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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Striking a Balance: Improving Stewardship of Marine Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5797.
×

Index

A

Access to marine resources

cap and trade mechanisms for controlling, 111-112

community rights, 107

enforcement mechanisms, 112-113

individual rights, 107-108

land-based growth controls, 108-109

pricing of, 109-111

recommendations, 119

tools for controlling, 106

Accountability, 2, 89, 149

in federalist model of governance, 4

national interests in marine areas, 18-19

principles for governance and management, 16, 143

of regional councils, 98

Adaptive management, 15, 145

Agricultural runoff, 25

Alaska fisheries by-catch, 59-60, 73, 79

Aquaculture, 107

Assessment and valuation, 1-2, 141

active use services, 21

bequest use services, 21

challenges, 19, 27-28

contribution of coastal economy to GNP, 24

estimates of public's willingness to pay, 22

existence use services, 21

importance of, for policy making, 19-20

indirect use services, 21-22

long-term considerations in, 23

passive use services, 21, 22

problems of undervaluation, 22-23

recommendations, 119-120

techniques, 21-24

terminology, 20-21

trends data, 24-27

B

Barrier islands, 87

Bequests, 21

Bonds, 113, 161

Boundary-setting, 5, 12-13, 118, 143-144, 146

National Marine Sanctuaries program, 100

regional ecosystem perspective, 15

special assessment districts, 166

Brundtland Commission, 87

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Striking a Balance: Improving Stewardship of Marine Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5797.
×

C

Capacity to manage

definition, 43

state government, 43-45

Case studies

common themes, 69-70

decision-making style, 71-73

evaluation criteria, 49-50, 150

governance systems, 80-81, 83, 85-86

individual personality factors in, 77-78

leadership in, 85

lessons of, 84

program planning, 84-85

reward systems in, 76

selection criteria, 150

settings for, 48-49.

See also specific setting

significance of, 2-3, 48

Chaos, 83-84

Chesapeake Bay management, 26-27

effectiveness, 63-64, 77

fishing license program, 113-114

historical development, 62-63

Clean Air Act, 44, 55

Clean Water Act, 44

Clean water districts, 114-115

Climate, 17

Coast Guard, U. S., 14, 139

Coastal Zone Management Program, 88

California case study, 54, 55

opportunities for improvement, 99, 147

state initiatives, 41, 44, 45

structure and function, 29-30, 108, 139

Coherent system of governance and management

in case studies, 2-3

characteristics of, 83

efforts toward, 88

funding oversight, 149

goals, 12, 13-14, 137

implementation, 148-149

lack of, 2, 4, 9-10, 46, 82-83, 89, 117, 137, 140

National Marine Council for, 91-94, 99

organizational structure for, 89

recommendations for, 5, 118-119

regional conflicts, 8-9

role of regional marine councils, 96

use of existing programs, 6, 99

Compensation for damages, 104-106

Complex systems, 71-73

Comprehensive conservation and management plan, 100

Conflict resolution

economic valuation issues, 22

principles for governance and management, 16, 145

regional marine councils for, 96-97

resource use conflicts, 103-106

shortcomings of current system, 117, 140

Contracts/contracting, 97

Creativity and innovation, 16, 78, 84, 89, 94, 146

D

Decision-making style, 71-73, 84

Department of Defense, U. S., 14, 139

Department of State, U.S., 139

E

Economic policy

challenges for stewardship, 1, 8

consideration of resource preservation, 23

current inadequacies, 9-10

environmental policy linkages, 46

offshore oil and gas leases, 36-38

pricing of access to marine resources, 109-111

principles for governance and management, 16

single-purpose approach to management, 9, 46

sustainable development, 10, 15

valuation of coastal resources for, 19-20, 23

Efficiency of management, 16, 143

Enforcement of regulations, 112-113, 120

Environmental impact statements, 90

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Striking a Balance: Improving Stewardship of Marine Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5797.
×

Environmental policy

cap and trade mechanisms, 111-112

challenges for stewardship, 1, 8

consideration of resource preservation, 23

current inadequacies, 9-10, 12

economic policy linkages, 46

economic valuation issues, 23-24

fisheries regulation, 38-41

goals, 87

management tools, 7

marine and coastal protected areas, 104

offshore oil and gas regulation, 37-38, 41-42

pollution tax, 163

regional ecosystem perspective, 15

single-purpose approach to management, 9, 46

state trends, 45

sustainable development, 10, 15

zoning as tool of, 104

Environmental Protection Agency

authority and responsibility, 14, 139

Chesapeake Bay management, 62, 63

future role, 101

Santa Monica Bay Restoration Project, 68

Environmental quality

economic valuation issues, 23, 24-27

estimates of public's willingness to pay for, 22

Gulf of Maine fisheries, 57

system interactions in, 26-27

threats to, 11-12, 17

threats to fisheries, 38

trends, 2, 24-27, 141

unique features of marine ecology, 17-18

Equity, 16, 142

Estuaries

definition, 33

ecological significance, 33

management authority, 33-35

See also National Estuary Program

Eutrophication, 25

Exclusive Economic Zone, 24

definition, 12

international agreements, 19

state-level initiatives, 29, 30

Externalities, 28, 104

F

Federalist model, 4, 89-90

advantages, 98-99

distinctive features, 90

Fisheries, 11

access rights, 106, 107-108

Alaska fisheries by-catch, 59-60

buy-out programs, 110-111

current inadequacies in management of, 101-102

ecosystem threats, 38

effects of overfishing, 57

licensing for use of, 107, 109-110, 113-114

limitations on harvest, 107-108

moratoria, 148

ocean ecology, 18, 33

opportunities for improvement, 102

regulation in sanctuary areas, 32-33

regulatory structures and policies, 38-41, 43, 95, 100

taxation, 162-163

trends, 12, 24-25

valuation, 22, 24-25, 38

See also Gulf of Maine fisheries;

Maine lobster fishery

Fishery Conservation and Management Act, 38-40, 57, 58, 95

Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, 3, 79

community support, 51

economic value of tourism, 20

enabling factors, 52-53

key features, 52

near-term challenges, 50

planning process, 51-52, 84-85

scope, 50

setting, 50

Funding

clean water district fees, 114-115

for comprehensive conservation and management plans, 100

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Striking a Balance: Improving Stewardship of Marine Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5797.
×

for estuary improvement/maintenance, 100-101

fishing license program for, 113-114

innovative sources, 165-167

of marine area programs, 113

mechanisms, 161-165

oversight, 149

political context, 113

recommendations, 120

regional marine councils for coordination of, 96

G

Georges Bank, 56-57

Goal-setting, 5, 118, 146

in organizations, 75

role of regional marine councils, 96

Governance of marine systems, 88

alternative models, 82-83, 85-86, 90-91

communication among stakeholders, 85

complexity of, 71-73

current inadequacies, 2, 4, 8-10, 12, 45, 94, 117, 139-141

current regulatory authority, 14

definition, 5, 137-138

federal role, 95

federalist approach, 4, 89-90

functioning in chaos, 83-84

goals for, 14-15, 89

human elements of, 73-74

leadership for, 85

models for improvement, 3

National Marine Council for, 90-94

ongoing nature of, 84

opportunities for improvement, 46-47

planning process, 84-85

prerequisites for improvement, 3, 4-5, 14, 117-118, 143-145, 146

principles for, 15-16, 70, 142-143

process for improving, 145-146

recommendations for, 118-119

reform attempts, 90

regional marine councils for, 94-98

stakeholder access to process of, 22

traditional bureaucratic model, 80-82

use of existing programs, 6, 88, 99-102, 147-148

Gulf of Maine fisheries, 3, 12, 20, 77-78

environmental threats, 57

governance regime, 57-58, 73, 77, 80, 83

management effectiveness, 58-59

physical characteristics, 56-57

I

Implementation of change

current indications, 136-137

Florida Keys marine sanctuary case study, 50-53

models for improvement, 3

new institutional structures for, 148

organizational morale and, 79-80

planning coordination, 148-149

political considerations, 77

process, 145-146

recommendations, 120

sources of initiatives, 3

urgency for, 8, 24, 137

use of existing programs, 6, 7, 99-102, 147-148

Individual action, 3

organizational functioning and, 74, 75

personality factors in management effectiveness, 77-78

reward systems, 75-76

Information management

baseline environmental data, 66

communication among stakeholders, 85

for consensus building, 78-79

in governance case studies, 66-67, 68, 69

national coordination, 93

organizational attitude, 78-79

for Santa Monica Bay Restoration Project, 68, 69

Interest groups/stakeholders, 2

access and use enforcement activities, 112-113

access to governance process, 22

access to information, 78-79

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Striking a Balance: Improving Stewardship of Marine Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5797.
×

adversarial nature of current governance process, 9-10

collaborative problem-solving in Alaskan fisheries, 59-60

communication among, 85

contracts, 97

economic valuation of marine resources, 22

Gulf of Maine fisheries case study, 58-59

in National Marine Sanctuaries program, 33

in Oregon coastal management plan, 66

principles for governance and management, 16, 144, 146

resource use conflicts, 27-28

International context

challenges for stewardship, 1, 8

marine management structures, 148

regional governance in, 15

International Maritime Organization, 155

Inventory of natural areas, 66

J

Jet skis, 32

L

Law of the Sea Convention, 19, 24, 148

Leadership, 85

Licensing, 107, 109-111

fishing license program, 113-114

Local and regional decision making, 3

California oil and gas leasing case study, 53-56

in Coastal Zone Management Program, 29-30

current inadequacies, 8-9

current state authority, 14, 29

current state regulation, 41-43

in federalist model of governance, 4, 89-90

under Fishery Conservation and Management Act, 39-40, 43

interstate collaboration for Chesapeake Bay management, 62-63

limitations of, 89

Maine lobster fishery case study, 60-62

National Marine Council model, 93, 94

in National Marine Sanctuaries program, 33

in planning of Florida Keys marine sanctuary, 52-53

recommendations for, 5, 118-119

regional ecosystem perspective, 15

regional marine councils for, 5, 6

state's capacity to manage, 43-45

Long Island Sound National Estuary Program, 25

effectiveness, 64

enabling factors, 65, 85

goals, 64

key features, 65

planning process, 64

M

Maine lobster fishery, 78

management effectiveness, 62

management regime, 60-62, 76

Management of marine systems

adaptability, 15

controlling access, 106-112

current inadequacies, 2, 8-10, 12, 117, 139-141

current regulatory authority, 14

definition, 5, 137-138

liability for damages, 104-105

managing conflicting uses, 103-106

models for improvement, 3

prerequisites for improvement, 3, 4-5, 117-118, 146

principles for, 15-16, 70, 142-143

recommendations for, 119-120

scope, 28-29

single-purpose approach, 9, 46, 139

state's capacity to manage, 43-45

for sustainability, 88

tools for. See Management tools

unique challenges, 87-88

use of existing programs, 6, 99-102

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Striking a Balance: Improving Stewardship of Marine Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5797.
×

Management tools

for controlling marine area access and use, 106-112

for enforcing access and use regulations, 112-113

need for, 12

recommendations, 5, 7, 119

for resolving conflicting uses, 103-106

selection, 103

types of, 103

Marine and coastal protected areas, 104

Marine environment, defined, 12-13, 138

Marine management area

categories of, 147, 153-156

definition and characteristics, 13, 138, 147, 153

trends, 149

Military operations, 19, 139

Minerals Management Service, 14, 36, 139

California case study, 54-56, 101

Mississippi River, 25

Monitoring and evaluation, 5, 118, 146

for enforcing access and use regulations, 112, 120

management, 93, 149

marine management areas for, 154

regional marine council activities, 98

Santa Monica Bay Restoration Project, 68

Morale, 79-80

Moratoria, 148, 149

N

National Environmental Policy Act, 37, 90

National Estuary Program, 14, 33-35, 88, 139, 148

effectiveness, 100

Long Island Sound case study, 64-65

opportunities for improvement, 100-101

National interest

definition, 1-2, 141-142

federal responsibility for marine areas, 18-19, 88

in maritime environment, 142

mechanism for consideration and expression of, 88-89, 92-94

National Marine Council

advantages, 98-99

authority, 91

Coastal Zone Management Program and, 99

fisheries management, 102

information management activities, 93

problem-identification and intervention, 91

rationale, 90-91

recommendations for, 5, 118-119

regional marine councils and, 95

structure and function, 5-6, 90, 91-94, 98, 102

National Marine Fisheries Service, 38-41, 139

in Alaskan fisheries management, 59, 60

Gulf of Maine governance, 57-59

in Maine lobster fisheries management, 62

National Marine Sanctuaries program, 3, 30-33

challenges, 33

objectives, 30-31, 147

opportunities for improvement, 99-100, 147

prospects for, 33

state initiatives, 42, 45

structure and operations, 30, 31-33, 88

National Marine Sanctuary program

See also Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

authority and responsibility, 14, 138-139

Florida Keys marine sanctuary, 50-53

San Francisco Bay demonstration project, 66

National Park Service, 14, 139

Nitrogen, 64

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Striking a Balance: Improving Stewardship of Marine Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5797.
×

O

Ocean dumping, 30

Oil and gas resources, 11

current inadequacies in management of, 101

management trends, 25

offshore leasing, 25, 148

opportunities for improved management of, 101

pollution compensation/liability, 105

regulatory environment, 36-38, 41, 42, 139

state management, 44-45

See also Southern California offshore oil and gas leasing

Oregon coastal management

effectiveness, 65, 80

enabling factors, 66

historical development, 65

key features, 66

planning and implementation, 65

public participation, 65, 66

Organizational and behavioral issues

alternative governance models, 82-83, 85-86, 90-91

attitudes toward innovation and risk, 78

federalist model, 89-90

functioning in chaos, 83-84

information management, 78-79

institutional connectivity, 144-145

interactions, 73-74

leadership, 85

missions and goals, 75

morale, 79-80

personality factors in management effectiveness, 77-78

political processes, 76-77

problem-solving in complex systems, 71-73

requirements for successful management, 71

reward systems, 75-76

traditional bureaucratic governance models, 80-82

Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, 36-38

state use of, 44

P

Political functioning, 76-77

Population trends, 11-12, 87

Private property rights, 2

for fisheries management, 106, 107

R

Recreational activities, 11

estimates of public's willingness to pay for, 22

regulation in sanctuary areas, 32

trends, 24-25

valuation, 19, 20

Regional marine councils, 5, 6

advantages, 95, 98-99, 102

design, 94-95, 96

duration, 95

fisheries management, 102

rationale, 94, 95-96

recommendations for, 119

role of, 94-98, 101, 102

Regulatory environment

adversarial, 9

coastal authority, 11

current inadequacies, 2, 8-9, 12, 13-14, 28

current institutional authorities, 14, 138-139

fisheries management, 38-41

management tools, 7, 103

marine management areas, 13

memorandum of agreement for waiving regulations, 97

oil and gas industry, 36-38, 41, 42, 53-56

resistance to innovation, 16

resource use enforcement mechanisms, 112-113

state initiatives, 41-43

trends among states, 43-45

See also specific governmental authority;

specific legislation

Resource use, 3

access controls, 106-112

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Striking a Balance: Improving Stewardship of Marine Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5797.
×

Alaska fisheries by-catch case study, 59-60

cap and trade mechanisms for controlling, 111-112

challenges for stewardship, 1, 8, 11-12, 28-29

coastal authority, 11

compensation/liability for damages, 104-105

current management inadequacies, 8-9, 12, 139, 140

decision making in National Marine Council, 92, 93-94

enforcement mechanisms, 112-113

as environmental threat, 17

estimates of public's willingness to pay for, 22

Gulf of Maine management case study, 56-59

individual and community rights, 106-108

Maine lobster fishery case study, 60-62

management tools, 7

managing conflicts in, 103-106

Oregon coastal management, 65-66

prenegotiated mitigation, 105-106

pricing mechanisms for controlling, 109-111

principles for governance and management, 16, 143

scope, 10-11

stakeholder conflicts, 27-28, 140

taxation, 162-163

tragedy of the commons, 23-24

trends, 24-27

valuation issues, 21-24

vs. resource preservation, 23

See also Oil and gas resources

Reward systems, 75-76, 77, 78

Risk assessment, 15

Risk-taking, 78

S

San Francisco Bay demonstration project, 66-68, 76

Santa Monica Bay restoration project, 68-69, 76-77, 79, 83, 85

Scientific information, 5, 118

principles for governance and management, 15, 143, 146

Sensitive sea areas, 155

Shellfish industry, 25, 114

taxation, 162-163

Shoreline Management Act of 1971, 108

Southern California offshore oil and gas leasing, 73, 75, 78, 79-80

enabling factors, 55-56

historical context, 53-54

key features, 54-55

management successes, 54

Stakeholders. See Interest groups/stakeholders

State Ocean Plans, 148

Sustainable development/use

benefits of, 142

economic valuation issues, 24-25

goals, 87

implications for management, 88

national commitment to, 10

performance standards, 15

tragedy of the commons, 23-24

T

Taxes, 113, 161-164, 166-167

Timeliness, 16

Tourism, 11

economic valuation, 20

taxation, 162

Tragedy of the commons, 23-24

Training, 98

Transparency, 16, 144

Transportation, 11, 32, 139

Treaties and agreements, 19, 24

U

User fees, 109-111

W

Waste management, 25, 106

nitrogen release, 64

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Striking a Balance: Improving Stewardship of Marine Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5797.
×

Wetlands, 106

trends, 25

Wildlife habitat, 11

fisheries regulation, 38-41

ocean ecology, 17-18

trends, 25-26

Z

Zoning, 7, 52, 104

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Striking a Balance: Improving Stewardship of Marine Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5797.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Striking a Balance: Improving Stewardship of Marine Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5797.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Striking a Balance: Improving Stewardship of Marine Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5797.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Striking a Balance: Improving Stewardship of Marine Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5797.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Striking a Balance: Improving Stewardship of Marine Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5797.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Striking a Balance: Improving Stewardship of Marine Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5797.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Striking a Balance: Improving Stewardship of Marine Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5797.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Striking a Balance: Improving Stewardship of Marine Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5797.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1997. Striking a Balance: Improving Stewardship of Marine Areas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/5797.
×
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Striking a Balance: Improving Stewardship of Marine Areas Get This Book
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America's ocean and coastal regions--which provide wildlife habitat, commercial fish stocks, mineral reserves, travelways, recreation, and more--are under increasing pressure as more and more people exploit marine resources, leaving environmental damage in their wake.

Striking a Balance responds to the urgency for sound decisionmaking in the management of marine resources. An expert committee proposes principles, goals, and a framework for marine area governance, including new governance structures at the federal and regional levels and improvements for existing governing and regulatory systems.

Recommendations include using tools--such as zoning and liability--for resolving conflicts between users, controlling access to marine resources, and enforcing regulations. The book describes the wide-ranging nature and value of marine resources, evaluates their current management, and explores three in-depth case studies. It also touches on the implications of newer, more flexible, less hierarchical approaches to organizational behavior.

Striking a Balance will be of interest to everyone concerned about marine resource management, especially federal and state marine managers and regulators, marine scientists and policy analysts, companies and organizations with interests in marine and coastal resources, and advocacy groups.

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