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Suggested Citation:"Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airports and Unmanned Aircraft Systems, Volume 2: Incorporating UAS into Airport Infrastructure— Planning Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25606.
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Suggested Citation:"Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airports and Unmanned Aircraft Systems, Volume 2: Incorporating UAS into Airport Infrastructure— Planning Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25606.
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Suggested Citation:"Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airports and Unmanned Aircraft Systems, Volume 2: Incorporating UAS into Airport Infrastructure— Planning Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25606.
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Suggested Citation:"Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airports and Unmanned Aircraft Systems, Volume 2: Incorporating UAS into Airport Infrastructure— Planning Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25606.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airports and Unmanned Aircraft Systems, Volume 2: Incorporating UAS into Airport Infrastructure— Planning Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25606.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airports and Unmanned Aircraft Systems, Volume 2: Incorporating UAS into Airport Infrastructure— Planning Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25606.
×
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Page 8
Suggested Citation:"Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airports and Unmanned Aircraft Systems, Volume 2: Incorporating UAS into Airport Infrastructure— Planning Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25606.
×
Page 8
Page 9
Suggested Citation:"Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airports and Unmanned Aircraft Systems, Volume 2: Incorporating UAS into Airport Infrastructure— Planning Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25606.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Contents." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airports and Unmanned Aircraft Systems, Volume 2: Incorporating UAS into Airport Infrastructure— Planning Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25606.
×
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Incorporating UAS into Airport Infrastructure—Planning Guidebook i Contents 1  Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 10  Background ...................................................................................................................................................... 10  Guidebook Organization ............................................................................................................................... 11  2  UAS Terminology and Classifications ............................................................................. 12  3  Current Conditions ........................................................................................................... 14  Current Regulations ........................................................................................................................................ 14  Current UAS Forecasts of Industry Demand ............................................................................................ 16  UAS Airport Design Guidance Summary .................................................................................................. 17  3.3.1  United States’ Airfield Design Standards and UAS ............................................................................................. 17  3.3.2  International UAS Infrastructure Standards ......................................................................................................... 18  Recent Examples of UAS Infrastructure Planning ................................................................................... 20  3.4.1  UAS Infrastructure Planning at Airports .............................................................................................................. 20  3.4.2  Droneport Planning ................................................................................................................................................. 21  4  Airport Opportunities, Issues and Challenges ................................................................. 23  Opportunities .................................................................................................................................................. 23  4.1.1  Benefits to Airport Owners and Operators .......................................................................................................... 23  4.1.2  Benefits to Airport Customers and Tenants ......................................................................................................... 23  4.1.3  Benefits of Fixed and Multi-Rotor UAS ............................................................................................................... 24  4.1.4  Potential Opportunities to Enhance Airport Revenue ....................................................................................... 25  Issues and Challenges..................................................................................................................................... 25  5  Airport Infrastructure Planning for UAS .......................................................................... 26  UAS and Airport Planning Documentation ............................................................................................... 26  5.1.1  UAS Integrated Airport Master Plan ..................................................................................................................... 26  5.1.2  UAS Planning Study ................................................................................................................................................ 27  Initial Needs Assessment and Pre-Planning ............................................................................................... 27  Suggested Planning Document(s) Scope .................................................................................................... 30  Airport Strategic Vision and Objectives. .................................................................................................... 31  Existing Conditions ........................................................................................................................................ 31  Forecast Process ............................................................................................................................................. 32  Determining Critical Aircraft ........................................................................................................................ 34  Airport Capacity Evaluation ......................................................................................................................... 36  UAS Facility and Infrastructure Needs ....................................................................................................... 36  5.9.1  Airfield ....................................................................................................................................................................... 37  5.9.2  Airport Landside Facilities, UAS and Autonomous Vehicles ............................................................................ 51 

Incorporating UAS into Airport Infrastructure—Planning Guidebook ii 5.9.3  Hangar, Administration, and Airport Terminal Facilities ................................................................................... 52  5.9.4  Support Facilities ...................................................................................................................................................... 54  UAS and Airport Operational Guidance .................................................................................................... 58  Alternative(s) Development .......................................................................................................................... 58  Airport Compliance ........................................................................................................................................ 59  5.12.1  Airport Grant Assurances ....................................................................................................................................... 60  5.12.2  Environmental Compliance .................................................................................................................................... 60  5.12.3  Land Use and Zoning Compliance ........................................................................................................................ 61  Facilities Implementation Plan ..................................................................................................................... 61  Financial Feasibility Analysis ........................................................................................................................ 64  Airport Layout Plan ........................................................................................................................................ 65  Airport Readiness Steps ................................................................................................................................. 65  5.16.1  Obtain an UAS COA ............................................................................................................................................... 65  5.16.2  Conduct a Safety Risk Assessment and Develop Safety Management System ................................................ 66  5.16.3  Prepare Secure Communications Documentation and Frequency Request ..................................................... 66  5.16.4  Complete an Airport Geographic Information Survey, Update existing ALP or develop Electronic Airport Layout Plan .............................................................................................................................................................................. 67  5.16.5  Conduct an Airspace Obstruction Study .............................................................................................................. 68  UAS and Airport Facility and Operations Checklist ................................................................................. 68  Summary .......................................................................................................................................................... 70  6  Anticipated Future Conditions ......................................................................................... 71  Public Acceptance .......................................................................................................................................... 72  Market Demand .............................................................................................................................................. 73  Improvements in Technology ...................................................................................................................... 74  Regulations ...................................................................................................................................................... 75  Infrastructure Needs ...................................................................................................................................... 76  6.5.1  Environmental Changes/Needs ............................................................................................................................. 78  6.5.2  Communication and Operational Needs .............................................................................................................. 78  6.5.3  Funding and Grant Assurances .............................................................................................................................. 79  Findings and Anticipated Future Conditions ............................................................................................. 79  Final Thoughts ................................................................................................................................................ 82  7  Appendix: PDT Airport Master Plan Appendix ............................................................... 84  PDT Master Plan Activity Forecast ............................................................................................................. 84  PDT Existing Conditions .............................................................................................................................. 85  PDT UAS Infrastructure / Airspace Needs .............................................................................................. 85  PDT Master Plan Alternative Analysis........................................................................................................ 88 

Incorporating UAS into Airport Infrastructure—Planning Guidebook iii PDT Master Plan Airport Layout Plan (ALP) ........................................................................................... 88  PDT Master Plan Airport Capital Improvement Program ...................................................................... 88  PDT Master Plan Capital Funding Sources and Programs ...................................................................... 88  Beyond the Master Plan ................................................................................................................................. 89  8  Appendix: General Airport Issues and Challenges with UAS .......................................... 90  Airspace and UAS Traffic Management ..................................................................................................... 90  Airport Airspace and UAS ............................................................................................................................ 90  Air Traffic Management ................................................................................................................................ 91  UAS Communications ................................................................................................................................... 93  8.4.1  Radio Communication – Pilot and Unmanned Aircraft (UA) ........................................................................... 93  8.4.2  Sense and Avoid Radar Communications ............................................................................................................. 94  8.4.3  Radio Communication and Aircraft Management ............................................................................................... 95  Airport Charting ............................................................................................................................................. 95  Counter UAS Technology and Airport Infrastructure ............................................................................. 96  Urban Air Mobility and Autonomous Vehicles ......................................................................................... 98  Operational Challenges and Airport Land Use Zoning ........................................................................... 99  8.8.1  Operational Considerations and Challenges ......................................................................................................... 99  8.8.2  Land Use Zoning ................................................................................................................................................... 100  Airport Compliance and Funding .............................................................................................................. 101  8.9.1  Airport Grant Assurances and Compliance ........................................................................................................ 101  8.9.2  Local and State Restrictions .................................................................................................................................. 103  8.9.3  UAS Revenues and Airport Infrastructure Funding ......................................................................................... 104  Regulatory Environment – Domestic and International ........................................................................ 105  Airport Tenant Privacy Concerns .............................................................................................................. 105  UAS Rogue Operators ................................................................................................................................. 106  Summary ........................................................................................................................................................ 107  9  Appendix: UAS Forecast Process ................................................................................... 109  Step 1: Gather Current UAS Forecast Data ............................................................................................. 109  Step 2: Gather Airport Terminal Area Forecast or Approved Master Plan Forecasts ...................... 110  Step 3: Determine Historical UAS Operations by Type ........................................................................ 110  Step 4: Create Range Forecasts, Apply Forecast Methods, and Evaluate Results ............................. 110  Step 5: Compare to TAF ............................................................................................................................. 111  Step 6: Determine Fleet Mix Forecast ....................................................................................................... 111  10  Appendix: UAS and Airport Operational Guidance ........................................................ 116  UAS Operations and Air Traffic Control ................................................................................................. 116 

Incorporating UAS into Airport Infrastructure—Planning Guidebook   iv   Airspace and Airport Coordination ........................................................................................................... 116    Communication and Coordination Manned Aircraft ............................................................................. 117    Data Management ........................................................................................................................................ 117  11  Appendix: “How to” Tools ............................................................................................. 119    How to Include UAS in an Airport Master Plan ..................................................................................... 119    How to Prepare a Standalone Plan to Incorporate UAS at an Airport ............................................... 120    How to Prepare a Forecast of UAS Activity at an Airport .................................................................... 121  12  Appendix: Case Studies .................................................................................................. 123    Case Study 1, Atlantic City International Airport.................................................................................... 124    Case Study 2, Middle Georgia Regional Airport ..................................................................................... 124    Case Study 3, Sebring Regional Airport .................................................................................................... 124  13  Appendix: Other Resources ........................................................................................... 125    Governmental Organizations ..................................................................................................................... 125    UAS Organizations ....................................................................................................................................... 126    Law Firms ...................................................................................................................................................... 127    Magazines and Journals ............................................................................................................................... 128    Other Resources ........................................................................................................................................... 129  14  References ...................................................................................................................... 130 

Incorporating UAS into Airport Infrastructure—Planning Guidebook   v List of Figures Figure 1: FAA definition of unmanned aircraft systems ........................................................................................... 10  Figure 2 : Sample taxiway design groups (FAA, 2014) ............................................................................................... 40  Figure 3 : Manned GA helipad dimensions (FAA, 2012) ........................................................................................... 45  Figure 4: Sample Navy and Marine Corps 45 degree parking (DOD, 2008) .......................................................... 47  Figure 5 : Anticipated impact factors of UAS at airports ........................................................................................... 80  Figure 6 : Examples of current uses for drones and their altitudes of operation (GAO, n.d.) ............................ 90  Figure 7: Sample DROTAM ........................................................................................................................................... 95 

Incorporating UAS into Airport Infrastructure—Planning Guidebook   vi List of Tables Table 1 : SWOT analysis results for sample UAS integration factors ...................................................................... 29  Table 2 : Comparison of selected manned aircraft and UAS characteristics .......................................................... 34  Table 3 : Aircraft approach category descriptions ....................................................................................................... 37  Table 4 : Airplane design group descriptions ............................................................................................................... 38  Table 5 : Visibility minimum descriptions .................................................................................................................... 38  Table 6 : Design standards based on Taxiway Design Group (TDG) (FAA, 2014) .............................................. 40  Table 7 : Runway design standards for A-II small aircraft design criteria not less than 1-mile visibility (FAA, 2014) .................................................................................................................................................................................... 43  Table 8 : Suggested UAS design standards ................................................................................................................... 48  Table 9 : Baseline UAS integration checklist ................................................................................................................ 69  Table 10 : Airport action items and resulting benefits to the airport ....................................................................... 82  Table 11 : UAS operations forecast for Eastern Oregon Regional Airport ............................................................ 84  Table 12 : PDT airport infrastructure requirements ................................................................................................... 85  Table 13 : Classification of air space and entry requirements .................................................................................... 91  Table 14 : US DOT forecasts for UAS (commercial, public, and DOD) (USAF, 2013) and (DOD, 2005) ... 109  Table 15 : FAA forecasts for UAS (FAA, 2018) ........................................................................................................ 109  Table 16 : UAS fleet mix category descriptions ......................................................................................................... 112  Table 17 : Estimated percentage of total forecast UAS operations likely to occur at an airport ....................... 113  Table 18 : Estimated airport UAS fleet mix ............................................................................................................... 114  Table 19 : Case study airports and focus areas ........................................................................................................... 123 

Incorporating UAS into Airport Infrastructure—Planning Guidebook   vii List of Acronyms Acronym Definition AAGR Associated Annual Growth Rate AC Advisory Circular ACIP Airport Capital Improvement Program ACY Atlantic City International ADO Airports District Offices ADS-B Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast AGIS Airport Geographic Information Survey AI Artificial Intelligence AIA Aerospace Industries Association of America AIP Airport Improvement Program ALP Airport Layout Plan ANPRM Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking APO Office of Aviation Policy and Plans ARC Airport Reference Code ARFF Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting ARP Office of Airports ASAP Aviation System Action Program ASOS Airport Surface Observation System ASV Annual Service Volume ATC Air Traffic Control ATCT Air Traffic Control Tower ATL Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport AUVSI Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International AWOS Automated Weather Observation System BVLOS Beyond Visual Line of Sight CAGR Cumulative Annual Growth Rate CATEX Categorical Exclusion CFR Code of Federal Regulations COA Certificate of Authorization CZ Clear Zone DHS Department of Homeland Security DLR German Aerospace Center DOD Department of Defense DOT Department of Transportation DROTAM Drone Notices to Airmen EA Environmental Assessment eALP Electronic Airport Layout Plan EASA European Aviation Safety Agency EIS Environmental Impact Statement EMS Emergency Medical Services

Incorporating UAS into Airport Infrastructure—Planning Guidebook   viii Acronym Definition EPIC Electronic Privacy Information Center ERAU Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University ETL Engineering Technical Letter FAA Federal Aviation Administration FAA TC FAA William J. Hughes Technical Center FATO Final Approach and Takeoff FCC Federal Communication Commission FDOT Florida Department of Transportation FTZ Foreign Trade Zone GA General Aviation GAO Governmental Accounting Office GBAS Ground Based Augmentation System GBSAA Ground Based Sense and Avoid GTR Golden Triangle Regional Airport ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization IFR Instrument Flight Rules IPP Integration Pilot Program JO Job Order LAANC Low Altitude Authorization and Notification Capability LRE Launch and Recovery Element MCE Mission Control Element MCN Middle Georgia Regional MKT Mankato Regional Airport MOA Memorandums of Agreement MOC Mobile Operations Center MRO Maintenance Repair and Overhaul MSL Mean Sea Level MTOW Maximum Takeoff Weight NAS National Airspace System NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NBAA National Business Aviation Association NCDOT North Carolina Department of Transportation NCSL National Conference of State Legislators NEPA National Environmental Policy Act NOTAM Notice to Airmen NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking NTIA National Telecommunications and Information Administration OANG Oregon Army National Guard OIRA Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs OMB Office of Management and Budget PALS Planning Activity Levels

Incorporating UAS into Airport Infrastructure—Planning Guidebook   ix Acronym Definition PANS Procedures for Air Navigation PDT Eastern Oregon Regional Airport PFC Passenger Facility Charges PUR Pendleton UAS Range RAFB Robins Air Force Base RD Rotor Diameter RPAS Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems RPASP Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems Panel RPZ Runway Protection Zone RSW Southwest Florida International Airport RTCA Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics SARPS Standards and Recommended Practices SEF Sebring Regional Airport SJTA South Jersey Transportation Authority SMS Safety Management System SOP Standard Operating Procedure SRM Safety Risk Management STOLport Short Takeoff and Landing Airport SWOT Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats TAF Terminal Aerodrome Forecast TALS Tactical Automated Landing System TALS-TS Tactical Automated Landing System – Tracking System TLOF Touchdown and Liftoff UA Unmanned Aircraft UAM Urban Air Mobility UAS Unmanned Aircraft System UAS-AG Unmanned Aircraft Systems Advisory Group UA Unmanned Aircraft UAVSA UAV Systems Association UFC United Facilities Criteria UHF Ultra-High Frequency USC United States Code UTM Unmanned Traffic Management System VCT Southern California Logistics Airport VFR Visual Flight Rules VHF Very High Frequency VLOS Visual Line of Sight VTOL Vertical Takeoff and Landing

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Airports and Unmanned Aircraft Systems, Volume 2: Incorporating UAS into Airport Infrastructure— Planning Guidebook Get This Book
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It is anticipated that unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) will increase in activity within the airport environment and will expand due to market demand, operational requirements, and changes in UAS specifications (such as size, weight, and payload). To date, the majority of small UAS, defined as less than 55 pounds, operate outside of the airport environment. However, some public airports are currently supporting limited UAS operations (like testing, agriculture, survey, photography, and racing).

As a result, this pre-publication draft of ACRP (Airport Cooperative Research Program) Research Report 212: Airports and Unmanned Aircraft Systems, Volume 2: Incorporating UAS into Airport Infrastructure— Planning Guidebook provides suggested planning, operational, and infrastructure guidance to safely integrate existing and anticipated UAS operations into an airport environment.

This guidebook is particularly applicable to smaller airports (non-hub and general aviation) without capacity issues. The planning approach could help these airports prepare for and attract UAS operations for additional revenue in the near term. Larger airports (large, medium, and small hubs) are likely less inclined to be interested in attracting UAS operations in the near term, but they will have to accommodate UAS as they are integrated into the commercial cargo and passenger aircraft fleet in the future.

Other Resources:

Volume 1: Managing and Engaging Stakeholders on UAS in the Vicinity of Airports provides guidance for airport operators and managers to interact with UAS operations in the vicinity of airports.

Volume 3: Potential Use of UAS by Airport Operators provides airports with resources to appropriately integrate UAS missions as part of their standard operations.

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