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157 A pre-exponential factor Ai area of crack initiation Ap area of crack propagation Av area of viscous behavior Avgtâcrit area under the thermal stressâstrain plot between the viscousâglassy transition tem- perature and the required environmental temperature at a given location AvgtâF area under the thermal stressâstrain plot between the viscousâglassy transition tem- perature and the fracture temperature of the restrained UTSST specimen AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials AMPT asphalt mixture performance tester ANOVA analysis of variance APA asphalt pavement analyzer ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials AV air void BAF binder availability factor BaseBR base binder ratio BBR bending beam rheometer BBRm BBR for mixtures BYET bitumen yield energy test C pseudo stiffness CA carbonyl area CAg carbonyl area growth CA0 original or tank CA measurement CAtank carbonyl area tank condition CDD cumulative degree day CI coatability index CII colloidal stability index CRI cracking resistance index CRIENV UTSST cracking resistance index including the environmental adjustment factor DR average reduction in pseudo stiffness up to failure DCC damage characteristic curve DE Delaware DOB degree of blending DOT department of transportation DSR dynamic shear rheometer Ea activation energy EBM energy-based mechanistic Abbreviations and Symbols
158 Evaluating the Effects of Recycling Agents on Asphalt Mixtures with High RAS and RAP Binder Ratios |E*| dynamic complex modulus FHWA Federal Highway Administration FI flexibility index ELS evaporative light scattering FT-IR Fourier-transform infrared |G*| shear complex modulus Gâ² shear storage modulus Gâ³ shear loss modulus G-R Glover-Rowe parameter GR rate of pseudo strain energy release HMA hot-mix asphalt HS hardening susceptibility HSD honestly significant difference HWTD Hamburg wheel-tracking device HWTT Hamburg wheel-tracking test I-FIT Illinois Flexibility Index Test IDT indirect tensile strength IN Indiana kc slow or constant rate of CAg kf fast rate of CAg LAS linear amplitude sweep LMLC laboratory-mixed, laboratory-compacted LSV low shear viscosity LTOA long-term oven aging LTPP Long-Term Pavement Performance Program LVDT linear variable differential transformer LVE linear viscoelastic M magnitude of fast rate reaction in terms of CAg MR resilient modulus MDSC modulated differential scanning calorimeter MSCR multiple stress creep and recovery MWAS manufacturer waste asphalt shingles N number of load cycles Nf number of cycles to failure NAPA National Asphalt Pavement Association NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program NH New Hampshire NMAS nominal maximum aggregate size NV Nevada OT overlay test P absolute oxygen pressure during oxidation, atm PbRAP binder content of the RAP PbRAS binder content of the RAS Pmax peak load PRAP percentage of RAP by weight of mixture PRAS percentage of RAS by weight of mixture Pbtotal binder content of the combined mixture PAV pressure aging vessel PG performance grade
Abbreviations 159 PGH high-temperature PG PGI intermediate-temperature PG PGL low-temperature PG rCag rate of CAg R ideal gas constant RAP reclaimed asphalt pavement RAPBR RAP binder ratio RAS recycled asphalt shingles RASBR RAS binder ratio RBR recycled binder ratio RDT repeated uniaxial direct tension RE rejuvenating effectiveness REOB recycled engine oil bottom RI rheological indices RPMLC reheated plant mix laboratory compacted RTFO rolling thin film oven SAR-AD saturates, aromatics, resinsâasphaltene determinator SCB semicircular bending SHRP Strategic Highway Research Program SSD saturated surface dry STOA short-term oven aging S-VECD simplified viscoelastic continuum damage t time, days T temperature TÎ´ = 45Â° crossover temperature Tg glass transition temperature TEMPS Temperature Estimate Model for Pavement Structure TOAS tear-off asphalt shingles TPA total pericondensed aromatics TSR tensile strength ratio TSRST thermal stress restrained specimen test TX Texas TxDOT Texas Department of Transportation U load-line displacement UTI useful temperature interval UTSST uniaxial thermal stress and strain test Wf work of fracture WI Wisconsin WMA warm-mix asphalt Î± reaction order with respect to oxidation pressure Î´ binder phase angle sf thermal stress at fracture svgt thermal stress at viscousâglassy transition Ï mixture phase angle Ïc crossover frequency