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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Evaluation and Synthesis of Connected Vehicle Communication Technologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26370.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Evaluation and Synthesis of Connected Vehicle Communication Technologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26370.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Evaluation and Synthesis of Connected Vehicle Communication Technologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26370.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Evaluation and Synthesis of Connected Vehicle Communication Technologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26370.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Evaluation and Synthesis of Connected Vehicle Communication Technologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26370.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Evaluation and Synthesis of Connected Vehicle Communication Technologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26370.
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NCHRP Web-Only Document 310: Evaluation and Synthesis of Connected Vehicle Communication Technologies Steve Kuciemba Thomas Timcho Katie McLaughlin Frank Perry WSP USA Washington, DC Debra Bezzina University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute Ann Arbor, MI Conduct of Research Report for NCHRP Project 23-10 Submitted June 2021 NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed, and implementable research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing state departments of transportation (DOTs) administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local or regional interest and can best be studied by state DOTs individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation results in increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 initiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniques—the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), United States Department of Transportation, under Agreement No. 693JJ31950003. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. DISCLAIMER The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research. They are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; the FHWA; or the program sponsors. The information contained in this document was taken directly from the submission of the author(s). This material has not been edited by TRB.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I  V E  R E S E A R  C H  P R O G R A M S  CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP WEB-ONLY DOCUMENT 310 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Waseem Dekelbab, Associate Program Manager, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Ann M. Hartell, Senior Program Officer Jarrel McAfee, Senior Program Assistant Natalie Barnes, Director of Publications Heather DiAngelis, Associate Director of Publications Kathleen Mion, Senior Editorial Assistant NCHRP PROJECT 23-10 PANEL Field of Administration—Area of Agency Administration Brian Richard Simi, California Department of Transportation (CALTRANS), Sacramento, CA (Chair) Jennifer Cohan, Delaware Department of Transportation, Dover, DE Janet Frenkil, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore, MD John L. Hibbard, Georgia Department of Transportation, Atlanta, GA Todd A. May, Indiana Department of Transportation, Indianapolis, IN Galen McGill, Oregon Department of Transportation, Salem, OR Ferdinand G. Milanes, California Department of Transportation (CALTRANS), Sacramento, CA Raj V. Ponnaluri, Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee, FL Faisal Saleem, Maricopa County Department of Transportation, Phoenix, AZ John A. Harding, FHWA Liaison Matthew H. Hardy, AASHTO Liaison Timothy A. Klein, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology (OST-R) Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under NCHRP 23-10 by WSP USA, with the assistance of the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI). Steve Kuciemba, Senior Vice President at WSP USA, was the principal investigator and lead author. Additional contributing authors included: • Thomas Timcho, WSP USA • Katie McLaughlin, WSP USA • Frank Perry, WSP USA • Debra Bezzina, UMTRI The authors would also like to acknowledge valuable contributions from other team members, including Gipson Mbah (WSP USA), Brian Reed (WSP USA), Thomas Costello (WSP USA), and Mary Lynn Buonarosa (UMTRI).

iv  F O R E W O R D  Ann M. Hartell   Staff Officer  Transportation Research Board  NCHRP Web‐Only Document 310: Evaluation and Synthesis of Connected Vehicle Communications  Technologies presents a compilation of material on the intelligent transportation system (ITS) band, also  known as the “5.9 GHz band.” The report focuses on the actions taken by the Federal Communications  Commission (FCC) from 2019 through early 2021 to reallocate portions of this band away from  dedicated use for traffic flow, traffic safety, and other ITS applications that are essential for connected  and automated vehicles (CAVs). The report provides contemporaneous documentation of stakeholder  concerns about and perspectives on a landmark change in the regulation of critical infrastructure for ITS  and CAVs. The report will be of interest to those responsible for making current and future decisions for  state DOT ITS investments related to CAVs.   Connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technologies enable a host of applications for vehicle‐to‐ vehicle (V2V) communication, vehicle‐to‐infrastructure (V2I) communication, and vehicle‐to‐pedestrian  (V2P) communication — collectively known as vehicle‐to‐everything (V2X). Today, the connectivity  required for V2X is enabled by dedicated short‐range communications (DSRC) and cellular vehicle‐to‐ everything (C‐V2X).   In 1999, the 5.9 GHz band, which consists of a 75 MHz band between 5.850‐5.925 GHz on the nation’s  broadband spectrum, was allocated by the FCC for use by DSRC services for transportation. As a result,  state DOTs focused their pilot and implementation efforts on technologies that used DSRC. In the fall of  2019, the FCC set in motion a process to reallocate a portion of the 5.9 GHz band. This change is  anticipated to have important implications for current and future investments by state DOTs, requiring  these agencies to realign their pilot and testing activities, re‐visit ongoing procurement of devices and  software, and transition existing DSRC installations to C‐V2X.   The ongoing FCC action is only part of a highly dynamic decision‐making environment for state DOTs.  Private sector entities, including vehicle manufacturers, ITS service providers, application developers  and others, are actively developing V2X technologies and services which will shape the future of our  transportation network. To be effective, those in leadership positions at state DOTs need to be well  informed on the evolution of V2X technologies, the perspectives of partners and stakeholders, and  developments on the regulatory landscape.    For NCHRP Project 23‐10, WSP USA was tasked with developing a series of materials, which were  released over the course of the project, to provide real‐time information and resources for state DOTs  to understand and respond to FCC actions that unfolded over an 18‐month period from fall 2019  through May 2021. 

v  The materials provide state DOT leadership and other decision makers with information on connected  vehicle technology, the FCC rulemaking process, and the implications of the proposed reallocation for  state DOTs. These materials are compiled into NCHRP Web‐Only Document 310 along with a forward‐ looking Executive Summary that describes how these materials can be used to support current and  future state DOT decision making on the development, procurement, testing, piloting, and deployment  of CAV technology. The report is accompanied by a recorded video presentation that summarizes the  project (search TRB.org for “NCHRP 23‐10”).    Although the landscape of CAV technology and its regulation will continue to evolve, the materials  compiled in NCHRP Web‐Only Document 310 provide background and context that can be used by those  with or without a technical background in the topic to understand—and effectively respond to—those  changes.   

vi  CONTENTS  Summary………………………………..…………………………………………………..……….1  Fact Sheet #1: FCC Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for 5.9 GHz    Realignment………………………………………………………………..…….………..6  White Paper #1: V2X Communications in the 5.9 GHz Spectrum:    March 2020 Update……………………………………………………….…….………8  Contents………………………………..……………………………………………………………………..…….…………9  White Paper #1 Addendum: V2X Communications in the 5.9 GHz   Spectrum: Reply Comment Addendum………………………….…………..53  Fact Sheet #2: FCC Realignment of 5.9 GHz   (December 2020 Update)………………………………………….……………...64  White Paper #2: V2X Communications in the 5.9 GHz Spectrum:   New Directions, Opportunities and Challenges…...…………..………..66  Contents……………………...………………………………………………………………………………………………67  White  Paper  #2  Addendum:  Case  Study:  The  Cost  of  the  FCC  Ruling  on the Ann Arbor Connected Vehicle Environment……………….….101 

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In 1999, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) allocated the intelligent transportation system (ITS) band, also known as the “5.9 GHz band,” for transportation purposes including connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technologies. These technologies enable a host of applications for vehicle‐to-vehicle, vehicle‐to‐infrastructure, and vehicle‐to‐pedestrian communication — collectively known as vehicle‐to‐everything (V2X). Today, the connectivity required for V2X is enabled by dedicated short‐range communications and cellular V2X.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's NCHRP Web-Only Document 310: Evaluation and Synthesis of Connected Vehicle Communication Technologies presents a compilation of material on the 5.9 GHz band and the actions taken by the FCC from 2019 through early 2021 to reallocate portions of this band away from dedicated use for traffic flow, traffic safety, and other ITS applications that are essential for CAVs.

Supplementary to the document is a video.

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