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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Are Generational Categories Meaningful Distinctions for Workforce Management?. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25796.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Are Generational Categories Meaningful Distinctions for Workforce Management?. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25796.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Are Generational Categories Meaningful Distinctions for Workforce Management?. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25796.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Are Generational Categories Meaningful Distinctions for Workforce Management?. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25796.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Are Generational Categories Meaningful Distinctions for Workforce Management?. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25796.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Are Generational Categories Meaningful Distinctions for Workforce Management?. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25796.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Are Generational Categories Meaningful Distinctions for Workforce Management?. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25796.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Are Generational Categories Meaningful Distinctions for Workforce Management?. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25796.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Are Generational Categories Meaningful Distinctions for Workforce Management?. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25796.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Are Generational Categories Meaningful Distinctions for Workforce Management?. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25796.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Are Generational Categories Meaningful Distinctions for Workforce Management?. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25796.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Are Generational Categories Meaningful Distinctions for Workforce Management?. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25796.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Are Generational Categories Meaningful Distinctions for Workforce Management?. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25796.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Are Generational Categories Meaningful Distinctions for Workforce Management?. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25796.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Are Generational Categories Meaningful Distinctions for Workforce Management?. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25796.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Are Generational Categories Meaningful Distinctions for Workforce Management?. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25796.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Are Generational Categories Meaningful Distinctions for Workforce Management?. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25796.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Are Generational Categories Meaningful Distinctions for Workforce Management?. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25796.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Are Generational Categories Meaningful Distinctions for Workforce Management?. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25796.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Are Generational Categories Meaningful Distinctions for Workforce Management?. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25796.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Are Generational Categories Meaningful Distinctions for Workforce Management?. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25796.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Are Generational Categories Meaningful Distinctions for Workforce Management?. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25796.
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Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs REFERENCES Acemoglu, D. and Autor, D.H. (2011). Skills, tasks, and technologies: Implications for employment and earnings. In O. Ashenfelter and D. Card (Eds.), Handbook of Labor Economics (Vol. 4, pp. 1043–1171). Elsevier. Ackerman, P.L. (2000). Domain-specific knowledge as the “dark matter” of adult intelligence: Gf/Gc, personality and interest correlates. Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 55(2), P69–P84. Allport, G.W. (1954/1979). The Nature of Prejudice. New York: Doubleday. American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2019). Nursing Shortage. Washington, DC. Available: https://www.aacnnursing.org/News-Information/Fact-Sheets/Nursing- Shortage. American Hotel and Lodging Association. (2016). Millennials in the Hotel Industry. Available: https://www.ahla.com/sites/default/files/Millennial_Retention_Survey.pdf. American Psychological Association (2017). 2017 Work and Well-Being Survey. Available: https:/www.apaexcellence.org/assets/general/2017-work-and-wellbeing-survey- results.pdf. Anthony, A.P. (2018). “Missing” millennials and the great workforce divide: School leaders lament: Why are we unable to retain our young teachers? School Administrator, 75(11), 23–25. Available: http://my.aasa.org/AASA/Resources/SAMag/2018/Dec18/Anthony.aspx. Appelbaum, E., and Batt., R. (2017). The networked organization: Implications for jobs and inequality. In D. Grimshaw, C. Fagan, G. Hebson, and I. Tavbors (Eds.), Making Work More Equal: A New Labour Market Segmentation Approach. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press. Armstrong-Stassen, M., and Ursel, N.D. (2009). Perceived organizational support, career satisfaction, and the retention of older workers. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 82(1), 201–220. Available: https://doi.org/10.1348/096317908X288838. Army Science Board. (2015). Talent Management and the Next Training Revolution. Washington, DC: Department of the Army. Available: https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/1063616.pdf. Autor, D.H. (2015). Why are there still so many jobs? The history and future of workplace automation. Journal of Economic Perspectives 29(3):3–30. Autor, D.H. (2019a). The Changing Geography of Work, Wages, and Skills: 1960–2015. Presentation to the Committee on the Consideration of Generational Issues in Workforce Management and Employment Practices on July 30, 2019, Washington, DC. Autor, D.H. (2019b). Work of the past, work of the future. AEA Papers and Proceedings, 109:1- 32. R-1

Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs Bal, P.M., Jansen, P.G., Van Der Velde, M.E., de Lange, A.H., and Rousseau, D.M. (2010). The role of future time perspective in psychological contracts: A study among older workers. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76(3): 474–486. Baltes, P.B., Reese, H.W., and Lipsitt, L.P. (1980). Life-span developmental psychology. Annual Review of Psychology 31:65–110. Baltes, B., Rudolph, C., and Zacher, H. (Eds.). (2018). Work Across the Lifespan. New York: Academic Press. Barron, P., Leask, A., and Fyall, A. (2014). Engaging the multi-generational workforce in tourism and hospitality. Tourism Review, 69(4), 245–263. Baum, T. (2010). Demographic changes and the labour market in the international tourism industry. In I. Yeoman, C. Hsu, K. Smith, and S. Watson (Eds), Tourism and Demography (pp. 1–19). Oxford, UK: Goodfellow. BBC News. (2014, March 1). The Original Generation X. Available: https://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-26339959. Beier, M.E., Torres, W.J., and Gilberto, J.M. (2017). Continuous development throughout a career: A lifespan perspective on autonomous learning. In J.E. Ellingson and R.A. Noe (Eds.), Autonomous Learning in the Workplace: SIOP Organizational Frontier Series (pp. 179–200). New York: Routledge. Bell, A., and Jones, K. (2018). The hierarchical age–period–cohort model: Why does it find the results that it finds? Quality and Quantity, 52(2), 783–799. Benner, P., Tanner, C.A., and Chesla, C.A. (2013). Expertise in Nursing Practice: Caring, Clinical Judgment, and Ethics, 2nd edition. New York: Springer Publishing Company. Bennett, N., and G.J. Lemoine. (2014). What VUCA really means for you. Harvard Business Review. Available: https://hbr.org/2014/01/what-vuca-really-means-for-you. Bernstein, J. (2006). All Together Now: Common Sense for a Fair Economy. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers. Blalock, H.M. (1967). Status inconsistency, social mobility, status integration. American Sociological Review, 32, 790–801. BLS (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics). (2017). Employment Projections – 2016-26. Washington, DC: Department of Labor. Available: https://www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/ecopro_10242017.pdf. ———. (2019a). Employment by Major Industry Sector. Washington, DC: Department of Labor. https://www.bls.gov/emp/tables/employment-by-major-industry-sector.htm. ———. (2019b). Labor Force Characteristics by Race and Ethnicity, 2018. Washington, DC: Department of Labor. Available: https://www.bls.gov/opub/reports/race-and- ethnicity/2018/home.htm. ———. (2019c). Time Use of Millennials and Nonmillennials. Washington, DC: Department of Labor. Available: https://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2019/article/time-use-of-millennials- and-nonmillennials.htm. ———. (2020a). All Employees, Manufacturing [MANEMP], retrieved from FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. Available: https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/MANEMP. ———. (2020b). Economic News Release USDL-20-0108. Union members – 2019. Available: https://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/union2.pdf. ———. (2020c). Unemployment rate 2.0 percent for college grads, 3.8 percent for high school grads in January 2020. The Economics Daily. Available : R-2

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Headlines frequently appear that purport to highlight the differences among workers of different generations and explain how employers can manage the wants and needs of each generation. But is each new generation really that different from previous ones? Are there fundamental differences among generations that impact how they act and interact in the workplace? Or are the perceived differences among generations simply an indicator of age-related differences between older and younger workers or a reflection of all people adapting to a changing workplace?

Are Generational Categories Meaningful Distinctions for Workforce Management? reviews the state and rigor of the empirical work related to generations and assesses whether generational categories are meaningful in tackling workforce management problems. This report makes recommendations for directions for future research and improvements to employment practices.

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