factors that affect the effectiveness of communication via SMS/texting. Email/Postal Mail Within the aviation community, communication with stakeholders can also be accomplished through emails or the conventional postal mail. More often than not, postal mail could be more official, and generally costlier. Postal mail is active but takes significantly more time. Emails could be used in a mixed fashion of official and unofficial communication with individuals. The use of mobile devices has made email communication more convenient, portable, and easy to access. For significant information passage, receivers would typically have to use computers to access information, enabling large files to be transmitted and accessed by the parties involved. Emails/conventional mail also allow for collaborative work to be conducted only on one side at a time. Information is usually more secure sent via traditional mail than via email. Telephone/Teleconferencing Telephone and telephone conferences are a means for parties to engage in verbal communication over a topic. They differ from radio or television in that there is a positive exchange of information between parties and both or all parties can be active. Teleconferences add a benefit in that multiple parties from different geographic locations can discuss simultaneously irrespective of time differences as well. Dependence on this form of communication can lead to gaps in communication
Managing and Engaging Stakeholders on UAS in the Vicinity of Airports Â 95 due to technological or network glitches. Also, the availability of interested parties and access to required software (such as WebEx) is required for the success of such meetings. Other concerns could include the security of information communicated. Face-to-Face Meeting In communicating with an audience especially in aviation related matters, sometimes, fact-to-face meetings with persons of influence or particular stakeholders are held to achieve certain objectives. This usually helps when a particular individual has a means to affect certain decisions or influence a larger audience or persons of interest. Interpersonal communication can be conducted such that a local community is engaged for issues pertaining to their jurisdiction or just a simple individual with the expertise in a given area. The result is a very personal approach to the communication process and a greater likelihood to reach conclusive discussions as opposed to all other forms of communication.