Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
NCHRP Web-Only Document 310: Evaluation and Synthesis of Connected Vehicle Communication Technologies Steve Kuciemba Thomas Timcho Katie McLaughlin Frank Perry WSP USA Washington, DC Debra Bezzina University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute Ann Arbor, MI Conduct of Research Report for NCHRP Project 23-10 Submitted June 2021 NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed, and implementable research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing state departments of transportation (DOTs) administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local or regional interest and can best be studied by state DOTs individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation results in increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 initiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniquesâthe National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), United States Department of Transportation, under Agreement No. 693JJ31950003. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. DISCLAIMER The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research. They are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; the FHWA; or the program sponsors. The information contained in this document was taken directly from the submission of the author(s). This material has not been edited by TRB.
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
CÂ OÂ OÂ PÂ EÂ RÂ AÂ TÂ IÂ VÂ EÂ RÂ EÂ SÂ EÂ AÂ RÂ CÂ HÂ PÂ RÂ OÂ GÂ RÂ AÂ MÂ SÂ CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP WEB-ONLY DOCUMENT 310 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Waseem Dekelbab, Associate Program Manager, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Ann M. Hartell, Senior Program Officer Jarrel McAfee, Senior Program Assistant Natalie Barnes, Director of Publications Heather DiAngelis, Associate Director of Publications Kathleen Mion, Senior Editorial Assistant NCHRP PROJECT 23-10 PANEL Field of AdministrationâArea of Agency Administration Brian Richard Simi, California Department of Transportation (CALTRANS), Sacramento, CA (Chair) Jennifer Cohan, Delaware Department of Transportation, Dover, DE Janet Frenkil, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore, MD John L. Hibbard, Georgia Department of Transportation, Atlanta, GA Todd A. May, Indiana Department of Transportation, Indianapolis, IN Galen McGill, Oregon Department of Transportation, Salem, OR Ferdinand G. Milanes, California Department of Transportation (CALTRANS), Sacramento, CA Raj V. Ponnaluri, Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee, FL Faisal Saleem, Maricopa County Department of Transportation, Phoenix, AZ John A. Harding, FHWA Liaison Matthew H. Hardy, AASHTO Liaison Timothy A. Klein, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology (OST-R) Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under NCHRP 23-10 by WSP USA, with the assistance of the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI). Steve Kuciemba, Senior Vice President at WSP USA, was the principal investigator and lead author. Additional contributing authors included: â¢ Thomas Timcho, WSP USA â¢ Katie McLaughlin, WSP USA â¢ Frank Perry, WSP USA â¢ Debra Bezzina, UMTRI The authors would also like to acknowledge valuable contributions from other team members, including Gipson Mbah (WSP USA), Brian Reed (WSP USA), Thomas Costello (WSP USA), and Mary Lynn Buonarosa (UMTRI).
ivÂ FÂ OÂ RÂ EÂ WÂ OÂ RÂ DÂ AnnÂ M.Â HartellÂ Â StaffÂ OfficerÂ TransportationÂ ResearchÂ BoardÂ NCHRPÂ WebâOnlyÂ DocumentÂ 310:Â EvaluationÂ andÂ SynthesisÂ ofÂ ConnectedÂ VehicleÂ CommunicationsÂ TechnologiesÂ presentsÂ aÂ compilationÂ ofÂ materialÂ onÂ theÂ intelligentÂ transportationÂ systemÂ (ITS)Â band,Â alsoÂ knownÂ asÂ theÂ â5.9Â GHzÂ band.âÂ TheÂ reportÂ focusesÂ onÂ theÂ actionsÂ takenÂ byÂ theÂ FederalÂ CommunicationsÂ CommissionÂ (FCC)Â fromÂ 2019Â throughÂ earlyÂ 2021Â toÂ reallocateÂ portionsÂ ofÂ thisÂ bandÂ awayÂ fromÂ dedicatedÂ useÂ forÂ trafficÂ flow,Â trafficÂ safety,Â andÂ otherÂ ITSÂ applicationsÂ thatÂ areÂ essentialÂ forÂ connectedÂ andÂ automatedÂ vehiclesÂ (CAVs).Â TheÂ reportÂ providesÂ contemporaneousÂ documentationÂ ofÂ stakeholderÂ concernsÂ aboutÂ andÂ perspectivesÂ onÂ aÂ landmarkÂ changeÂ inÂ theÂ regulationÂ ofÂ criticalÂ infrastructureÂ forÂ ITSÂ andÂ CAVs.Â TheÂ reportÂ willÂ beÂ ofÂ interestÂ toÂ thoseÂ responsibleÂ forÂ makingÂ currentÂ andÂ futureÂ decisionsÂ forÂ stateÂ DOTÂ ITSÂ investmentsÂ relatedÂ toÂ CAVs.Â Â ConnectedÂ andÂ automatedÂ vehicleÂ (CAV)Â technologiesÂ enableÂ aÂ hostÂ ofÂ applicationsÂ forÂ vehicleâtoâ vehicleÂ (V2V)Â communication,Â vehicleâtoâinfrastructureÂ (V2I)Â communication,Â andÂ vehicleâtoâpedestrianÂ (V2P)Â communicationÂ âÂ collectivelyÂ knownÂ asÂ vehicleâtoâeverythingÂ (V2X).Â Today,Â theÂ connectivityÂ requiredÂ forÂ V2XÂ isÂ enabledÂ byÂ dedicatedÂ shortârangeÂ communicationsÂ (DSRC)Â andÂ cellularÂ vehicleâtoâ everythingÂ (CâV2X).Â Â InÂ 1999,Â theÂ 5.9Â GHzÂ band,Â whichÂ consistsÂ ofÂ aÂ 75Â MHzÂ bandÂ betweenÂ 5.850â5.925Â GHzÂ onÂ theÂ nationâsÂ broadbandÂ spectrum,Â wasÂ allocatedÂ byÂ theÂ FCCÂ forÂ useÂ byÂ DSRCÂ servicesÂ forÂ transportation.Â AsÂ aÂ result,Â stateÂ DOTsÂ focusedÂ theirÂ pilotÂ andÂ implementationÂ effortsÂ onÂ technologiesÂ thatÂ usedÂ DSRC.Â InÂ theÂ fallÂ ofÂ 2019,Â theÂ FCCÂ setÂ inÂ motionÂ aÂ processÂ toÂ reallocateÂ aÂ portionÂ ofÂ theÂ 5.9Â GHzÂ band.Â ThisÂ changeÂ isÂ anticipatedÂ toÂ haveÂ importantÂ implicationsÂ forÂ currentÂ andÂ futureÂ investmentsÂ byÂ stateÂ DOTs,Â requiringÂ theseÂ agenciesÂ toÂ realignÂ theirÂ pilotÂ andÂ testingÂ activities,Â reâvisitÂ ongoingÂ procurementÂ ofÂ devicesÂ andÂ software,Â andÂ transitionÂ existingÂ DSRCÂ installationsÂ toÂ CâV2X.Â Â TheÂ ongoingÂ FCCÂ actionÂ isÂ onlyÂ partÂ ofÂ aÂ highlyÂ dynamicÂ decisionâmakingÂ environmentÂ forÂ stateÂ DOTs.Â PrivateÂ sectorÂ entities,Â includingÂ vehicleÂ manufacturers,Â ITSÂ serviceÂ providers,Â applicationÂ developersÂ andÂ others,Â areÂ activelyÂ developingÂ V2XÂ technologiesÂ andÂ servicesÂ whichÂ willÂ shapeÂ theÂ futureÂ ofÂ ourÂ transportationÂ network.Â ToÂ beÂ effective,Â thoseÂ inÂ leadershipÂ positionsÂ atÂ stateÂ DOTsÂ needÂ toÂ beÂ wellÂ informedÂ onÂ theÂ evolutionÂ ofÂ V2XÂ technologies,Â theÂ perspectivesÂ ofÂ partnersÂ andÂ stakeholders,Â andÂ developmentsÂ onÂ theÂ regulatoryÂ landscape.Â Â Â ForÂ NCHRPÂ ProjectÂ 23â10,Â WSPÂ USAÂ wasÂ taskedÂ withÂ developingÂ aÂ seriesÂ ofÂ materials,Â whichÂ wereÂ releasedÂ overÂ theÂ courseÂ ofÂ theÂ project,Â toÂ provideÂ realâtimeÂ informationÂ andÂ resourcesÂ forÂ stateÂ DOTsÂ toÂ understandÂ andÂ respondÂ toÂ FCCÂ actionsÂ thatÂ unfoldedÂ overÂ anÂ 18âmonthÂ periodÂ fromÂ fallÂ 2019Â throughÂ MayÂ 2021.Â
vÂ TheÂ materialsÂ provideÂ stateÂ DOTÂ leadershipÂ andÂ otherÂ decisionÂ makersÂ withÂ informationÂ onÂ connectedÂ vehicleÂ technology,Â theÂ FCCÂ rulemakingÂ process,Â andÂ theÂ implicationsÂ ofÂ theÂ proposedÂ reallocationÂ forÂ stateÂ DOTs.Â TheseÂ materialsÂ areÂ compiledÂ intoÂ NCHRPÂ WebâOnlyÂ DocumentÂ 310Â alongÂ withÂ aÂ forwardâ lookingÂ ExecutiveÂ SummaryÂ thatÂ describesÂ howÂ theseÂ materialsÂ canÂ beÂ usedÂ toÂ supportÂ currentÂ andÂ futureÂ stateÂ DOTÂ decisionÂ makingÂ onÂ theÂ development,Â procurement,Â testing,Â piloting,Â andÂ deploymentÂ ofÂ CAVÂ technology.Â TheÂ reportÂ isÂ accompaniedÂ byÂ aÂ recordedÂ videoÂ presentationÂ thatÂ summarizesÂ theÂ projectÂ (searchÂ TRB.orgÂ forÂ âNCHRPÂ 23â10â).Â Â Â AlthoughÂ theÂ landscapeÂ ofÂ CAVÂ technologyÂ andÂ itsÂ regulationÂ willÂ continueÂ toÂ evolve,Â theÂ materialsÂ compiledÂ inÂ NCHRPÂ WebâOnlyÂ DocumentÂ 310Â provideÂ backgroundÂ andÂ contextÂ thatÂ canÂ beÂ usedÂ byÂ thoseÂ withÂ orÂ withoutÂ aÂ technicalÂ backgroundÂ inÂ theÂ topicÂ toÂ understandâandÂ effectivelyÂ respondÂ toâthoseÂ changes.Â Â Â
viÂ CONTENTSÂ Summaryâ¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦..â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦..â¦â¦â¦.1Â FactÂ SheetÂ #1:Â FCCÂ NoticeÂ ofÂ ProposedÂ RulemakingÂ forÂ 5.9Â GHzÂ Â Realignmentâ¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦..â¦â¦.â¦â¦â¦..6Â WhiteÂ PaperÂ #1:Â V2XÂ CommunicationsÂ inÂ theÂ 5.9Â GHzÂ Spectrum:Â Â MarchÂ 2020Â Updateâ¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦.â¦â¦.â¦â¦â¦8Â Contentsâ¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦..â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦..â¦â¦.â¦â¦â¦â¦9Â WhiteÂ PaperÂ #1Â Addendum:Â V2XÂ CommunicationsÂ inÂ theÂ 5.9Â GHzÂ Â Spectrum:Â ReplyÂ CommentÂ Addendumâ¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦.â¦â¦â¦â¦..53Â FactÂ SheetÂ #2:Â FCCÂ RealignmentÂ ofÂ 5.9Â GHzÂ Â (DecemberÂ 2020Â Update)â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦.â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦...64Â WhiteÂ PaperÂ #2:Â V2XÂ CommunicationsÂ inÂ theÂ 5.9Â GHzÂ Spectrum:Â Â NewÂ Directions,Â OpportunitiesÂ andÂ Challengesâ¦...â¦â¦â¦â¦..â¦â¦â¦..66Â Contentsâ¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦...â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦67Â WhiteÂ PaperÂ #2Â Addendum:Â CaseÂ Study:Â TheÂ CostÂ ofÂ theÂ FCCÂ RulingÂ onÂ theÂ AnnÂ ArborÂ ConnectedÂ VehicleÂ Environmentâ¦â¦â¦â¦â¦â¦.â¦.101Â