National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Advancing Nutrition and Food Science: 80th Anniversary of the Food and Nutrition Board: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25864.
×

Advancing Nutrition
and Food Science

80th Anniversary of the
Food and Nutrition Board

Proceedings of a Symposium

Ann L. Yaktine, Rapporteur

Food and Nutrition Board

Health and Medicine Division

images

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Advancing Nutrition and Food Science: 80th Anniversary of the Food and Nutrition Board: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25864.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by the Kellogg Endowment Fund of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Health and Medicine Division. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-68030-1
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-68030-1
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25864

Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2020 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Advancing nutrition and food science: 80th anniversary of the Food and Nutrition Board: Proceedings of a symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25864.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Advancing Nutrition and Food Science: 80th Anniversary of the Food and Nutrition Board: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25864.
×

Image

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president.

The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.

The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.

Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Advancing Nutrition and Food Science: 80th Anniversary of the Food and Nutrition Board: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25864.
×

Image

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Advancing Nutrition and Food Science: 80th Anniversary of the Food and Nutrition Board: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25864.
×

FOOD AND NUTRITION BOARD (AS OF FEBRUARY 2020)

SHIRIKI K. KUMANYIKA (Chair), Drexel University Dornsife School of Public Health, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

RODOLPHE BARRANGOU, North Carolina State University, Raleigh

JULIE A. CASWELL, University of Massachusetts Amherst

KATHRYN G. DEWEY, University of California, Davis

ROSS A. HAMMOND, The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC

ALICE H. LICHTENSTEIN, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts

MICHAEL C. LU, University of California, Berkeley

BERNADETTE MARRIOTT, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston

ANGELA M. ODOMS-YOUNG, University of Illinois at Chicago

NICOLAAS P. PRONK, HealthPartners, Inc., Minneapolis, MN

A. CATHARINE ROSS, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park

SYLVIA B. ROWE, SR Strategy, LLC, Washington, DC

BARBARA O. SCHNEEMAN, University of California, Davis (Emerita)

R. PAUL SINGH, University of California, Davis (Emeritus)

KATHERINE L. TUCKER, University of Massachusetts Lowell

Food and Nutrition Board Staff

ANN L. YAKTINE, Director, Food and Nutrition Board

AMANDA NGUYEN, Associate Program Officer

ZARIA FYFFE, Senior Program Officer

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Advancing Nutrition and Food Science: 80th Anniversary of the Food and Nutrition Board: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25864.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Advancing Nutrition and Food Science: 80th Anniversary of the Food and Nutrition Board: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25864.
×

Reviewers

This Proceedings of a Symposium was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings:

PATSY M. BRANNON, Cornell University

JAMES M. NTAMBI, University of Wisconsin–Madison

A. CATHARINE ROSS, The Pennsylvania State University

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by VIRGINIA A. STALLINGS, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine. She was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteur and the National Academies.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Advancing Nutrition and Food Science: 80th Anniversary of the Food and Nutrition Board: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25864.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Advancing Nutrition and Food Science: 80th Anniversary of the Food and Nutrition Board: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25864.
×

Acknowledgments

The Chair and the Director of the Food and Nutrition Board gratefully acknowledge board members Alice H. Lichtenstein, Bernadette P. Marriott, Sylvia B. Rowe, and Barbara O. Schneeman for their significant contributions to the selection of topics and speakers, and for moderating the symposium sessions.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Advancing Nutrition and Food Science: 80th Anniversary of the Food and Nutrition Board: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25864.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Advancing Nutrition and Food Science: 80th Anniversary of the Food and Nutrition Board: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25864.
×

Preface

A PERSONAL PERSPECTIVE ON THE FOOD AND NUTRITION BOARD

Shiriki Kumanyika, Research Professor, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, and Food and Nutrition Board Chair

I consider the opportunity to serve as the Chair of the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) to be both a tremendous honor and a big responsibility. I learned that this feeling is common among Chairs who served before me. Past FNB Chairs were recognized at a reception the evening before this symposium; nearly all of the recent Chairs (1981 or later) were in attendance (see Box P-1). To a person, and although expressed in different ways, the sentiments were that they had admired the FNB and were even in awe of it early in their careers and that they truly valued their Chair service. The reason why the FNB holds such value among those who know of it and have been involved was made clear in opening remarks from Dr. Marcia McNutt, President of the National Academy of Sciences and Chair of the National Research Council, made at a reception held the evening before the symposium for FNB members, former Chairs, volunteers, and staff. Dr. McNutt enthusiastically commended the former FNB members, staff, and friends who were in the audience, because the results of our work were so widely and publicly visible and impactful in essential domains. She also said that what makes the FNB so inspiring is its centrality to the health of human populations in the United States and globally. Food and nutrition are vital to health and the FNB is fundamental for compiling, analyzing, and

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Advancing Nutrition and Food Science: 80th Anniversary of the Food and Nutrition Board: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25864.
×

interpreting the best available evidence at any given time and translating it into advice to inform research, education, practice, and policy across many sectors as well as to the general public.

I have had many opportunities to be “in the weeds” of FNB work, through consensus study committees, workshop planning committees, a standing committee, a roundtable, and prior service on the board itself from 2000 to 2005. These experiences have given me firsthand familiarity with FNB roles and standards of excellence. My experiences with the FNB and its committees, other components, and events have reinforced the importance of striking a balance between food and nutrition science issues and comprehensive coverage of these issues using basic, clinical, and public health approaches across the spectrum from DNA to whole populations. The FNB exemplifies continuing efforts to be the reliable reference point for trusted information across a spectrum of food and nutrition science issues.

As you read this Proceedings of a Symposium you will see the blend of timeliness and visionary thinking that is characteristic of the FNB. We reviewed where we have been, where we are, and where we need to go, and shared some ideas about how to get there. The perspective was both domestic and global, in keeping with the scope of FNB impact. We were treated to innovative and sometimes provocative thinking from food and nutrition science and policy leaders about new challenges and possible new directions. I recall thinking, at the end of the symposium, that the deliberations and reflections had indeed produced an outstanding nutrition and food science research agenda [which was the intention]. It was a call to action to symposium planners and participants to live up to the implicit and explicit expectations voiced during the day. I extend my deepest thanks to the planning group, presenters, and sponsors for making this happen.

Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Advancing Nutrition and Food Science: 80th Anniversary of the Food and Nutrition Board: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25864.
×

To conclude these prefatory remarks, I offer the following thoughts. The pace of nutrition and food science is or can be rapid, dizzying, or even worrisome due to the rapid pace of technology. Yet, in other respects the pace is insufficient to get ahead of current issues like the obesity epidemic in spite of a large body of work on this issue under FNB auspices. We will face a continuing need to define the boundaries of nutrients and other food substances, and foods themselves that are favorable for growth, development, and good health and well-being. We still need to answer decades-old questions such as how to improve food intake assessments and how to modify eating patterns to align with health recommendations, why achieving and maintaining healthy weight has become so difficult population-wide, and why food and nutrition-related socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities and food insecurity persist in our society. I hope that these proceedings will inspire and motivate current and future generations of nutrition and food scientists and funders to double down on efforts to address these and other issues to accelerate impacts where we most need them.

THE FOOD AND NUTRITION BOARD AT 80: A RETRO-AND PROSPECTIVE FROM THE MIDPOINT–1980

Irwin H. Rosenberg, Jean Mayer University Professor Emeritus, Tufts University, and Food and Nutrition Board Chair, 1981–1983

Having joined the National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences committee on international nutrition programs in the 1970s, and having survived the controversy surrounding the FNB report Toward Healthful Diets (see below), I became the Chair of the FNB in 1981. On this occasion of the 80th anniversary of the FNB and as one of its longest serving members and previous board Chairs, I have the privilege of providing some views about the first and second 40 years of the board’s history. (I can in no way approach the extensive history or the incisive remarks presented at the time of the 50th anniversary of the board1 by William J. Darby or Jean Mayer.) I will instead attempt to place the activities of the FNB in the context of the movements and advancements in nutrition science and policy during its first 40 years and subsequent four decades. While the FNB was founded for the purpose of setting nutritional requirements for the American population and in particular for the military, it soon made important statements and contributions to the formulation of food and nutrition policy beyond the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs).

___________________

1 IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1992. 50th Anniversary Symposium of the Food and Nutrition Board: Directions in Nutrition and Food Science. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Advancing Nutrition and Food Science: 80th Anniversary of the Food and Nutrition Board: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25864.
×

In the first year of its existence the FNB proposed one way to meet some of those requirements: by vitamin fortification of the nation’s flour supply. This forceful and controversial entry into the arena of translation of nutrition science into policy would continue throughout the life of the FNB in a number of different forms.

Throughout its history the FNB, composed, as it has always been, of leading scientists from the fields of medicine, biochemistry, food science, and from government and industry, has confronted the translation of nutrition science as it informs policy through a growing and changing prism of the definitions of the quality of evidence. This changing perspective is nowhere better observed than in the history of the evidence on which have been based the RDAs, now the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), even to the present time. Arguably, a flexion point in the way in which evidence was brought to bear on policy discussions was the controversial report of the FNB in 1980 titled Toward Healthful Diets, which questioned the appropriateness of using observational evidence on the relationship of blood cholesterol levels in populations to recommendations about the dietary changes for prevention of coronary heart disease. This strong entry into the field of diet and chronic disease by the Board was deepened with the subsequent FNB report titled Diet and Chronic Disease, which also focused on diet and cancer; and the relationship of diet and chronic disease has increasingly occupied the FNB in its formulation of dietary requirements, not only to support health and healthy populations, but more recently in concern with the prevention of chronic disease, increasingly as a basis for judging the quality of evidence on which to base DRIs and its more recent component, the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of nutrients.

In another area of importance in translation of nutritional science into policy, it is interesting to note that the first publication of the FNB referring directly to the problem of hunger in the U.S. population occurred after the 60th year of the FNB, in 2011. We can expect that the deliberations of the FNB and its activities beyond the 80th anniversary will make increasing contributions to food, nutrition, and health policy. This anniversary is a great tribute to the hundreds of scientists who have contributed so generously to the pathway by which the FNB has progressed with the times and set the standards for the application of nutrition science to food and nutrition policy. As my predecessor in nutrition at Tufts University, Dr. Jean Mayer, stated in his remarks at the 50th anniversary of the FNB, nutrition is not so much a science alone as it is an agenda for science and health, and the FNB will be at the point of that agenda as it has for 80 years.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Advancing Nutrition and Food Science: 80th Anniversary of the Food and Nutrition Board: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25864.
×
Page R1
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Advancing Nutrition and Food Science: 80th Anniversary of the Food and Nutrition Board: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25864.
×
Page R2
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Advancing Nutrition and Food Science: 80th Anniversary of the Food and Nutrition Board: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25864.
×
Page R3
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Advancing Nutrition and Food Science: 80th Anniversary of the Food and Nutrition Board: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25864.
×
Page R4
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Advancing Nutrition and Food Science: 80th Anniversary of the Food and Nutrition Board: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25864.
×
Page R5
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Advancing Nutrition and Food Science: 80th Anniversary of the Food and Nutrition Board: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25864.
×
Page R6
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Advancing Nutrition and Food Science: 80th Anniversary of the Food and Nutrition Board: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25864.
×
Page R7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Advancing Nutrition and Food Science: 80th Anniversary of the Food and Nutrition Board: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25864.
×
Page R8
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Advancing Nutrition and Food Science: 80th Anniversary of the Food and Nutrition Board: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25864.
×
Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Advancing Nutrition and Food Science: 80th Anniversary of the Food and Nutrition Board: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25864.
×
Page R10
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Advancing Nutrition and Food Science: 80th Anniversary of the Food and Nutrition Board: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25864.
×
Page R11
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Advancing Nutrition and Food Science: 80th Anniversary of the Food and Nutrition Board: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25864.
×
Page R12
Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Advancing Nutrition and Food Science: 80th Anniversary of the Food and Nutrition Board: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25864.
×
Page R13
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Advancing Nutrition and Food Science: 80th Anniversary of the Food and Nutrition Board: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25864.
×
Page R14
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Advancing Nutrition and Food Science: 80th Anniversary of the Food and Nutrition Board: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25864.
×
Page R15
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Advancing Nutrition and Food Science: 80th Anniversary of the Food and Nutrition Board: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25864.
×
Page R16
Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Advancing Nutrition and Food Science: 80th Anniversary of the Food and Nutrition Board: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25864.
×
Page R17
Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Advancing Nutrition and Food Science: 80th Anniversary of the Food and Nutrition Board: Proceedings of a Symposium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25864.
×
Page R18
Next: 1 Introduction »
Advancing Nutrition and Food Science: 80th Anniversary of the Food and Nutrition Board: Proceedings of a Symposium Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $55.00 Buy Ebook | $44.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

The Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was convened in 1940 in response to a request from the U.S. National Defense Advisory Commission to the National Academy of Sciences for aid in studying problems of nutrition in the United States. Today the FNB is the focal point for activities concerned with food, nutrition, and food safety, and their roles in health maintenance and disease prevention. Now in its 80th year, the FNB has continued its growth and expanded its reach both domestically and internationally, providing visionary leadership across a range of nutrition and food science issues toward the improvement of human health.

In honor of its 80 years of service to the nation, the FNB convened a public symposium to review the origin and history, policy influence, and future directions of the FNB. This publication summarizes the presentations of the event.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!