Abbey, D.E., P.K. Mills, F.F. Petersen, and W.L. Beeson. 1991. Long-term ambient concentrations of total suspended particulates and oxidants as related to incidence of chronic disease in California Seventh-Day Adventists . Environ. Health Perspect. 94: 43-50.
Abbey, D.E., M.D. Lebowitz, P.K. Mills, F.F. Petersen, W.L. Beeson, and R.J. Burchette. 1995. Long-term ambient concentrations of particulates and oxidants and development of chronic disease in a cohort of nonsmoking California residents . Inhalation Toxicol. 7: 19-34.
Abbey, D.E., N. Nishino, W.F. McDonnell, R.J. Burchette, S.F. Knutsen, W. Lawrence Beeson, J.X. Yang. 1999. Long-term inhalable particles and other air pollutants related to mortality in nonsmokers . Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 159(2): 373-382 .
Adams, C.R., D.K. Ziegler, and J.T. Lin. 1983. Mercury intoxication simulating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. JAMA 250: 642-643.
Adams, M.A., P.M. Bolger, and E.L. Gunderson. 1994. Dietary intake and hazards of arsenic. Pp. 41-49 in Arsenic: Exposure and Health, W.R. Chappell, C.O. Abernathy and C.R. Cothern, eds. Northwood, U.K.: Science and Technology Letters.
Afonso, J.F., and R.R. de Alvarez. 1960. Effects of mercury on human gestation. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 80(1): 145-154.
AHA (American Hospital Association). 1993. An Ounce of Prevention: Waste Reduction Strategies for Health Care Facilities . American Society for Healthcare Environmental Services of the American Hospital Association . Chicago, IL: The Society.
Al-Saleem, T. 1976. Levels of mercury and pathological changes in patients with organomercury poisoning. Bull. WHO 53(Suppl): 99-104.
Allred, E.N., E.R. Bleecker, B.R. Chaitman, T.E. Dahms, S.O. Gottlieb, J.D. Hackney, M. Pagano, R.H. Selvester, S.M. Walden, and J. Warren. 1989. Short-term effects of carbon monoxide exposure on the exercise performance of subjects with coronary artery disease . N. Engl. J. Med. 321(21): 1426-32 . [published erratum appears in N. Engl. J. Med. 1990 322(14): 1019 ]
Amdur, M.O., J. Doull, and C.D. Klaassen. 1991. Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons . New York: Pergamon Press.
Amin-Zaki, L., S. Elhassani, M.A. Majeed, T.W. Clarkson, R.A. Doherty, M.R. Greenwood, and T. Giovanoli-Jakubczak. 1976. Perinatal methylmercury poisoning in Iraq. Am. J. Dis. Child. 130(10): 1070-1076.
Anderton, D.L., A.B. Anderson, J.M. Oakes, and M.R. Fraser. 1994. Environmental equity: The demographics of dumping . Demography 31(2): 229-248.
Angerer, J., B. Heinzow, D.O. Reimann, W. Knorz, and G. Lehnert. 1992. Internal exposure to organic substances in a municipal waste incinerator . Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 64(4): 265-273.
Armour, A. 1988. Methodological problems in social impact monitoring. Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. 8: 249-265.
Arnstein, S. 1969. A ladder of citizen participation. J. Am. Inst. Planners 35: 216-224.
Aronow, R., C. Cubbage, R. Wiener, B. Johnson, J. Hesse, and J. Bedford. 1990. Mercury exposure from interior latex paint—Michigan . MMWR 39(8): 125-126.
ASME (The American Society of Mechanical Engineers). 1995. The Relationship Between Chlorine in Waste Streams and Dioxin Emissions from Waste Combustor Stacks, CRTD-Vol. 36 . Fairfield, N.J.: ASME Press.
Assennato, G., C. Paci, M.E. Baser, R. Molinini, R.G. Candela, B.M. Altamura, and R. Giorgino. 1987. Sperm count suppression without endocrine dysfunction in lead-exposed men. Arch. Environ. Health 42(2): 124-127.
Astle, J.W., F.A.P.C. Gobas, W.J. Shiu, and D. Mackay. 1987. Lake sedimentation in historic records of atmospheric contaminants by organic chemicals . Pp. 57-77in Sources and Fates of Aquatic Pollutants . R.A. Hites, and S.J. Eisenreich, eds. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society .
ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 1990. Toxicological Profile for Benzo(a)Pyrene (Update) . PB/90/258245. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, Ga.
ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 1993a. Study of Symptom and Disease Prevalence, Caldwell Systems, Inc. Hazardous Waste Incinerator, Caldwell County, North Carolina. Final Report. ATSDR/HS-93/29. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, Ga. 144 pp.
ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 1993b. Toxicological Profile for Chromium . ATSDR/TP-92/08. Prepared by Syracuse Research Corp. under subcontract to Clement International Corp. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Atlanta, Ga. 227 pp.
ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 1993c. Toxicological Profile for Beryllium (Update). ATSDR/TP-92/04. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Atlanta, Ga. 129 pp.
ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 1994. Toxicological Profile for Mercury (Update). ATSDR/TP-93/10. Prepared by Clement International Corp. under contract 205-88-0608 for U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, Ga.
ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 1995. Toxicological Profile for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons . Prepared by Research Triangle Institute, under contract 205-93-0606 for U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, Ga.
ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 1997a. Toxicological Profile for Cadmium . Draft. Prepared by Research Triangle Institute, under contract 205-93-0606 for U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, Ga.
ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 1997b. Toxicological Profile for Lead. (Draft). Prepared by Research Triangle Institute, under contract 205-93-0606 for U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, Ga.
ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 1998a. Toxicological Profile for Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins. Prepared by Research Triangle Institute, under contract 205-93-0606 for U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA.
ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 1998b. Toxicological Profile for Arsenic (Update). Prepared by Research Triangle Institute, under contract 205-93-0606 for U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA.
ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 1998c. Toxicological Profile for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (Update) . Prepared by Research Triangle Institute, under contract 205-93-0606 for U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, Ga.
ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 1999. Toxicological Profile for Mercury (Update). Prepared by Research Triangle Institute, under contract 205-93-0606 for U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, Ga.
Avol, E.L., W.S. Linn, D.A. Shamoo, K.R. Anderson, R.C. Peng, and J.D. Hackney. 1990. Respiratory responses of young asthmatic volunteers in controlled exposures to sulfuric acid aerosol. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 142(2): 343-348.
AWMA (Air & Waste Management Association). 1994. Medical Waste Disposal. Medical Waste Committee (WT-3), Technical Council, Air & Waste Management Association. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 44: 1176.
Axelson, O., E. Dahlgren, C.-D. Jansson, and O. Rehnlund. 1978. Arsenic exposure and mortality: A case referent study from a Swedish copper smelter. Br. J. Ind. Med. 35: 8-15.
Bacci, E., D. Calamari, C. Gaggi, and M. Vighi. 1990. Bioconcentration of organic chemical vapors in plant leaves: Experimental measurements and correlation . Environ. Sci. Technol. 24: 885-889.
Bacci, E., M.J. Cerejeira, C. Gaggi, G. Chemello, D. Calamari, and M. Vighi. 1992. Chlorinated dioxins: Volatilization from soils and bioconcentration in plant leaves . Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 48(3): 401-408.
Bache, C.A., W.H. Gutenmann, M. Rutzke, G. Chu, D.C. Elfving, and D.J. Lisk. 1991. Concentrations of metals in grasses in the vicinity of a municipal refuse incinerator . Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 20(4): 538-542.
Baes, C.F., III, R.D. Sharp, A.L. Sjoreen, and R.W. Shor. 1984a. A Review and Analysis of Parameters for Assessing Transport of Environmentally Released Radionuclides Through Agriculture . ORNL-5786. Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va., Doc. No. DE85-000287.
Baes, C.F., III, R.D. Sharp, A.L. Sjoreen, and O.W. Hermann. 1984b. TERRA: A Computer Code for Simulating the Transport of Environmentally Released Radionuclides Through Agriculture. ORNL-5785. Health and Safety Research Division, Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
Baghurst, P.A., E.F. Robertson, A.J. McMichael, G.V. Vimpani, N.R. Wigg, and R.R. Roberts. 1987. The Port Pirie cohort study: Lead effects on pregnancy outcome and early childhood development. Neurotoxicology (3): 395-401.
Baker, E.L., Jr., P.J. Landrigan, A.G. Barbour, D.H. Cox, D.S. Folland, R.N. Ligo, and J. Throckmorton. 1979. Occupational lead poisoning in the United States: Clinical and biochemical findings related to blood lead levels . Br. J. Ind. Med. 36(4): 314-322 .
Baker, E.L., R.G. Feldman, R.F. White, and J.P. Harley. 1983. The role of occupational lead exposure in the genesis of psychiatric and behavioral disturbances. Acta Psychiatry Scand. Suppl. 303: 38-48.
Bakir, F., S.F. Damluji, L. Amin-Zaki, M. Murtadha, A. Khalidi, N.Y. al-Rawi, S. Tikriti, H.I. Dahahir, T.W. Clarkson, J.C. Smith, and R.A. Doherty. 1973. Methylmercury poisoning in Iraq. Science 181(96): 230-241.
Barisotti, D.A., L.J. Abrahamson, and J.R. Allen. 1979. Hormonal alterations in female rhesus monkeys fed a diet containing 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 21(4/5): 463-469.
Barregård, L., G. Sällsten, and B. Järvholm. 1990. Mortality and cancer incidence in chloralkali workers exposed to inorganic mercury. Br. J. Ind. Med. 47(2): 99-104.
Barrow, C.S., H. Lucia, and Y.C. Alarie. 1979. A comparison of the acute inhalation toxicity of hydrogen chloride versus the thermal decomposition products of polyvinylchloride. J. Combust. Toxicol. 6: 3-12.
Barton, R.G., P.M. Maly, W.D. Clark, W.R. Seeker, and W.S. Lanier. 1987. Prediction of the Fate of Toxic Metals in Hazardous Waste Incinerators, Final Report. Prepared by Energy and Environmental Research Corporation, Irvine, CA., EPA Contract 68-03-3365.
Barton, R.G., W.D. Clark, and W.R. Seeker. 1990. Fate of metals in combustion systems. Combust. Sci. Technol. 74: 327-342.
Barton, R.G., A.R. Trenholm, S. Shoraka-Blair, G.A. Jungclaus, and G.D. Hinshaw. 1996. Estimation of Unmeasured Hazardous Emissions from Hazardous Waste Incinerators. Presented at International Conference on Incineration and Thermal Treatment Technologies, 1996.
Bascom, R., P.A. Bromberg, D.A. Costa, R. Devlin, D.W. Dockery, M.W. Frampton, W. Lambert, J.M. Samet, F.E. Speizer, and M. Utell. 1996. Health effects of outdoor pollution. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 153(1): 3-50.
Battle, L.C. 1994. Regulation of medical waste in the United States. Pace Environ. L. Rev. 11(2): 517-585.
Bellinger, D.C., H.L. Needleman, A. Leviton, C. Waternaux, M.B. Rabinowitz, and M.L. Nichols. 1984. Early sensory-motor development and prenatal exposure to lead. Neurobehav. Toxicol. Teratol. 6(5): 387-402.
Bernard, A.M., and R. Lauwerys. 1989. Cadmium, NAG activity, and 2-microglobulin in the urine of cadmium pigment workers. [Letter] Br. J. Ind. Med. 46: 679-680.
Berry, B.J.L. 1977. The Social Burdens of Environmental Pollution: A Comparative Metropolitan Data Source. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger Publishing.
Bidstrup, P.L., and R.A.M. Case. 1956. Carcinoma of the lung in workmen in the bichromates producing industry in Great Britain. Br. J. Ind. Med. 13: 260-264.
Biggeri, A., F. Barbone, C. Lagazio, M. Bovenzi, and G. Stanta. 1996. Air pollution and lung cancer in Trieste, Italy: Spatial analysis of risk as a function of distance from sources. Environ. Health Perspect. 104(7): 750-4.
Bluhm, R.E., J.A. Breyer, R.G. Bobbitt, L.W. Welch, A.I. Wood, and R.A. Branch. 1992. Elemental mercury vapour toxicity, treatment, and prognosis after acute, intensive exposure in chloralkali plant workers. Part I: History, neuropsychological findings and chelator effects. Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 11(3): 201-210.
Bobak, M., and D.A. Leon. 1992. Air pollution and infant mortality in the Czech Republic, 1986-88 . Lancet 340(8826): 1010-1014.
Bodek, I., W.J. Lyman, W.F. Reehl, and D.H. Rosenblatt. 1988. Environmental Inorganic Chemistry: Properties, Processes, and Estimation Methods. New York: Pergamon.
Bogen, K.T., and R.C. Spear. 1987. Integrating uncertainty and interindividual variability in environmental risk assessments. Risk Anal. 7(4): 427-436.
Borgmann, U., and D.M. Whittle. 1991. Contaminant concentration trends in Lake Ontario lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush): 1977 to 1988. J. Great Lakes Res. 17(3): 368-381 .
Bornschein, R.L., J. Grote, T. Mitchell, P.A. Succop, K.N. Dietrich, K.M. Krafft, and P.B. Hammond. 1989. Effects of Prenatal Lead Exposure on Infant Size at Birth in Lead Exposure and Child Development: An International Assessment, M.A. Smith, L.D. Grant, and A.I. Sors, eds. Boston: Kluwer Academic.
Bovet, P., M. Lob, and M. Grandjean. 1977. Spirometric alterations in workers in the chromium electroplating industry. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 40: 25-32.
Bowen, H.J.M. 1979. Environmental Chemistry of the Elements. New York: Academic.
Braver, E.R., P. Infante, and K. Chu. 1985. An analysis of lung cancer risk from exposure to hexavalent chromium . Teratog. Carcinog. Mutagen. 5(5): 365-378.
Bresnitz, E.A., J. Roseman, D. Becker, and E. Gracely. 1992. Morbidity among municipal waste incinerator workers. Am. J. Ind. Med. 22: 363-378.
Briggs, G.G., R.H. Bromilow, A.A. Evans, and M. Williams. 1983. Relationships between lipophilicity and the distribution of non-ionized chemicals in barley shoots following uptake by the roots. Pestic. Sci. 14(5): 492-500.
Brower, R., J. Gerritsen, K. Zankel, A. Huggins, N. Peters, S. Campbell, and R. Nilsson. 1990. Risk Assessment Study of the Dickerson Site. Prepared for Power Plant and Environmental Review Division, Maryland Department of Natural Resources. PPSE-SH-4. 3 Vols.
Brown, B., and K. Felsvang. 1991. Control of Mercury and Dioxin Emissions from United States and European Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators by Spray Dryer Absorption Systems . Conference papers and abstracts from the Second Annual International Specialty Conference, Tampa, Fla. April 15-19, 1991.
Brown, I.A. 1954. Chronic mercurialism: A cause of the clinical syndrome of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry 72: 674-681.
Bryant, B., and P. Mohai. 1992. Race and the Incidence of Environmental Hazards. Boulder, Colo.: Westview.
Brzuzy, L.P., and R.A. Hites. 1996. Global balance for chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans . Environ. Sci. Technol. 30(6): 1797-1804.
Buchet, J.P., H. Roels, A. Bernard, and R. Lauwerys. 1980. Assessment of renal function of workers exposed to inorganic lead, cadmium, or mercury vapor. J. Occup. Med. 22(11): 741-750.
Buchet, J.P., R. Lauwerys, H. Roels, A. Bernard, P. Bruaux, F. Claeys, G. Ducoffre, P. de Plaen, J. Staessen, Amery A., et al. 1990. Renal effects of cadmium body burden of the general population. Lancet 336(8717): 699-702.
Bullard, R.D. 1990. Dumping in Dixie: Race, Class, and Environmental Quality. Boulder, Colo.: Westview.
Burnett, R.T., R.E. Dales, M.E. Raizenne, D. Krewski, P.W. Summers, G.R. Roberts, M. Raad-Young, T. Dann, and J. Brook. 1994. Effects of low ambient levels of ozone and sulfates on the frequency of respiratory admissions to Ontario hospitals. Environ. Res. 65(2): 172-194.
CalEPA (California Environmental Protection Agency) Air Resources Board. 1996. Proposed Identification of Inorganic Lead as Toxic Air Contaminant, Part B Health Assessment, Draft. Sac-ramento, Calif. January.
Campbell, B.C., P.A. Meredith, and J.J.C. Scott. 1985. Lead exposure and changes in the reninangiotensin-aldosterone system in man. Toxicol. Lett. 25: 25-32.
Campbell, J.S. 1948. Acute mercurial poisoning by inhalation of metallic vapor in an infant . Can. Med. Assoc. J. 58: 72-75.
Cantox, Inc. 1988. Health Hazard Evaluation of Specific PCDD, PCDF, and PAH in Emissions from the Proposed Petrosun/SNC Resource Recovery Incinerator and from Ambient Background Sources. Petrosun/SNC Operations Ltd., Brampton, Ontario. (February).
Caporaso, N., R.B. Hayes, M. Dosemeci, R. Hoover, R. Ayesh, M. Hetzel, and J. Idle. 1989. Lung cancer risk, occupational exposure, and the debrisoquine metabolic phenotype. Cancer Res. 49(13): 3675-3679 .
Carpi, A., L.H. Weinstein, and D.W. Ditz. 1994. Bioaccumulation of mercury by sphagnum moss near a municipal solid waste incinerator. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 44: 669-672.
Carroll, G.J., R.C. Thurnau, and D.J. Fournier, Jr. 1995. Mercury Emissions from a Hazardous Waste Incinerator Equipped with a State-of-the-Art Wet Scrubber. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 45: 730-736.
Catlin, G.E.G. 1959. The meaning of community. Pp. 114-134 in Community, NOMOS II, C. J. Friedrich, ed. New York: Liberal Arts Press.
Chambers, A., M. Knecht, N. Soelbert, D. Eaton, D. Roberts, and T. Broderick. 1998. Mercury Emissions Control Technologies for Mixed Waste Thermal Treatment . Presented at International Conference on Incineration and Thermal Treatment Technologies, May 11-15, 1998, SaltLake City, Utah.
Chaney, R.L., J.A. Ryan, Y-M. Li, and S.L. Brown. 1999. Soil cadmium as a threat to human health. In Cadmium in Soils and Plants, M.J. McLaughlin, and B.R. Singh, eds. Dordrecht.: Kluwer Academic.
Chen, C.-J., Y.-C. Chuang, T.-M. Lin, and H.-Y. Wu. 1985. Malignant neoplasms among residents of a blackfoot disease-endemic area in Taiwan: High-arsenic artesian well water and cancers. Cancer Res. 45: 5895-5899.
Chen, C.J., Y.C. Chuang, S.L. You, T.M. Lin, and H.Y. Wu. 1986. A retrospective study on malignant neoplasms of bladder, lung and liver in blackfoot disease-endemic area in Taiwan. Br. J. Cancer 53(3): 399-405.
Chertoff, L., and D. Buxbaum. 1986. Public perceptions and community relations. Pp. 31-42 in The Solid Waste Handbook: A Practical Guide, W.D. Robinson, ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Chess, C., B.J. Hance, and P.M. Sandman. 1988. Improving Dialogue with Communities: A Short Guide for Government Risk Communication. Trenton, N.J.: New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection.
Chess, C., K.L. Salomone, B.J. Hance, and A. Saville. 1995. Results of a national symposium on risk communication: Next steps for government agencies. Risk Anal. 15: 115-125.
Chisolm, J.J., Jr., D.J. Thomas, and T.G. Hamill. 1985. Erythrocyte porphobilinogen synthase activity as an indicator of lead exposure in children. Clin. Chem. 31(4): 601-605.
Chmiel, K.M., and R.M. Harrison. 1981. Lead content of small mammals at a roadside site in relation to the pathways of exposure. Sci. Total. Environ. 17: 145-154.
Cinca, I., I. Dumitrescu, P. Onaca, A. Serbanescu, and B. Nestorescu. 1980. Accidental ethyl mercury poisoning with nervous system, skeletal muscle, and myocardium injury. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 43(2): 143-149.
CKRC (Cement Kiln Recycling Coalition). 1995. An Analysis of Technical Issues Pertaining to the Determination of MACT Standards for the Waste Recycling Segment of the Cement Industry . Prepared by Environmental Risk Sciences, Inc., Environomics, and Rigo & Rigo Associates, Inc., for Cement Kiln Recycling Coalition, Washington, D.C.
Clayton, C.A., R.L. Perritt, E.D. Pellizzari, K.W. Thomas, R.W. Whitmore, L.A. Wallace, H. Ozkaynak, and J.D. Spengler. 1993. Particle Total Exposure Assessment Methodology (PTEAM) study: Distributions of aerosol and elemental concentrations in personal, indoor, and outdoor air samples in a southern California community. J. Expo. Anal. Environ. Epidemiol. 3(2): 227-250.
Coate, D., and R. Fowles. 1989. Is there statistical evidence for a blood lead-blood pressure relationship? J. Econ. 8: 173-184.
Collett, R.S., K. Oduyemi, and D.E. Lill. 1998. An investigation of environmental levels of cadmium and lead in airborne matter and surface soils within the locality of a municipal waste incinerator. Sci. Total Environ. 209(2-3): 157-167.
Connett, P., and E. Connett. 1994. Municipal waste incineration: Wrong question, wrong answer. Ecologist 24(1): 14-20.
Cooney, G.H., A. Bell, W. McBride, and C. Carter. 1989a. Low-level exposures to lead: The Sydney lead study. Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 31(5): 640-649 .
Cooney, G.H., A. Bell, W. McBride, and C. Carter. 1989b. Neurobehavioural consequences of prenatal low-level exposures to lead. Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 11(2): 95-104.
Cordier, S., F. Deplan, L. Mandereau, and D. Hemon. 1991. Paternal exposure to mercury and spontaneous abortions . Br. J. Ind. Med. 48(6): 375-381.
Covello, V.T., and F.W. Allen. 1988. Seven Cardinal Rules of Risk Communication. OPA-87-020. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.
Covello, V.T., D. von Winterfeldt, and P. Slovic. 1986. Communicating scientific information about health and environmental risks: Problems and opportunitites from a social and behavioral perspective . Pp. 109-134 in Risk Communication: Proceedings of the National Conference on Risk Communication, J.C. Davies, V.T. Covello, and F.W. Allen, eds. Washington, D.C.: The Conservation Foundation.
Covello, V.T., P.M. Sandman and P. Slovic. 1988. Risk Communication, Risk Statistics and Risk Comparisons: A Manual for Plant Managers. Washington D.C.: Chemical Manufacturers Association.
Cramer, G.M. 1994. Exposure of U.S. Consumers to Methylmercury from Fish. Pp. 103-118 in DOE/FDA/EPA Workshop on Methylmercury and Human Health, P.D. Moskowitz, L. Saroff, M. Bolger, J. Circmanec, and S. Durkee, eds. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, N.Y.
Cullen, A.C. 1995. The sensitivity of probabilistic risk assessment results to alternative model structures: A case study of municipal waste incineration . J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 45(7): 538-546.
Curlee, T.R. 1994. Waste-to-Energy in the United States: A Social and Economic Assessment . Westport, Conn.: Quorum Books.
Czuczwa, J.M., and R.A. Hites. 1986. Airborne dioxins and dibenzofurans: Sources and fates. Environ. Sci. Technol. 20(2): 195-204.
Dabeka, R.W., A.D. McKenzie, G.M. Lacroix, C. Cleroux, S. Bowe, R.A. Graham, H.B. Conacher, and P. Verdier. 1993. Survey of arsenic in total diet food composites and estimation of the dietary intake of arsenic by Canadian adults and children. J. AOAC Int. 76(1): 14-25.
Damokosh, A.I., J.D. Spengler, D.W. Dockery, J.H. Ware, and F.E. Speizer. 1993. Effects of acidic particles on respiratory symptoms in 7 United States communities. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 147(4): A632.
Darmer, K.I., Jr., E.R. Kinkead, and L.C. DiPasquale. 1974. Acute toxicity in rats and mice exposed to hydrogen chloride gas and aerosols. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 35(10): 623-631.
Davies, J.M., D.F. Easton, and P.L. Bidstrup. 1991. Mortality from respiratory cancer and other causes in United Kingdom chromate production workers. Br. J. Ind. Med. 48: 299-313.
Davies, K. 1989. Concentration and dietary intake of selected organochlorines, including PCBs, PCDFs in fresh food composites grown in Ontario, Canada . Chemosphere 17: 263-276.
Davis, C. 1986. Public involvement in hazardous-waste siting decisions. Polity 19(2): 296-304.
Davis, G., and W. Colglazier. 1987. Siting hazardous waste facilities: Asking the right questions. Pp. 167-182 in America's Future in Toxic Waste Management: Lessons from Europe, B.W. Piasecki, and G.A. Davis, eds. New York: Quorum Books.
Della Porta, G, T.A. Dragani, and G. Sozzi. 1987. Carcinogenic effects of infantile and long-term 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin treatment in the mouse. Tumori 73(2): 99-107.
Dellinger, B., J.L. Torres, W.A. Rubey, D.L. Hall, and J.L. Graham. 1984. Determination of then Thermal Decomposition Properties of 20 Selected Hazardous Organic Compounds. University of Dayton Research Institute. EPA-600/2-84-138.
Deml, E., I. Mangelsdorf, and H. Greim. 1996. Chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in blood and human milk of non occupationally exposed persons living in the vicinity of a municipal waste incinerator . Chemosphere 33(10): 1941-1950.
Dempsey, C.R., and E.T. Oppelt. 1993. Incineration of hazardous waste: A critical review update. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 43: 25-73 .
Dockery, D.W., and C.A. Pope, III. 1994. Acute respiratory effects of particulate air pollution. Annu. Rev. Public Health 15: 107-132.
Dockery, D.W., J. Schwartz, and J.D. Spengler. 1992. Air pollution and daily mortality: Associations with particulates and acid aerosols. Environ. Res. 59(2): 362-373.
Dockery, D.W., C.A. Pope III, X. Xu, J.D. Spengler, J.H. Ware, M.E. Fay, B.G. Ferris, Jr., and F.E. Speizer. 1993. An association between air pollution and mortality in six U.S. cities . N. Engl. J.Med. 329(24): 1753-1759.
Dockery, D.W., J. Cunningham, A.I. Damokosh, L.M. Neas, J.D. Spengler, P. Koutrakis, J.H. Ware, M. Raizenne, and F.E. Speizer. 1996. Health effects of acid aerosols on North American children: Respiratory symptoms. Environ . Health Perspect. 104(5): 500-505.
DOS (New York City Department of Sanitation). 1992. A Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan for New York City and Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix Volume 1.1 , Waste Stream Data. New York City Department of Sanitation.
Dreicer, M., T.E. Hakonson, G.C. White, and F.W. Whicker. 1984. Rainsplash as a mechanism for soil contamination of plant surfaces . Health Phys. 46(1): 177-187.
DTSC (Department of Toxic Substances Control). 1992a. Documentation of assumptions used in the decision to include and exclude exposure pathways. Ch. 2 in Guidance for Site Characterization and Multimedia Risk Assessment for Hazardous Substances Release Sites, Vol. 2 . UCRL-CR-103460. A report prepared for the State of California, Department of Toxic Substances Control, by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif.
DTSC (Department of Toxic Substances Control). 1992b. Guidelines for the documentation of methodologies, justification, input, assumptions, limitations, and output for exposure models. Ch. 3 in Guidance for Site Characterization and Multimedia Risk Assessment for Hazardous Substances Release Sites, Vol. 2 . UCRL-CR-103460. A report prepared for the State of California, Department of Toxic Substances Control, by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif.
Duvall, D.S., and W.A. Rubey. 1977. Laboratory Evaluation of High-Temperature Destruction of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Related Compounds. EPA-600/2-77-228. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Ecologistics. 1993a. 1991 Field Year Biomonitoring Program Proposed Rotary Kiln Project, Laidlaw Environmental Services, Ltd. Prepared for Laidlaw Environmental Services, Burlington, Ont. Feb. 26.
Ecologistics. 1993b. 1992 Field Year Biomonitoring Program Proposed Rotary Kiln Project, Laidlaw Environmental Services, Ltd. Prepared for Laidlaw Environmental Services, Burlington, Ont. Aug. 4.
Ecologistics. 1994. Final Report, 1992 Field Year Biomonitoring Program. Prepared for Laidlaw Environmental Services, Ltd. Burlington, Ontario .
Edelstein, M.R. 1988. Contaminated Communities: The Social and Psychological Impacts of Residential Exposure to Toxic Exposure. Boulder, Colo.: Westview.
Eitzer, B.D. 1995. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in raw milk samples from farms located near a new resource recovery incinerator. Chemosphere 30(7): 1237-1248.
Elias, R.W., Y. Hirao, and C.C. Patterson. 1982. The circumvention of the natural biopurification of calcium along nutrient pathways by atmospheric inputs of industrial lead. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 46: 2561-2580.
Elinder, C.G. 1985. Cadmium: Uses, occurrence and intake. Pp. 23-64 in Cadmium and Health: A Toxicological and Epidemiological Appraisal. Vol. I. Exposure, Dose and Metabolism, Effects and Response. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press.
Ellenhorn, M.J., and D.G. Barceloux. 1988. Medical Toxicology: Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning. New York: Elsevier.
Elliott, M.L.P. 1984a. Coping with conflicting perceptions of risk in hazardous waste facility siting disputes. Ph.D. dissertation. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Urban Studies and Planning, Cambridge, Mass.
Elliott, M.L.P. 1984b. Improving community acceptance of hazardous waste facilities through alternative systems for mitigating and managing risk. Hazard. Waste Hazard. Mater. 1(3): 397-410.
Elliott, P., M. Hills, J. Beresford, I. Kleinschmidt, D. Jolley, S. Pattenden, L. Rodrigues, A. Westlake, and G. Rose. 1992. Incidence of cancers of the larynx and lung near incinerators of waste solvents and oils in Great Britain. Lancet 339(8797): 854-858.
Elliott, P., G. Shaddick, I. Kleinschmidt, D. Jolley, P. Walls, J. Beresford, and C. Grundy. 1996. Cancer incidence near municpal solid waste incinerators in Great Britain. Br. J. Cancer 73(5): 702-710.
Engleson, G., and T. Hermer. 1952. Alkyl mercury poisoning. Acta Paediat. Scand. 41: 289-294.
English, M.R. 1992. Siting Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities: The Public Policy Dilemma. New York: Quorum Books.
English, M.R., M.N. Murray, L.R. Blank, and D.J. Delffs, Jr. 1991. The Economic and Social Impacts of Chem-Nuclear's Low-level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility on Barnwell County South Carolina. Knoxville, Tenn.: University of Tennessee, Energy, Environment, and Resources Center
Enterline, P.E., and G.M. Marsh. 1982. Cancer among workers exposed to arsenic and other substances in a copper smelter. Am. J. Epidemiol. 116(6): 895-911.
Environment Canada. 1985. National Incinerator Testing and Evaluation Program: Two-Stage Combustion (Prince Edward Island). Environment Canada Report No. EPS 3/UP/1, Vol. I-IV ISBN 0-662-14311-6.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1985. Cadmium Contamination of the Environment: An Assessment of Nationwide Risk. EPA-440/4-85-023. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water Regulations and Standards. Washington, D.C.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1986a. Air Quality Criteria for Lead. 4 vols. EPA-600/8-83/028aF-dF. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Research Triangle Park, N.C. Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va., Doc. No. PB87-142378.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1986b. Second Addendum to Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter and Sulfur Oxides (1982): Assessment of Newly Available Health Effects Information. EPA-600/8-86-020F. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Washington, D.C. Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va., Doc. No. PB87-176574.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1988a. Drinking water regulations maximum contaminant level goals: National primary drinking water regulations for lead and copper. Federal Register 53: 31515-31578.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1988b. Special Report on Ingested Inorganic Arsenic. Skin Cancer; Nutritional Essentiality. EPA/625/3-87/013. Risk Assessment Forum, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1989. Evaluation of the Potential Carcinogenicity of Lead and Lead Compounds: In Support of Reportable Quantity Adjustments Pursuant to CERC-LA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) Section 102. EPA/600/8-89-045A. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Washington, D.C. Available from NTIS, Springfield, Va., Doc. No. PB89-181366.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1990. Methodology for Assessing Health Risks Associated with Indirect Exposure to Combustor Emissions, Interim Final. EPA/600/6-90-003. Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1991a. Maximum contaminant level goals and national primary drinking water regulations for lead and copper. Federal Register 56: 26461-26564
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1991b. Feasibility of Environmental Monitoring and Exposure Assessment for a Municipal Waste Combustor: Rutland, Vermont Pilot Study. EPA/600/8-91/007. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Health and Environmental Assessment Cincinnati, Ohio.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1992a. Screening Procedures for Estimating the Air Quality Impact of Stationary Sources, Revised. EPA/454/R-92/019. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Research Triangle Park, N.C.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1992b. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). [Online]. Available: HtmlResAnchor http://www.epa.gov/ngispgm3/iris/index.html. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, Ohio.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1992c. Guidelines for Exposure Assessment. Fed. Regist. 57(May 29): 22888-22938.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1992d. Dermal Exposure Assessment: Principles and Applications. Interim Report. EPA/600/8-91/011B. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Washington, D.C.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1992e. Workgroup Report to the Administrator, Vol. 1 R.M. Wolcott and W.A. Banks, eds. Report No. EPA/230/P-92/008. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C..
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1993. Air Quality Criteria for Oxides of Nitrogen. Vol. 1 of 3. EPA/600/8-91/049AF. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, Research Triangle Park, N.C.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1994a. Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste in the United States: 1994 Update. EPA/530/S-94/042. Prepared by Franklin Associates, Ltd., Prairie Village, KS., for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Washington, D.C.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1994b. Estimating Exposure to Dioxin-Like Compounds, Vol. 2: Properties, Sources, Occurrence, and Background Exposures. EPA/600/6-88/005Cb. External Review Draft. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Health and Environmental Assessment Washington, D.C.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1994c. National Incinerator Testing and Evaluation Program: The Environmental Characterization of Refuse-derived Fuel (RDF) Combustion Technology, Mid-Connecticut Facility, Hartford, Connecticut. EPA-600/R-94-140.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1994d. Health Assessment for 2,3,7,8-Tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and Related Compounds, Vol. 3, p. 9-3 EPA/600/BP- 92/001c. Draft. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Health and Environmental Assessment Washington, D.C.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1995a. SCREEN3 User's Guide. EPA/454/B-95/004. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards Research Triangle Park, N.C.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1995b. Screening Procedures for Estimating the Air Quality Impact of Stationary Sources, Revised. EPA-450/R-92-019. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Research Triangle Park, N.C.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1996a. National Dioxin Emissions from Medical Waste Incinerators. Emissions Standards Division, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Research Triangle Park, N.C.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1996b. Revised Standards for Hazardous Waste Combustors. Proposed Rule. Fed. Regist. 61(April 19): 17358-17536.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1996c. New EPA RCRA enforcement policy offers compliance flexibility. Inside EPA Weekly Report 17(13): 1, 6. March 29.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1997a. RCRA, Superfund & EPCRA Hotline Training Module. Introduction to: Boilers and Industrial Furnaces (40 CFR Part 266, Subpart H). EPA530-R-97-047. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1997b. Risk Assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) Hazardous Waste Incineration Facility (East Liverpool, Ohio) . EPA/905-R97-002, 002a-002h.
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1997c. Mercury Study Report to Congress, Volume 1: Executive Summary. EPA-452/R-97-003. Office of Air Quality Standards and Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency .
EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 1998a. Human Health Risk Assessment Protocol for Hazardous Waste Combustion Facilities, Volumes One-Three . EPA530-D-98-001A-C. Peer Review Draft. U.S. EPA, Office of Solid Waste, Center for Combustion Science and Engineering .
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1998b. National Air Pollutant Emission Trends Update:1970-1997 . EPA 454/E-98-007. (December).
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1998c. National Air Quality and Emissions Trends Report, 1997 . Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. Emissions Monitoring and Analysis Division . EPA 454/R-98-016 (December)
EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Residual Risk. Report to Congress. EPA-453/R-99-001. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. Environmental Protection Agency. (March).
Facchetti, S., and F. Geiss. 1982. Isotopic Lead Experiment: Status Report. Publ. No. EUR 8352 EN. Luxembourg: Commission of the European Communities.
Fagala, G.E., and C.L. Wigg. 1992. Psychiatric manifestations of mercury poisoning. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 31(2): 306-311.
Fangmark, I., B. van Bavel, S. Marklund, B. Strömberg, N. Berge, and C. Rappe. 1993. Influence of combustion parameters on the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, benzenes, and biphenyls and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in a pilot incinerator . Environ. Sci. Technol. 27(8): 1602-1610.
Felsvang, K.S., and O. Helvind. 1991. Results of Full Scale Dry Injection Tests at MSW-Incinerators Using a New Active Absorbent . Pp. 542 in Municipal Waste Combustion: Conference Papers and Abstracts from the Second Annual International Specialty Conference, April 15-19, 1991, Tampa, Fla.
Fernandez-Salguero, P.M., D.M. Hilbert, S. Rudikoff, J.M. Ward, and F.J. Gonzalez. 1996. Arylhydrocarbon receptor-deficient mice are resistant to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced toxicity . Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 140: 173-179.
Ferris, D. 1995. Burning injustice: An overview of federal incinerator policy in the United States. Clearinghouse Rev. 29(4): 424-435.
Fiedler, D.A., K.W. Brown, J.C. Thomas, and K.C. Donnelly. 1991. Mutagenic potential of plants grown on municipal sewage sludge-amended soil. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 20(3): 385-390.
Fingerhut, M.A., W.E. Halperin, D.A. Marlow, L.A. Piacitelli, P.A. Honchar, M.H. Sweeney, A.L. Greife, P.A. Dill, K. Steenland, and A.J. Suruda. 1991. Cancer mortality in workers exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin . N. Engl. J. Med. 324(4): 212-218.
Finkelstein, A., R. Klicius, and D. Hay. 1987. The National Incinerator Testing and Evaluation Program (NITEP). Presented at the International Workshop on Municipal Waste Incineration . Montreal, Quebec, October 1-2, 1987.
Finsterbusch, K. 1985. State of the art in social impact assessment. Environ. Behav. 17(2): 193-221.
Fiorino, D.J. 1990. Citizen participation and environmental risk: A survey of institutional mechanisms. Sci. Technol. Hum. Value 15(2): 226-243.
Fischoff, B. 1995. Risk perception and communication unplugged: Twenty years of process . RiskAnal. 15(2): 137-145 .
Fitzgerald, W.F., and T.W. Clarkson. 1991. Mercury and monomethylmercury: Present and future concerns. Environ. Health Perspect. 96: 159-166.
Fitzgerald, W.F., R.P. Mason, and G.M. Vandal. 1991. Atmospheric cycling and air-water exchange of mercury over mid-continental lacustrine regions. Water Air Soil Pollut. 56: 745-768.
Flynn, C.B., J.H. Flynn, J.A. Chalmers, D. Pijawka, and K. Branch. 1983. An integrated methodology for large-scale development projects. In Social Impact Assessment Methods, K. Finsterbusch, L.G. Llewellyn, and C.P. Wolf, eds. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage Publications.
Foulkes, E.C. 1978. Renal tubular transport of cadmium-metallothionein. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 45(2): 505-512.
Fournier, D.J., Jr., and L.R. Waterland. 1989. The Fate of Trace Metals in a Rotary Kiln Incinerator with a Single-Stage Ionizing Wet Scrubber. EPA Contract 68-03-0038.
Fournier, D.J., Jr., W.E. Whitworth, Jr., J.W. Lee, and L.R. Waterland. 1988. The Fate of Trace Metals in a Rotary Kiln Incinerator with a Venturi/Packed Column Scrubber. EPA Contract 68-C9-3267.
Frampton, M.W., P.E. Morrow, C. Cox, P.C. Levy, J.J. Condemi, D. Speers, F.R. Gibb, and M.J. Utell. 1995. Sulfuric acid aerosol followed by ozone exposure in healthy and asthmatic subjects. Environ. Res. 69(1): 1-14.
Franchini, I., and A. Mutti. 1988. Selected toxicological aspects of chromium (VI) compounds. Sci. Total Environ. 71: 379-387.
Franklin Associates (Franklin Associates, Ltd.). 1997. Solid Waste Management at the Crossroads. Franklin Associates, Ltd., Prairie Village, KS.
Franklin Associates (Franklin Associates, Ltd.). 1998. Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste in the United States: 1997 Update. Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Municipal and Industrial Solid Waste Division, Office of Solid Waste, Report No. EPA530-R-98-007. Franklin Associates, Ltd., Prairie Village, KS.
Franzblau, A., and R. Lilis. 1989. Acute arsenic intoxication from environmental arsenic exposure. Arch. Environ. Health 44: 385-390.
Freudenburg, W.R. 1989. Social scientists' contributions to environmental management. J. Social Issues 45(1): 133-152.
Freudenburg, W.R., and R. Gramling. 1992. Community impacts of technological change: Toward a longitudinal perspective. Social Forces 70(4): 937-955.
Freudenberg, W.R., and R.E. Jones. 1991. Criminal behavior and rapid community growth: Examining the evidence . Rural Sociology 56(4) 619-645.
Frey, H.C., R. Bharvirkar, and J. Zheng. 1999. Quantification of Variability and Uncertainty in Emission Factors . Paper No. 99-267, Proceedings of the 92nd Annual Meeting, June 20-24, 1999, St. Louis, MO., Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA.
Friberg, L. 1950. Health hazards in the manufacture of alkaline accumulators with special reference to chronic cadmium poisoning. Acta Med. Scand. 138(Suppl. 240): 1-124.
Friberg, L., S. Hammarstrom, and A. Nystrom. 1953. Kidney injury after chronic exposure to inorganic mercury. Arch. Ind. Hyg. Occup. Med. 8: 149-153.
Friberg, L., M. Piscator, G. Nordberg, and T. Kjellstrom. 1974. Cadmium in the Environment, 2d Ed. Cleveland: CRC.
Friberg, L., G.F. Nordberg, and V.B. Vouk. 1979. Pg. 505 in Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals . New York: Elsevier.
Fruin, S.A., M. Elnabarawy, and D.P. Duffy. 1994. A Multi-media Environmental Impact Study for a Manufacturing Facility Incinerator. Paper 94-TA260.13P. 87th Annual Meeting of the American Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA.
Fulton, M., G. Raab, G. Thomson, D. Laxen, R. Hunter, and W. Hepburn. 1987. Influence of blood lead on the ability and attainment of children in Edinburgh. Lancet 1(8544): 1221-1226.
Furst, P., C. Furst, and W. Groebel. 1990. Levels of PCDDs and PCDFs in food-stuffs from the Federal Republic of Germany . Chemosphere 20(7-9): 787-792 .
Galloway, J.N., J.D. Thornton, S.A. Norton, H.L. Volchok, and R.A. McLean. 1982. Trace metals in atmospheric deposition: A review and assessment . Atmos. Environ. 16: 1677-1700.
GAO (U.S. General Accounting Office). 1991. Hazardous Waste: Incinerator Operating Regulations and Related Air Emissions Standards . October. U.S. General Accounting Office, Washington, D.C. .
GAO (U.S. General Accounting Office). 1995a. SUPERFUND: EPA Has Identified Limited Alternatives to Incineration for Cleaning up PCB and Dioxin Contamination . GAO/RCED-96-13. U.S. General Accounting Office, Washington, D.C.
GAO (U.S. General Accounting Office). 1995b. Hazardous Waste Incinerators: EPA's and OSHA's Actions to Better Protect Health and Safety Not Complete . GAO/RCED-95-17. Gaithersburg, MD., U.S. General Accounting Office.
GAO (U.S. General Accounting Office). 1995c. Hazardous Waste: Benefits of EPA's Information System Are Limited . GAO/AMID-95-167. August. U.S. General Accounting Office, Washington, D.C.
Gartrell, M.J., J.C. Craun, D.S. Podrebarac, and E.L.Gunderson. 1986. Pesticides, selected elements, and other chemicals in adult total diet samples, October 1980-March 1982 . J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 69(1): 146-159.
Garvey, D.J., and L.D. Longo. 1978. Chronic low level maternal carbon monoxide exposure and fetal growth and development . Biol. Reprod. 19(1): 8-14.
Gaspar, J.A. 1998. New Processes for the Removal of Mercury from Incinerator Flue Gases . Presented at International Conference on Incineration and Thermal Treatment Technologies,May 11-15, 1998, Salt Lake City, UT.
Gaspar, J.A., M.C. Widmer, J.A. Cole, and W.R. Seeker. 1997. Study of Mercury Speciation in a Simulated Municipal Waste Incinerator Flue Gas. Presented at International Conference on Incineration and Thermal Treatment Technologies , May 12-16, 1997, San Francisco, CA .
Gilman, A., R. Newhook, and B. Birmingham. 1991. An updated assessment of the exposure of Canadians to dioxins and furans. Chemosphere 23(11-12): 1661-1668.
Glass, G.E., J.A. Sorensen, K.W. Scmidt, G.R. Rapp, Jr., D. Yap, and D. Fraser. 1991. Mercury deposition and sources for the upper Great Lakes region. Water Air Soil Pollut. 56: 235-250.
Gleason, M.N., R.E. Gosselin, and H.C. Hodge. 1957. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. Baltimore, MD.: Williams & Wilkins. 154 pp.
Goebel, H.H., P.F. Schmidt, J. Bohl, B. Tettenborn, G. Kramer, and L. Gutmann. 1990. Polyneuropathy due to acute arsenic intoxication: Biopsy studies. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 49(2): 137-149.
Goldman, B.A., and L.J. Fitton. 1994. Toxic Wastes and Race Revisited. Washington, D.C.: Center for Policy Alternatives, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and United Church of Christ Commission for Racial Justice .
Graham, D.L., and S.M. Kalman. 1974. Lead in forage grass from a suburban area in northern California . Environ. Pollut. 7: 209-215.
Gramling, R., and W.R. Freudenburg. 1992. Opportunity-threat, development, and adaptation: Toward a comprehensive framework for social impact assessment . Rural Sociol . 57(2): 216-234.
Gray, E.J., J.K. Peat, C.M. Mellis, J. Harrington, and A.J. Woolcock. 1994. Asthma severity and morbidity in a population sample of Sydney school children: Part I - Prevalence and effect of air pollutants in coastal regions . Aust. N.Z. J. Med. 24(2): 168-175.
Greenberg, M., D. Schneider, and J. Parry. 1995. Brown fields, a regional incinerator and resident perception of neighborhood quality. Risk Health Safety Environ. 6(3): 241-259.
Greenberg, M.R., and D. Schneider. 1996. Environmentally Devastated Neighborhoods: Perceptions, Policies and Realities. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.
Greene, T., and C.B. Ernhart. 1991. Prenatal and preschool age lead exposure: Relationship with size. Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 13(4): 417-427 .
Greenspan, B.J., P.E. Morrow, and J. Ferin. 1988. Effects of aerosol exposures to cadmium chloride on the clearance of titanium dioxide from the lungs of rats . Exp. Lung Res. 14: 491-500.
Gregory, R., J. Flynn, and P. Slovic. 1995. Technological stigma. Am. Sci. 83(3): 220-223.
Grose, E.C., J.H. Richards, R.H. Jaskot, M.G. Menache, J.A. Graham, and W.C. Dauterman. 1987. A comparative study of the effects of inhaled cadmium chloride and cadmium oxide: Pulmonary response. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 21(1-2): 219-232.
Gundel, L.A., V.C. Lee, K.R.R. Mahanama, R.K. Stevens, and J.M. Daisey. 1995. Direct determination of the phase distributions of semi-volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using annular denuders . Atmos. Environ. 29(14): 1719-1733.
Gunderson, E.L. 1995. FDA total diet study, July 1986-April 1991, dietary intakes of pesticides, selected elements, and other chemicals . J. AOAC Int. 78 (6): 1353-1363.
Gustavsson, P. 1989. Mortality among workers at a municipal waste incinerator. Am. J. Ind. Med. 15: 245-253.
Hadden, S.G. 1991. Public perception of hazardous waste. Risk Anal. 11(1): 47-57.
Hafez, E.S.E. 1974. Reproduction in Farm Animals, 3d ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.
Hall, B.D., R.A. Bodaly, R.J.P. Fudge, J.W.M. Rudd, and D.M. Rosenberg. 1997. Food as the dominant pathway of methylmercury uptake by fish. Water Air Soil Pollut. 100 (1-2): 13-24.
Hance, B.J., C. Chess, and P.M. Sandman. 1988. Improving Dialogue with Communities: A Risk Communication Manual for Government. New Jersey Dept. of Environmental Protection. Trenton, N.J.: Division of Science and Research.
Hance, B.J., C. Chess, and P.M. Sandman. 1990. Industry Risk Communication Manual: Improving Dialogue with Communities . Boca Raton, Fla.: Lewis.
Hanley, Q.S., J.Q. Koenig, T.V. Larson, T.L. Anderson, G. Van Belle, V. Rebolledo, D.S. Covert, and W.E. Pierson. 1992. Response of young asthmatic patients to inhaled sulfuric acid. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 145(2 Part 1): 326-331.
Hanna, S.R., G.A. Briggs, R.P. Hosker, Jr., and J.S. Smith. 1982. Handbook on Atmospheric Diffusion. QC880.4.D44.H36. Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Technical Information Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy .
Hänninen, H., P. Mantere, S. Hernberg, A.M. Seppäläinen, and B. Kock. 1979. Subjective symptoms in low-level exposure to lead. Neurotoxicology 1(2): 333-348.
Harada, M. 1976. Intrauterine poisoning, clinical and epidemiological studies and significance of the problem . Bull. Inst. Const. Med. Kumamoto Univ. 25(Suppl.) 1-60.
Hardy, H.L., and I.R. Tabershaw. 1946. Delayed chemical pneumonitis occurring in workers exposed to beryllium compounds . J. Ind. Hyg. Toxicol. 28(5): 197-211.
Harrington, J.M., J.P. Middaugh, D.L. Morse, and J. Housworth. 1978. A survey of a population exposed to high concentrations of arsenic in well water in Fairbanks, Alaska. Am. J. Epidemiol. 108(5): 377-385.
Hart, R.P., C.S. Rose, and R.M. Hamer. 1989. Neuropsychological effects of occupational exposure to cadmium . J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol. 11(6): 933-943.
Hartzell, G.E., H.W. Stacy, W.G. Switzer, D.N. Priest, and S.C. Packham. 1985. Modeling of toxicological effects of fire gases. IV. Intoxication of rats by carbon monoxide in the presence of an irritant . J. Fire Sci. 3: 263-279.
Harvey, P.G., M.W. Hamlin, R. Kumar, G. Morgan, et al. 1988. Relationships between blood lead, behaviour, psychometric and neuropsychological test performance in young children . Br. J. Dev. Psychol. 6(2): 145-156.
Hattemer-Frey, H.A., and C.C. Travis. 1989. Comparison of human exposure to dioxin from municipal waste incineration and background environmental contamination . Chemosphere 18(1-6): 643-650.
Hayes, R.B., A.M. Lilienfeld, and L.M. Snell. 1979. Mortality in chromium chemical production workers: A prospective study . Int. J. Epidemiol. 8(4): 365-374 .
Hershkowitz, A., and E. Salerni. 1987. Garbage Management in Japan: Leading the Way. New York, NY: INFORM.
Hill, W.H. 1943. A report on two deaths from exposure to the fumes of di-ethyl mercury . Can. J. Public Health 34: 158-160.
Hill, W.J., and W.S. Ferguson. 1979. Statistical analysis of epidemiological data from a chromium chemical manufacturing plant. J. Occup. Med. 21: 103-106.
Hirano, S., N. Tsukamoto, S. Higo, and K.T. Suzuki. 1989a. Toxicity of cadmium oxide instilled into the rat lung. II. Inflammatory responses in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid. Toxicology 55(1/2): 25-35.
Hirano, S., N. Tsukamoto, E. Kobayashi, and K.T. Suzuki. 1989b. Toxicity of cadmium oxide instilled into the rat lung. I. Metabolism of cadmium oxide in the lung and its effects on essential elements . Toxicology 55(1/2): 15-24.
Hoffman, F.O., C.F. Baes, III, D.E. Dunning, Jr., D.E. Fields, C.A. Little, C.W. Miller, T.H. Orton, E.M. Rupp, D.L. Shaeffer, and R.W. Shor. 1979. A Statistical Analysis of Selected Parameters for Predicting Food Chain Transport and Internal Dose of Radionuclides. NURRG/CR-1004, ORNL, NUREG/TM-282. Prepared for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission by Oak Ridge National Laboratory,Oak Ridge, Tenn.
Howard, P.H. 1990a. Handbook of Environmental Fate and Exposure Data for Organic Chemicals , Vol. I . Chelsea, Mich.: Lewis Publishers.
Howard, P.H. 1990b. Handbook of Environmental Fate and Exposure Data for Organic Chemicals , Vol. II . Chelsea, Mich.: Lewis Publishers.
Howard, P.H. 1991. Handbook of Environmental Fate and Exposure Data for Organic Chemicals , Vol. III . Chelsea, Mich.: Lewis Publishers.
Hsu, C.-C., M.-L.M. Yu, Y.-C.J. Chen, et al. 1994. The Yu-Cheng rice oil poisoning incident. Pp. 661-684 in Dioxins and Health. A. Schecter, ed. New York: Plenum Press.
Hu, H. 1991. Knowledge of diagnosis and reproductive history among survivors of childhood plumbism. Am. J. Public Health 81(8): 1070-1072.
Huang, J.X., F.S. He, Y.G. Wu, and S.C. Zhang. 1988. Observations on renal function in workers exposed to lead. Sci. Total Environ. 71(3): 535-537.
Hudson, R.J.M., S.A. Gherini, C.J. Watras, and D.B. Porcella. 1994. Modeling the biogeochemical cycle of mercury in lakes: The mercury cycling model (MCM) and application to the MTL study lakes. Pp. 473-523 in Mercury Pollution Integration and Synthesis, C.J. Watras, and J.W. Huckabee , eds. Boca Raton, Fla.: Lewis Publishers.
Hülster, A., and H. Marschner. 1993. Transfer of PCDD/PCDF from contaminated soils to food and fodder crop plants. Chemosphere 27(1-3): 439-446.
Hunt, G., B. Maisel, and M. Hoyt. 1991. Post-Operational Monitoring for PCDDs/PCDFs in the Vicinity of Resource Recover Facilities in the State of Connecticut. Prepared by ENSR for State of Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection.
IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). 1989. Evaluating the Reliability of Predictions Made Using Environmental Transfer Models, Safety Series 100. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency.
IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 1993. Cadmium and certain cadmium compounds. Pp. 119-146, 210-236 in IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. Beryllium, Cadmium, Mercury and Exposures in the Glass Manufacturing Industry. Vol. 58 . Lyon, France: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer .
IAWG (The International Ash Working Group). 1995. An International Perspective on Characterisation and Management of Residues from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration, Final Document , Volume 1 . The International Ash Working Group.
Ide, C.W., and G.R. Bullough. 1988. Arsenic and old glass. J. Soc. Occup. Med. 38(3): 85-88.
IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1999. Toward Environmental Justice: Research, Education and Health Policy Needs. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
Ito, K., P.L. Kinney, and G.D. Thurston. 1995. Variations in PM-10 concentrations within two metropolitan areas and their implications for health effects analyses. Inhalation Toxicol. 7(5): 735-745.
IWSA (Integrated Waste Services Association). 1999. Fast Facts about Waste-to-Energy. [Online]. Available: HtmlResAnchor http://www.wte.org/facts.html [July 13, 1999].
Jaffe, K.M., D.B. Shurtleff, and W.O. Robertson. 1983. Survival after acute mercury vapor poisoning. Am. J. Dis. Child. 137(8): 749-751.
JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association). 1994. Blood lead levels–United States, 1988-1991. 272(13): 999.
Jarup, L., C.G. Elinder, and G. Spang. 1988. Cumulative blood-cadmium and tubular proteinuria: A dose-response relationship. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 60(3): 223-229.
Johnson, B.B. 1993. Advancing understanding of knowledge's role in lay risk perception. Risk Issues Health Safety 4(3): 189.
Kagamimori, S., M. Watanabe, H. Nakagawa, Y. Okumura, and S. Kawano. 1986. Case-control study on cardiovascular function in females with a history of heavy exposure to cadmium. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 36(4): 484-490.
Kahneman, D., and A. Tversky. 1982. The psychology of preferences. Sci. Am. 246(1): 160-173.
Kahneman, P., P. Slovic, and A. Tversky. 1982. Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Kang-Yum, E., and S.H. Oransky. 1992. Chinese patent medicine as a potential source of mercury poisoning . Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 34: 235-238.
Kaplan, H.L. 1987. Effects of irritant gases on avoidance/escape performance and respiratory response of the baboon. Toxicology 47(1-2): 165-179.
Kaplan, H.L., A. Anzueto, W.G. Switzer, and R.K. Hinderer. 1988. Effects of hydrogen chloride on respiratory response and pulmonary function of the baboon. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 23(4): 473-493.
Karickhoff, S.W. 1981. Semiempirical estimation of sorption of hydrophobic pollutants on natural sediments and soils. Chemosphere 10(8): 833-846.
Kasperson, R.E., O. Renn, P. Slovic, H.S. Brown, J. Emel, R. Goble, J.X. Kasperson, and S. Ratick. 1988. The social amplification of risk—A conceptual-framework. Risk Anal. 8(2): 177-187.
Kasperson, R.E., and I. Palmlund. 1989. Evaluating Risk Communication. Pp. 143-158 in Effective Risk Communication: The Role and Responsibility of Government and Nongovernment Organizations, V.T. Covello, D.B. McCallum, and M.T. Pavlova, eds. New York: Plenum.
Kasperson, R., D. Golding, and S. Tuler. 1992. Social distrust as a factor in siting hazardous facilities and communicating risks. J. Soc. Issues 48(4): 161-187.
Kazantzis, G., T.H. Lam, and K.R. Sullivan. 1988. Mortality of cadmium-exposed workers. A five-year update. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 14: 220-223.
Kehoe, R.A. 1961. The Harben lectures, 1960: The metabolism of lead in man in health and disease. J. R. Inst. Public Health Hyg. 24(4): 81-97; 129-143; 177-203.
Keskinen, H., P.L. Kalliomaki, and K. Alanko. 1980. Occupational asthma due to stainless steel welding fumes. Clin. Allergy 10(2): 151-159.
Kimmel, G.L. 1988. Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, Appendix C in A Cancer Risk-Specific Dose Estimate for 2,3,7,8-TCDD, Appendices A Through F. U.S. EPA, External Review Draft.
Kimmel, C.A., and J. Buelke-Sam. 1994. Target Organ Toxicology Series: Developmental Toxicology, Second Ed. New York: Raven Press.
Kinney, P.L., K. Ito, and G.D. Thurston. 1995. A sensitivity analysis of mortality/PM-10 associations in Los Angeles . Inhalation Toxicol. 7(1): 59-69.
Klaassen, C.D., M.O. Amdur, and J. Doull, eds. 1995. Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Kleinman, M.T., D.M. Davidson, R.B. Vandagriff, V.J. Caiozzo, and J.L. Whittenberger. 1989. Effects of short-term exposure to carbon monoxide in subjects with coronary artery disease. Arch. Environ. Health 44(6): 361-369.
Kociba, R.J., P.A. Keeler, C.N. Park, and P.J. Gehring. 1976. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD): Results of a 13-week oral toxicity study in rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 35: 553-574.
Kociba, R.J., D.G. Keyes, J.E. Beyer, R.M. Carreon, C.E. Wade, D.A. Dittenber, R.P. Kalnins, L.E. Frauson, C.N. Park, S.D. Barnard, R.A. Hummel, and C.G. Humiston. 1978. Results of a two-year chronic toxicity and oncogenicity study of 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 46: 279-303.
Kociba, R.J., D.G. Keyes, J.E. Beyer, R.M. Carreon, and P.J. Gehring. 1979. Long-term toxicologic studies of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in laboratory animals. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 320: 397-404.
Koenig, J.Q., W.E. Pierson, and M. Horike. 1983. The effects of inhaled sulfuric acid on pulmonary function in adolescent asthmatics. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 128(2): 221-225.
Koenig, J.Q., D.S. Covert, and W.E. Pierson. 1989. Effects of inhalation of acidic compounds on pulmonary function in allergic adolescent subjects. Environ. Health Perspect. 79: 173-178.
Koshland, C.P. 1997. Combustion Processes–Emissions Monitoring and Intervention. CRISP/98/ES04705-110022. CRISP Data Base, National Institutes of Health.
Koutrakis, P., J.M. Wolfson, and J.D. Spengler. 1988. An improved method for measuring aerosol strong acidity: Results from a nine-month study in St. Louis, Missouri and Kingston, Tennessee . Atmos. Environ. 22(1): 157-162.
Koutrakis, P., S.L.K. Briggs, and B.P. Leaderer. 1992. Source apportionment of indoor aerosols in Suffolk and Onondaga Counties, New York. Environ. Sci. Technol. 26(3): 521-527.
Kriebel, D., J.D. Brain, N.L. Sprince, and H. Kazemi. 1988a. The pulmonary toxicity of beryllium. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 137(2): 464-473.
Kriebel, D., N.L. Sprince, E.A. Eisen, and I.A. Greaves. 1988b. Pulmonary function in beryllium workers: Assessment of exposure. Br. J. Ind. Med. 45(2): 83-92.
Kuehn, R.R. 1994. Remedying the unequal enforcement of environmental laws. Environmental justice: The merging of civil rights and environmental activism. St. John's J. Leg. Commentary 9(2): 625-668.
Kunreuther, H.C., and J. Linnerooth. 1983. Risk Analysis and Decision Processes: The Siting of Liquefied Energy Gas Facilities in Four Countries. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Kunreuther, H., D. Easterling, W. Desvousges, and P. Slovic. 1990. Public attitudes toward siting a high-level nuclear waste repository in Nevada. Risk Anal. 10(4): 469-484.
Kunreuther, H., K. Fitzgerald, and T.D. Aarts. 1993. Siting noxious facilities: A test of the facility siting credo. Risk Anal. 13(3): 301-318.
Kurttio, P., J. Pekkanen, G. Alfthan, M. Paunio, J.J. Jaakkola, and O.P. Heinonen. 1998. Increased mercury exposure in inhabitants living in the vicinity of a hazardous waste incinerator: A 10-year follow-up. Arch. Environ. Health 53(2): 129-137.
Kyle, R.A., and G.L. Pease. 1965. Hematologic aspects of arsenic intoxication. New Engl. J. Med. 273(1): 18-23.
Ladd, J. 1959. The concept of community: A logical analysis. Pp. 269-293 in Community, NOMOS II, C. J. Friedrich, ed. New York: Liberal Arts Press.
Lahl, U., M. Wilken, B. Zeschmar-Lahl, and J. Jager. 1990. PCDD/PCDF Balance of Different Municipal Waste Management Methods . Tenth International Symposium on Chlorinated Dioxins and Related Compounds. Bayreuth, Germany, September 10-14, 1990.
Laird, F.N. 1989. The decline of deference: The political context of risk communication . Risk Anal. 9(4): 543-550.
Lansdown, R., W. Yule, M.-A. Urbanowicz, and J. Hunter. 1986. The relationship between blood-lead concentrations, intelligence, attainment and behaviour in a school population: The second London study. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 57: 225-235.
Last, J.A., D.M. Hyde, D.J. Guth, and D.L. Warren. 1986. Synergistic interaction of ozone and respirable aerosols on rat lungs I. Importance of aerosol acidity. Toxicology 39(3): 247-258.
Lavelle, M., and M. Coyle. 1992. Unequal protection—The racial divide in environmental law. Natl. Law J. (Sept. 21), S1.
Lee-Feldstein, A. 1986. Cumulative exposure to arsenic and its relationship to respiratory cancer among copper smelter employees. J. Occup. Med. 28(4): 296-302.
Lerner, B.J. 1993. Mercury Emission Control in Medical Waste Incineration. 93-MP-21.05. Presentation at the 86th Annual Meeting & Exhibition, Air & Waste Management Association, Denver, CO., June 13-18, 1993.
Lindberg, E., and G. Hedenstierna. 1983. Chrome plating: Symptoms, findings in the upper airways, and effects on lung function. Arch. Environ. Health 38: 367-374.
Lindberg, S.E., and R.C. Harriss. 1981. The role of atmospheric deposition in an eastern U.S.A. deciduous forest. Water Air Soil Pollut. 16: 13-31.
Lindquist, O. 1991. Mercury in the Swedish Environment. Water Air Soil Pollut. 55(1-2): 1-261.
Lioy, P.J., J.M. Waldman, T. Buckley, J. Butler, and C. Pietarinen. 1990. The personal, indoor and outdoor concentrations of PM-10 measured in an industrial community during the winter. Atmos. Environ. B Urban Atmos. 24(1): 57-66.
Lloyd, O.L., M.M. Lloyd, F.L. Williams, and A. Lawson. 1988. Twinning in human populations and in cattle exposed to air pollution from incinerators. Br. J. Ind. Med. 45(8): 556-560.
Lorber, M., D. Cleverly, J. Schaum, L. Phillips, G. Schweer, and T. Leighton. 1994. Development and validation of an air-to-beef food chain model for dioxin-like compounds. Sci. Total Environ. 156: 39-65.
Lorber, M., P. Pinsky, P. Gehring, C. Braverman, D. Winters, and W. Sovocool. 1998. Relationships between dioxins in soil, air, ash, and emissions from a municipal solid waste incinerator emitting large amounts of dioxins . Chemosphere 37(9-12): 2173-2197.
Lucas, J.B., and R.S. Kramkowski. 1975. Health hazard evaluation determination. Report no. 74-87-221. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
Lyman, W.J., W.F. Reehl, and D.H. Rosenblatt. 1982. Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Lynn, F.M. 1987. Citizen involvement in hazardous waste sites: Two North Carolina success stories. Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. 7: 347-361.
Lynn, F., and G. Busenberg. 1995. Citizen advisory committees and environmental policy: What we know, what's left to discover. Risk Anal. 15(2): 147-162.
Ma, X.F., J.G. Babish, J.M. Scarlett, W.H. Gutenmann, and D.J. Lisk. 1992. Mutagens in urine sampled repetitively from municipal refuse incinerator workers and water treatment workers. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 37: 483-494.
Machle, W., K.V. Kitzmiller, E.W. Scott, and J.F. Treon. 1942. The effect of the inhalation of hydrogen chloride. J. Ind. Hyg. Toxicol. 24: 222-225.
Mackay, D. 1991. Multimedia Environmental Models: The Fugacity Approach. Boca Raton, Fla.: Lewis.
Maclaren, V.W. 1987. The use of social surveys in environmental impact assessment. Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. 7: 363-375.
Malkin, R., P. Brandt-Rauf, J. Graziano, and M. Parides. 1992. Blood lead levels in incinerator workers. Environ. Res. 59(1): 265-270.
Mancuso, T.F. 1951. Occupational cancer and other health hazards in a chromate plant: A medical appraisal. II. Clinical and toxicologic aspects. Ind. Med. Surg. 20(9): 393-407.
Mancuso, T.F., and W.C. Hueper. 1951. Occupational cancer and other health hazards in a chromate plant: A medical appraisal. I. Lung cancers in chromate workers. Ind. Med. Surg. 20(8): 358-363.
Manz, A., J. Berger, J.H. Dwyer, D. Flesch-Janys, S. Nagel, and H. Waltsgott. 1991. Cancer mortality among workers in a chemical plant contaminated with dioxin. Lancet 338(8773): 959-964.
Maranelli, G., and P. Apostoli. 1987. Assessment of renal function in lead poisoned workers. Occup. Environ. Chem. Hazards 344-348.
Marcus, W.L., and A,S. Rispin. 1988. Threshold carcinogenicity using arsenic as an example. Pp. 133-158 in Risk Assessment and Risk Management of Industrial and Environmental Chemicals. Vol. XV . Cothern C.R., M.A. Mehlman and W.L. Marcus, eds. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Scientific Publishing.
Marlowe, M,. A. Cossairt, C. Moon, J. Errera, A. MacNeel, R. Peak, J. Ray, and C. Schroeder. 1985. Main and interaction effects of metallic toxins on classroom behavior . J. Abnorm. Child Psychol. 13(2): 185-198.
Marsh, D.O., G.J. Myers, T.W. Clarkson, L. Amin-Zaki, S. Tikriti, and M.A. Majeed. 1980. Fetal methylmercury poisoning: Clinical and toxicological data on 29 cases. Ann. Neurol. 7(4): 348-353.
Marsh, D.O., G.J. Myers, T.W. Clarkson, L. Amin-Zaki, S. Tikriti, M.A. Majeed, and A.R. Dabbagh. 1981. Dose-response relationship for human fetal exposure to methylmercury . Clin. Toxicol. 18(11): 11311-1318.
Marsh, D.O., T.W. Clarkson, C. Cox, G.J. Myers, L. Amin-Zaki, and S. Al-Tikriti. 1987. Fetal methylmercury poisoning. Relationship between concentration in single strands of maternal hair and child effects. Arch. Neurol. 44(10): 1017-1022.
Marsh, D.O., M.D. Turner, J.C. Smith, P. Allen, and N. Richdale. 1995. Fetal methylmercury study in a Peruvian fish-eating population. Neurotoxicology 16(4): 717-726.
Matte, T.D., J.P. Figueroa, G. Burr, J.P. Flesch, R.A. Keenlyside, and E.L. Baker. 1989. Lead exposure among lead-acid battery workers in Jamaica. Am. J. Ind. Med. 16(2): 167-177.
Max, S.R., and E.K. Silbergeld. 1987. Skeletal muscle glucorticoid receptor and glutamine synthetase activity in the wasting syndrome of rats treated with 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 87: 523-527.
McCrady, J.K. 1994. Vapor-phase 2,3,7,8-TCDD sorption to plant foliage—a species comparison. Chemosphere 28(1): 207-216.
McCrady, J.K., and S.P. Maggard. 1993. Uptake and photodegradation of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin sorbed to grass foliage. Environ. Sci. Technol. 27(2): 343-350.
McKone, T.E. 1993. The precision of QSAR methods for estimating intermedia transfer factors in exposure assessments. SAR QSAR Environ. Res. 1: 41-51.
McKone, T.E., and J.I. Daniels. 1991. Estimating human exposure through multiple pathways from air, water, and soil. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 13(1): 36-61.
McKone, T.E., and P.B. Ryan. 1989. Human exposures to chemicals through food chains: An uncertainty analysis. Environ. Sci. Technol. 23: 1154-1163.
McLaughlin, D.L., R.G. Pearson, and R.E. Clement. 1989. Concentrations of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDD) and dibenzofurans (CDF) in soil from the vicinity of a large refuse incinerator in Hamilton, Ontario. Chemosphere 18: 851-854.
McMichael, A.J., G.V. Vimpani, E.F. Robertson, P.A. Baghurst, and P.D. Clark. 1986. The Port Pirie cohort study: Maternal blood lead and pregnancy outcome . J. Epidemiol. Commun. Health 40(1): 18-25.
Menaghan, E.G. 1989. Role changes and psychological well-being: Variations in effects by gender and role repertoire. Social Forces 67(3): 693-714.
Michelozzi, P., D. Fusco, F. Forastiere, C. Ancona, V. Dell'Orco, and C.A. Perucci. 1998. Small area study of mortality among people living near multiple sources of air pollution. Occup. Environ. Med. 55(9): 611-615.
Milne, J., A. Christophers, and P. De Silva. 1970. Acute mercurial pneumonitis. Br. J. Ind. Med. 27: 334-338.
Minar, D.W., and S. Greer. 1969. The Concept of Community: Readings with Interpretations. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company.
Mishonova, V.N., P. A. Stepanova, and V.V. Zarudin. 1980. Characteristics of the course of pregnancy and births in women with occupational contact with small concentrations of metallic mercury vapors in industrial facilities. Gig. Truda. Prof. Zabol. 24(2): 21-23.
MOEE (Ministry of the Environment). 1989. Upper Limits of Normal Contaminant Guidelines for Phytotoxicity Studies . ARB-138-88-Phyto. Toronto, Ontario.
Montgomery, L.E., and O. Carter-Pokras. 1993. Health status by social class and/or minority status: Implications for environmental equity research. Toxicol. Ind. Health. 9(5): 729-773.
Moore, R.E., C.F. Baes, III, L.M. McDowell-Boyer, A.P. Watson, F.O. Hoffman, J.C. Pleasant, and C.W. Miller. 1979. AIRDOS-EPA: A Computerized Methodology for Estimating Environmental Concentrations and Dose to Man from Airborne Releases of Radionuclides . ORNL-5532. Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
Morgan, M.G., and M. Henrion. 1990. Uncertainty: A Guide to Dealing with Uncertainty in Quantitative Risk and Policy Analysis. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Morgan, M.G., B. Fischhoff, A. Bostrom, L. Lave, and C. J. Atman. 1992. Communicating risk to the public. Environ. Sci. Technol. 26(11): 2048-2056.
Morrell, D. 1987. Siting and the politics of equity. Pp. 117-136 in Resolving Locational Conflict, R.W. Lake, ed. New Brunswick, N.J.: Center for Urban Policy Research. Reprinted from Hazardous Waste, 1984, 1: 555-571.
Morrell, D., and C. Magorian. 1982. Siting Hazardous Waste Facilities: Local Opposition and the Myth of Preemption. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger Publishing.
Morris, R.D., E.N. Naumova, and R.L. Munasinghe. 1995. Ambient air pollution and hospitalization for congestive heart failure among elderly people in seven large U.S. cities. Am. J. Public Health 85(10): 1361-1365.
Morton, W.E., and G.A. Caron. 1989. Encephalopathy: An uncommon manifestation of workplace arsenic poisoning? Am. J. Ind. Med. 15: 1-5.
Murphy, M.J., E.J. Culliford, and V. Parsons. 1979. A case of poisoning with mercuric chloride. Resuscitation 7(1): 35-44.
Murray, C.J.L., and A.D. Lopez. 1996. The Global Burden of Disease: A Comprehensive Assessment of Mortality and Disability from Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors in 1990 and Projected to 2020. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Murray, F.J., F.A. Smith, K.D. Nitschke, C.G. Humiston, R.J. Kociba, and B.A. Schwetz. 1979. Three-generation reproduction study of rats given 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the diet. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 50: 241-252.
Nakachi, K., K. Imai, S-I. Hayashi, J. Watanabe, and K. Kawajiri. 1991. Genetic susceptibility to squamous cell carcinoma of the lung in relation to cigarette smoking dose. Cancer Res. 51(19): 5177-5180.
Nakajima, D., Y. Yoshida, J. Suzuki, and S. Suzuki. 1995. Seasonal changes in the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in azalea leaves and relationship to atmospheric concentration. Chemosphere 30(3): 409-418.
National Conference of State Legislatures Environmental Justice Group . 1995. Environmental justice: A matter of perspective. Denver, Colo.: National Conference of State Legislatures.
Neas, L.M., D.W. Dockery, P. Koutrakis, D.J. Tollerud, and F.E. Speizer. 1995. The association of ambient air pollution with twice daily peak expiratory flow rate measurements in children. Am. J. Epidemiol. 141(2): 111-122.
Needleman, H.L. 1979. Lead levels and children's psychologic performance. N. Engl. J. Med. 1301(3): 163.
Needleman, H.L., and D.C. Bellinger. 1989. Type II fallacies in the study of childhood exposure to lead at low dose: A critical and quantitative review. In Lead Exposure and Child Development: An International Assessment. M. Smith, L.D. Grant, and A. Sors, eds. Lancaster, U.K.: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Needleman, H.L., M. Rabinowitz, A. Leviton, S. Linn, and S. Schoenbaum. 1984. The relationship between prenatal exposure to lead and congenital anomalies. JAMA 251: 2956-2959.
Neutra, R., J. Lipscomb, K. Satin, and D. Shusterman. 1991. Hypotheses to explain the higher symptom rates observed around hazardous waste sites. Environ. Health Perspect. 94: 31-38.
Ng, Y.C., C.S. Colsher, and S.E. Thompson. 1982. Transfer Coefficients for Assessing the Dose from Radionuclides in Meat and Eggs. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUREG/CR-2976.
NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 1995. NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation Report. HETA 90-0329-2482. New York City Department of Sanitation, New York, New York. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
Nordberg, G., S. Slorach, and T. Steinstrom. 1973. [Cadmium poisoning caused by a cooled-softdrink machine.] Lakartidingen 70: 601-604.
Nordberg, G.F., T. Kjellstrom, and M. Nordberg. 1985. Kinetics and metabolism. Pp. 103-178 in Cadmium and Health: A Toxicological and Epidemiological Appraisal. Vol. I. Exposure, Dose, and Metabolism. L. Friberg, C.G. Elinder, T. Kjellstrom, et al., eds. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press.
Novey, H.S., M. Habib, and I.D. Wells. 1983. Asthma and IgE antibodies induced by chromium and nickel salts. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 72(4): 407-412.
NRC (National Research Council). 1977. Medical and Biological Effects of Environmental Pollutants: Nitrogen Oxides. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 333pp.
NRC (National Research Council). 1982. Risk and Decision Making: Perspectives and Research. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
NRC (National Research Council). 1983. Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
NRC (National Research Council). 1988a. Complex Mixtures: Methods for In Vivo Toxicity Testing. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
NRC (National Research Council). 1988b. Acceptable Levels of Dioxin Contamination in an Office Building Following a Transformer Fire. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
NRC (National Research Council). 1989a. Improving Risk Communication. Washington, D.C: National Academy Press.
NRC (National Research Council). 1989b. Diet and Health: Implications for Reducing Chronic Disease Risk. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
NRC (National Research Council). 1991a. Environmental Epidemiology: Vol. 1, Public Health and Hazardous Wastes . Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
NRC (National Research Council). 1991b. Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants: Advances and Opportunities . Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
NRC (National Research Council). 1991c. Permissible Exposure Levels and Emergency Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Airborne Contaminants. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
NRC (National Research Council). 1992a. Biologic Markers in Immunotoxicology. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
NRC (National Research Council). 1992b. Environmental Neurotoxicology. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
NRC (National Research Council). 1993. Measuring Lead Exposure in Infants, Children, and Other Sensitive Populations. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
NRC (National Research Council). 1994. Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
NRC (National Research Council). 1995. Biologic Markers in Urinary Toxicology. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
NRC (National Research Council). 1996. Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
NRC (National Research Council). 1997. Environmental Epidemiology, Volume 2: Use of the Gray Literature and Other Data in Environmental Epidemiology. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
NRC (National Research Council). 1998. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter. I. Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
NRC (National Research Council). 1999a. Carbon Filtration for Reducing Emissions from Chemical Agent Incineration . Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
NRC (National Research Council). 1999b. Arsenic in Drinking Water. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
NRC (National Research Council). 1999c. Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter. II. Evaluating Research Progress and Updating the Portfolio. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
Nriagu, J.O. 1980. Cadmium in the Environment. Part I: Ecological Cycling. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Nriagu, J.O. 1990. Global metal pollution: Poisoning the biosphere? Environment 32(7): 7-11; 28-33.
NTP (National Toxicology Program). 1982a. Carcinogenesis Bioassay of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (CAS No 1746-01-6) in Swiss-Webster Mice (Dermal Study), Tech. Report No. 201. Bethesda, MD: Carcinogenesis Testing Program, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health. Reserch Triangle Park, NC: National Toxicology Program (NIH) DHHS 82-1757.
NTP (National Toxicology Program). 1982b. Carcinogenesis Bioassay of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (CAS No 1746-01-6) in Osborne-Mendel Rats and B6C3F1(Gavage Study), Tech. Report No. 209. Bethesda, MD: Carcinogenesis Testing Program, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health. Reserch Triangle Park, NC: National Toxicology Program (NIH) DHHS 82-1765.
NYSERDA (New York State Energy Research and Development Authority) . 1987. Results of the Combustion and Emissions Research Project at the Vicon Incinerator Facility in Pittsfield, Massachusetts. Final Report, #87-16. Prepared by Midwest Research Institute.
NYSERDA (New York State Energy Research and Development Authority) . 1989. Combustion and Emissions Testing at the Westchester County Solid Waste Incinerator. Volume 1 . Report No. NYSERDA-89-4-VOL-1. Prepared for NYSERDA by Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
NYSERDA (New York State Energy Research and Development Authority) . 1990. Combustion and Emissions Testing at the Oswego County Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator. Report No. NY-SERDA-90-10. Prepared for NYSERDA by Radian Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC.
O'Hare, M., L. S. Bacow, and D. Sanderson. 1983. Facility Siting and Public Opposition. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). 1996. Environmental Performance Reviews: United States. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Oldiges, H., D. Hochrainer, and U. Glaser. 1989. Long-term inhalation study with Wistar rats and four cadmium compounds . Toxicol. Environ. Chem. 19(3/4): 217-222.
Ong, C.N., G. Endo, K.S. Chia, et al. 1987. Evaluation of renal function in workers with low blood lead levels . Pp. 327-333 in Occupational and Environmental Chemical Hazards. V. Fao, E.A. Emmett , M. Maroni, et al., eds. Chinchester: Ellis Horwood Limited, 327-333.
Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toxics in Food Steering Committee. 1988. Polychlorinated Dibenz-p-dioxins and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans and other Organochlorine Contaminants in Food. Toronto.
Oreskes, N., K. Shrader-Frechette, and K. Belitz. 1994. Verification, validation, and confirmation of numerical models in the earth sciences. Science 263(5147): 641-646.
Organ, J.M. 1995. Limitations of state agency authority to adopt environmental standards more stringent than federal standards: Policy considerations and interpretive problems. Md. L. Rev. 54(4): 1373-1434.
Ostro, B. 1993. The association of air pollution and mortality: Examining the case for inference. Arch. Environ. Health 48(5): 336-342.
OTA (Office of Technology Assessment). 1990. Finding the Rx for Managing Medical Wastes. OTA-O-459. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Otway, H. 1987. Experts, risk communication, and democracy. Risk Anal. 7(2): 125-129.
Otway, H., and B. Wynne. 1989. Risk communication: Paradigm and paradox. Risk Anal. 9(2): 141-145.
Ozkaynak, H., and G.D. Thurston. 1987. Associations between 1980 U.S. mortality rates and alternative measures of airborne particle concentration. Risk Anal. 7(4): 449-461.
Pani, B., U. Laureni, N. Babudri, A. Collareta, S. Venturini, R. Ferri, M. Carozzi, F. Burlini, and C. Monti-Bragadin. 1983. Mutagenicity test of extracts of airborne dust from the municipal incinerator of Trieste. Environ. Mutagen. 5: 23-32.
Pasquill, F. 1961. The estimation of the dispersion of windborne material. Meteorol. Mag. 90(1063): 33-49.
Pastides, H., R. Austin, S. Lemeshow, et al. 1991. An Epidemiological Study of Occidental Chemical Corporations Castle Hayne Chromate Production Facility. Occupational Epidemiology Unit, Univ. Mass. School of Public Health .
Paterson, S., and D. Mackay. 1991. Correlation of the equilibrium and kinetics of leaf-air exchange of hydrophobic organic chemicals. Environ. Sci. Technol. 25(5): 866-871.
Paterson, S., W.Y. Shiu, D. Mackay, and J.D. Phyper. 1990. Dioxins from combustion processes: Environmental fate and transport . Pp. 405-423 in Emissions from Combustion Processes: Origin, Measurement, Control , R. Clement, and R. Kagel, eds. Boca Raton, Fla.: Lewis.
Paterson, S., D. Mackay, and C. McFarlane. 1994. A model of organic chemical uptake by plants from soil and the atmosphere . Environ. Sci. Technol. 28(13): 2259-2266.
Pavlova, T.E. 1976. Disorders in the development of offspring following exposure of rats to hydrogen chloride. Biull Eksp Biol Med. 82(7): 866-8.
Payne, B.A., S.J. Olshansky, and T.E. Segel. 1987. The effects on property-values of proximity to a site contaminated with radioactive-waste. Nat. Resour. J. 27(3): 579-590.
Petruzzelli, S., A.M. Camus, L. Carrozzi, L. Ghelarducci, M. Rindi, G. Menconi, C.A. Angeletti, M. Ahotupa, E. Hietanen, A. Aitio, R. Saracci, H. Bartsch, and C. Giuntini. 1988. Long-lasting effects of tobacco smoking on pulmonary drug-metabolizing enzymes: A case-control study on lung cancer patients. Cancer Res. 48(16): 4695-4700.
Piikivi, L. 1989. Cardiovascular reflexes and low long-term exposure to mercury vapor . Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 61: 391-395.
Piikivi, L., and A. Ruokonen. 1989. Renal function and long-term low mercury vapor exposure. Arch. Environ. Health 44(3): 146-149.
Pirkle, J.L., J. Schwartz, J.R. Landis, and W.R. Harlan. 1985. The relationship between blood lead levels and blood pressure and its cardiovascular risk implications. Am. J. Epidemiol. 121(2): 246-258.
Pirkle, J.L., L.L. Needham, and K. Sexton. 1995. Improving exposure assessment by monitoring human tissues for toxic chemicals. J. Expo. Anal. Environ. Epidemiol. 5(3): 405-424.
Pocock, S.J., D. Ashby, and M.A. Smith. 1989. Lead exposure and children's intellectual performance: The Institute of Child Health/Southampton Study. Pp. 149-165 in Lead Exposure and Child Development: An International Assessment. M.A. Smith, L .D. Grant, and A.I. Sors, eds. Lancaster, U.K.: Kluwer Academic.
Pollock, C.A., and L.S. Ibels. 1986. Lead intoxication in paint removal workers on the Sidney Harbour Bridge. Med. J. Aust. 145: 635-639.
Pope, C.A., III, D.W. Dockery, J.D. Spengler, and M.E. Raizenne. 1991. Respiratory health and PM10 pollution: A daily time series analysis . Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 144(3): 668-674.
Pope, C.A., III, J. Schwartz, and M.R. Ransom. 1992. Daily mortality and PM10 pollution in Utah Valley. Environ. Res. 47(3): 211-217.
Pope, C.A., III, M.J. Thun, M.M. Namboodiri, D.W. Dockery, J.S. Evans, F.E. Speizer, and C.W. Heath, Jr. 1995. Particulate air pollution as a predictor of mortality in a prospective study of U.S. adults. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 151(3 Pt. 1): 669-674.
Poplin, D.E. 1972. Communities: A Survey of Theories and Methods of Research. New York: Macmillan.
Porcella, D.B. 1990. Mercury in the environment. EPRI J. April/May: 46-49.
Porcella, D.B. 1994. Mercury in the environment: Biogeochemistry. Pp. 3-19 in Mercury Pollution Integration and Synthesis. Boca Raton, Fla: Lewis Publishers.
Portney, K.E. 1991. Siting Hazardous Waste Treatment Facilities: The Nimby Syndrome. New York: Auburn House.
Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management. 1997. Framework for Environmental Health Risk Management. Final Report.
Pueschel, S.M., L. Kopito, and H. Schwachman. 1972. Children with an increased lead burden: A screening and follow-up study. JAMA 222: 462-466.
Raiffa, H., W. Schwartz, and M. Weinstein. 1977. On evaluating health effects of societal programs in Volume IIb , Decision Making in the Environmental Protection Agency: Selected Working Papers. Commission on Natural Resources of the National Academy of Sciences . Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
Raizenne, M., L.M. Neas, A.I. Damokosh, D.W. Dockery, J.D. Spengler, P. Koutrakis, J.H. Ware, and F.E. Speizer. 1996. Health effects of acid aerosols on North American children: Pulmonary function. Environ. Health Perspect. 104(5): 506-514.
Ramos, L., E. Eljarrat, L.M. Hernandez, L. Alonso, J. Rivera, and M.J. Gonzalez. 1997. Levels of PCDDs and PCDFs in farm cow's milk located near potential contaminant sources in Asturias (Spain). Comparison with levels found in control, rural farms and commercial pasteurized cow's milks. Chemosphere 35(10): 2167-2179.
Rao, M.S., V. Subbarao, J.D. Prasad, and D.G. Scarpelli. 1988. Carcinogenicity of 2,3,7,8-tetra-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the Syrian golden hamster. Carcinogenesis 9(9): 1677-1679.
Rapiti, E., A. Sperati, V. Fano, V. Dell'Orco, and F. Forastiere. 1997. Mortality among workers at municipal waste incinerators in Rome: A retrospective cohort study. Am. J. Ind. Med. 31(5): 659-661.
Rau, J.G., and D.C. Wooten. 1980. Socioeconomic impact analysis. In Environmental Impact Analysis Handbook , J.G. Rau, and D.C. Wooten, eds. New York: McGraw Hill.
Rawls, J. 1971. A Theory of Justice. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Reitze, A.W., Jr., and A.N. Davis. 1993. Regulating municipal solid waste incinerators under the clean air act: History, technology and risks. 21 B. C. Environ. Aff. L. Rev. 1.
Renn, O., and D. Levine. 1991. Credibility and trust in risk communication. Pp. 175-218 in Communicating Risks to the Public: International Perspectives, R.E. Kasperson, and P.J.M. Stallen , eds. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.
Reuber, B., D. Mackay, S. Paterson, and P. Stokes. 1987. A discussion of chemical equilibria and transport at the sediment-water interface. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 6(10): 731-740.
Richey, G. W. 1995. Compliance Strategies for Employee Exposures to Lead and Cadmium at Modular Mass Burn Municipal Incinerators. Presented at the 1995 American Industrial Hygiene Conference and Exposition, May, 1995, Kansas City, MO.
Rickson, R.E., R.J. Burdge, T. Hundloe, and G.T. MacDonald. 1990. Institutional constraints to adoption of social impact assessment as a decision-making and planning tool. Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. 10(1-2): 233-243.
Riederer, M. 1990. Estimating partitioning and transport of organic chemicals in the foliage/atmosphere system: Discussion of a fugacity-based model. Environ. Sci. Technol. 24(6): 829-837.
Robinson, G., S. Baumann, D. Kleinbaum, C. Barton, S. Schroeder, P. Mushak, and D. Otto. 1985. Effects of low to moderate lead exposure on brainstem auditory evoked potentials in children. Pp. 177-182 in Neurobehavioural Methods in Occupational and Environmental Health: Extended abstracts from the Second International Symposium, Copenhagen, 6-9 August 1985. Copenhagen: World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe.
Rodamilans, M., M.J. Osaa, J. To-Figueras, F. Rivera Fillat, J.M. Marques, P. Perez, and J. Corbella. 1988. Lead toxicity on endocrine testicular function in an occupationally exposed population. Hum. Toxicol. 7(2): 125-128.
Roels, H.A., and R. Lauwerys. 1987. Evaluation of dose-effect and dose-response relationships for lead exposure in different Belgian population groups (fetus, child, adult men and women). Trace Elem. Med. 4: 80-87.
Roels, H.A., R. Lauwerys, and A.N. Dardenne. 1983. The critical level of cadmium in human renal cortex: A re-evaluation . Toxicol. Lett. 15: 357-360.
Roemer, W., G. Hoek, and B. Brunekreef. 1993. Effect of ambient winter air pollution on respiratory health of children with chronic respiratory symptoms. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 147(1): 118-124.
Rom, W.N. 1992. Pp. 745-746 in Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 2nd Ed., W.N. Rom, ed. Boston: Little, Brown, and Co.
Ross, R.K., J.M. Yuan, M.C. Yu, G.N. Wogan, G.S. Qian, J.T. Tu, J.D. Groopman, Y.T. Gao, and B.E. Henderson. 1992. Urinary aflatoxin biomarkers and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma . Lancet 339(8799): 943-946.
Rossman, M.D., J.A. Kern, J.A. Elias, M.R. Cullen, P.E. Epstein, O.P. Preuss, T.N. Markham, and R.P. Daniele. 1988. Proliferative response of bronchoalveolar lymphocytes to beryllium. A test for chronic beryllium disease. Ann. Intern. Med. 108(5): 687-693. (Published erratum appears in Ann. Intern. Med. 1989, Apr. 15 ; 110(8) 672.)
Ruckelshaus, W.D. 1985. Risk, science, and democracy. Issues Sci. Technol. 1(3): 19-38.
Rummo, J.H. 1974. Intellectual and behavioral effects of lead poisoning in children . Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina. University Microfilms, Ann Arbor MI, Publication No. 74-26-930.
Rummo, J.H., D.K. Routh, N.J. Rummo, and J.F. Brown. 1979. Behavioral and neurological effects of symptomatic and asymptomatic lead exposure in children. Arch. Environ. Health 34(2): 120-124.
Rusch, G.M., J.S. O'Grodnick, and W.E. Rinehart. 1986. Acute inhalation study in the rat of comparative uptake, distribution and excretion for different cadmium containing materials. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 47(12) : 754-763.
Russell, C.S. 1990. Monitoring and enforcement. Pp. 243-274 in Public Policies for Environmental Protection, P.R. Portney, R.C. Dower, A.M. Freeman III, C.S. Russell, and M. Shapiro, eds. Washington, D.C.: Resources for the Future.
Sabljic, J., H. Güsten, J. Schönherr, and M. Riederer. 1990. Modeling plant uptake of airborne organic chemicals. 1. Plant cuticle/water partitioning and molecular connectivity. Environ. Sci. Technol. 24(9): 1321-1326.
Saenger, P., M.E. Markowitz, and J.F. Rosen. 1984. Depressed excretion of 6 beta-hydroxycortisol in lead-toxic children . J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 58(2): 363-367.
Saldiva, P.H., A.J. Lichtenfels, P.S. Paiva, I.A. Barone, M.A. Martins, E. Massad, J.C. Pereira, V.P. Xavier, J.M. Singer, and G.M. Bohm. 1994. Association between air pollution and mortality due to respiratory diseases in children in Sao Paulo, Brazil: A preliminary report. Environ. Res. 65(2): 218-225.
Samet, J.M., and M.J. Utell. 1990. The risk of nitrogen dioxide: What have we learned from epidemiological and clinical studies? Toxicol. Ind. Health 6(2): 247-262.
Samuels, E.R., H.M. Heick, P.N. McLaine, and J.P. Farant. 1982. A case of accidental inorganic mercury poisoning. J. Anal. Toxicol. 6(3): 120-122.
Sandman, P.M. 1985. Getting to maybe: Some communication aspects of siting hazardous waste facilities. Seton Hall Legislative J. 9: 437-465.
Sassi, C. 1956. Occupational pathology in a chromate plant. Med. Lav. 47(5): 314-327.
Scarlett, J.M., J.G. Babish, J.T. Blue, S.E. Voekler, and D.J. Lisk. 1990. Urinary mutagens in municipal refuse incinerator workers and water treatment workers. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 31: 11-27.
Schaum, J., D. Cleverly, M. Lorber et al. 1994. Updated analysis of U.S. sources of dioxin-like compounds and background exposure levels. Organohalogen Compounds 20: 178-184.
Schecter, A., R. Malkin, O. Papke, M. Ball, and P.W. Brandt-Rauf. 1991. Dioxin levels in blood of municipal incinerator workers. Med. Sci. Res. 19(11): 331-332.
Schecter, A., J.J. Ryan, Y. Masuda, P. Brandt-Rauf, J. Constable, H.D. Cau, L.C. Dai, H.T. Quynh, N.T.N. Phuong, and P.H. Phiet. 1994. Chlorinated and brominated dioxins and dibenzofurans in human tissue following exposure. Environ. Health Perspect. 102(Suppl. 1): 135-147.
Scheringer, M. 1996. Persistence and spatial range as endpoints of an exposure-based assessment of organic chemicals. Environ. Sci. Technol. 30: 1652-1659.
Schnoor, J.J., and D.C. McAvoy. 1981. Pesticide Transport and Bioconcentration Model. J. Environ. Eng. Div. ASCE 107(EE6): 1229-1246.
Schreiber, L., and J. Schönherr. 1992. Uptake of organic chemicals in conifer needles: Surface adsorption and permeability of cuticles. Environ. Sci. Technol. 26: 153-159.
Schroeder, S.R., and B. Hawk. 1987. Psycho-social factors, lead exposure, and IQ. Monogr. Am. Assoc. Ment. Defic. 8: 97-137.
Schroeder, W.H., and F. J. Fanaki. 1988. Field measurement of water-air exchange of mercury in freshwater systems. Environ. Technol. Lett. 9(5): 369-374.
Schroeder, W.H., M. Dobson, D.M. Kane, and N.D. Johnson. 1987. Toxic trace elements associated with airborne particulate matter: A review. J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 37(11): 1267-1285.
Schuhmacher, M., S. Granero, A. Xifro, J.L. Domingo, J. Rivera, and E. Eljarrat. 1998. Levels of PCDD/Fs in soil samples in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste incinerator. Chemosphere 37(9-12): 2127-2137.
Schwartz, J. 1988. The relationship between blood lead and blood pressure in the NHANES II survey. Environ. Health Perspect. 78: 15-22.
Schwartz, J. 1991. Particulate air pollution and daily mortality: A synthesis. Public Health Rev. 19(1-4): 39-60.
Schwartz, J. 1993. Air pollution and daily mortality in Birmingham, Alabama. Am. J. Epidemiol. 137(10): 1136-1147.
Schwartz, J. 1994a. Air pollution and daily mortality: A review and meta analysis. Environ. Res. 64(1) : 36-52.
Schwartz, J. 1994b. Air pollution and hospital admissions for the elderly in Birmingham, Alabama. Am. J. Epidemiol. 139(6): 589-598.
Schwartz, J. 1994c. Air pollution and hospital admissions for the elderly in Detroit, Michigan. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 150(3): 648-655.
Schwartz, J. 1994d. PM10, ozone and hospital admissions for the elderly in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota. Arch. Environ. Health 49(5): 366-374.
Schwartz, J., and R. Levin. 1992. Lead: Example of the job ahead. EPA J. 18(1): 42-44.
Schwartz, J., and D.A. Otto. 1987. Blood lead, hearing thresholds, and neurobehavioral development in children and youth. Arch. Environ. Health 42: 153-160.
Schwartz, J., D. Wypij, D. Dockery, J. Ware, S. Zeger, J. Spengler, and B. Ferris, Jr. 1991. Daily diaries of respiratory symptoms and air pollution: Methodological issues and results. Environ. Health Perspect. 90: 181-187.
Schwartz, J., D.W. Dockery, L.M. Neas, D. Wypij, J.H. Ware, J.D. Spengler, P. Koutrakis, F.E. Speizer, and B.G. Ferris, Jr. 1994. Acute effects of summer air pollution on respiratory symptom reporting in children. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 150(5 Pt. 1): 1234-1242.
Schwarz, M., and M. Thompson. 1990. Divided We Stand: Redefining Politics, Technology, and Social Choice . Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Sellakumar, A.R., C.A.Snyder, J.J. Solomon, and R.E. Albert. 1985. Carcinogenicity of formaldehyde and hydrogen chloride in rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 81(3 Pt. 1): 401-6.
Seppäläinen, A.M., S. Hernberg, R. Vesanto, and B. Kock. 1983. Early neurotoxic effects of occupational lead exposure: A prospective study. NeuroToxicology 4(2): 181-192.
Sexton, D.J., J.C. Smith, K.E. Powell, T.W. Clarkson, J. Liddle, and A. Smrek. 1978. A nonoccupational outbreak of inorganic mercury vapor poisoning. Arch. Environ. Health 33(4): 186-191.
Sexton, K., D.K. Wagener, S.G. Selevan, T.O. Miller, and J.A. Lybarger. 1994. An inventory of human exposure-related data bases. J. Expo. Anal. Environ. Epidemiol. 4(1): 95-109.
Seyfrit, C. L. 1988. A need for post-impact and policy studies: The case of the “Shetland experience”. Sociol. Inquiry 58(2): 206-215.
Shigematsu, I. 1984. The epidemeological approach to cadmium pollution in Japan. Ann. Acad. Med. Singapore 13: 231-236.
Shy, C.M., D. Degnan, D.L. Fox, S. Mukerjee, M.J. Hazucha, B.A. Boehlecke, D. Rothenbacher, P.M. Briggs, R.B. Devlin, D.D. Wallace, R.K. Stevens, and P.A. Bromberg. 1995. Do waste incinerators induce adverse respiratory effects? An air quality and epidemiological study of six communities. Environ. Health Perspect. 103(7-8): 714-724.
Sieber, S.D. 1974. Toward a theory of role accumulation. Am. Sociol. Rev. 39(4): 567-578.
Siebert, P.C., D.R. Alston, J.F. Walsh, and K.H. Jones. 1988. Effect of Control Equipment and Operating Parameters on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Incinerator Trace Emissions. Paper No. 88-98.3 presented at the 81st Annual Meeting of APCA, June 19-24, 1988, Dallas, TX.
Simonich, S.L., and R.A. Hites. 1994a. Importance of vegetation in removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the atmosphere. Nature 370(6484): 49-51.
Simonich, S.L., and R.A. Hites. 1994b. Vegetation—atmosphere partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Environ. Sci. Technol. 28(5): 939-943.
Simonich, S.L., and R.A. Hites. 1995. Global distribution of persistent organochlorine compounds. Science 269(5232): 1851-1854.
Slob, W., O. Klepper, and J.A. van Jaarsveld. 1993. A Chain Model for Dioxins: From Emission to Cow's Milk. Report No. 730501039. National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
Slovic, P. 1987. Perception of risk. Science 236: 280-285.
Slovic, P. 1993. Perceived risk, trust, and democracy. Risk Anal. 13(6): 675-681.
Slovic, P., B. Fischoff, and S. Lichtenstein. 1982. Rating the risks: The structure of expert and lay perceptions. Pp. 141-166 in Risk in the Technological Society, C. Hohenemser and J.X. Kasperson , eds. Boulder, Colo.: Westview.
Slovic, P., M. Layman, and J.H. Flynn. 1991. Risk perception, trust, and nuclear waste: Lessons from Yucca Mountain . Environment 33(3) : 6-11; 28-30.
Slovic, P., J. Flynn, and R. Gregory. 1994. Stigma happens: Social problems in the siting of nuclear waste facilities . Risk Anal. 14(5): 773 -777.
Smolen, G.E., G. Moore, and L.V. Conway. 1992. Hazardous waste landfill impacts on local property values. Real Estate Appraiser 58(1): 4-11.
Sobel, W., G.G. Bond, C.L. Baldwin, and D.J. Ducommun. 1988. An update of respiratory cancer and occupational exposure to arsenicals . Am. J. Ind. Med. 13: 263-270.
Soni, J.P., R.U. Singhania, A. Bansa, et al. 1992. The uptake of methylmercury (203 Hg) in different tissues related to its neurotoxic effects. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 187: 602-611.
Sovocool, G.W., J.R. Donnelly, W.D. Munslow, T.L. Vonnahme, N.J. Nunn, Y. Tondeur, and R.K. Mitchum. 1989. Analysis of municipal incinerator fly ash for bromo- and bromochlorodioxins, dibenzofurans, and related compounds. Chemosphere 18(1-6): 193-200.
Speizer, F.E. 1989. Studies of acid aerosols in six cities and in a new multi-city investigation: Design issues. Environ. Health Perspect. 79: 61-67.
Speizer, F.E. 1999. Acid sulfate aerosols and health. Pp. 603-616 in Air Pollution and Health, S.T. Holgate , H.S. Koren, J.M. Samet, and R.L. Maynard, eds. San Diego: Academic Press.
Spengler, J.D., D.W. Dockery, W.A. Turner, J.M. Wolfson, and B.G. Ferris, Jr. 1981. Long-term measurements of respirable sulphates and particles inside and outside homes. Atmos. Environ. 15: 23-30.
Stanley, J.S., K.E. Boggess, J. Onstot, T.M. Sack, J.C. Remmers, J. Breen, F.W. Kurz, J. Carra, P. Robinson, and G.A. Mack. 1986. PCDDS and PCDFS in human adipose tissue from the EPA FY82 NHATS repository . Chemosphere 15(9-12): 1605-1612.
Steenland, K., and L. Stayner. 1997. Silica, asbestos, man-made mineral fibers, and cancer. Cancer Causes Control 8(3): 491-503.
Steenland, K., and E. Ward. 1991. Lung cancer incidence among patients with beryllium disease: A cohort mortality study. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 83(19): 1380-1385.
Stern, F.B., W.E. Halperin, R.W. Hornung, V.L. Ringenburg, and C.S. McCammon. 1988. Heart disease mortality among bridge and tunnel officers exposed to carbon monoxide. Am. J. Epidemiol. 128(6): 1276-1288.
Steverson, E.M. 1994. The U.S. approach to incinerator regulation. Pp. 113-135 in Waste Incineration and the Environment, R.E. Hester and R.M. Harrison, eds. Cambridge, U.K.: Royal Society of Chemistry.
Stieglitz, L., and H. Vogg. 1987. On formation conditions of PCDD/PCDF in fly ash from municipal waste incinerators. Chemosphere 16(8-9): 1917-1922.
Stokinger, H.E. 1981. The halogens and nonmetals boron and silicon. Pp. 2937-3043 in Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, Vol. IIB. , 3rd. Ed., G.D. Clayton, and F.E. Clayton, eds. New York: John Wiley & Son.
Stone, R. 1995. Dioxin receptor knocked out. Science 268: 638-639.
Struempler, R.E., G.E. Larson, and B. Rimland. 1985. Hair mineral analysis and disruptive behavior in clinically normal young men. J. Learn. Disabil. 18(10): 609-612.
Stubbs, K.P. 1993. The Impact of the GVRD Municipal Refuse Incinerator Emissions on Ambient Air Quality. Paper 93-RA-120.03 in the Proceedings of the 86th Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association. Pittsburgh, PA.: Air & Waste Management Association.
Stubbs, K.P., and O. Knizek. 1993. The Impact of the GVRD Municipal Refuse Incinerator Emissions on Regional Soils and Vegetation. Paper 93-RA-120.04 in the Proceedings of the 86th Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association. Pittsburgh, PA.: Air & Waste Management Association.
Studnicka, M.J., T. Frischer, R. Meinert, A. Studnicka-Benke, K. Hajek, J.D. Spengler, and M.G. Neumann. 1995. Acidic particles and lung function in children. A summer camp study in the Austrian Alps. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 151(2 Pt. 1): 423-430.
Sudol, F. 1994. The Newark Experience: A Case Study in Newark, New Jersey's Recycling Program. Presented at the Manhattan Citizens' Solid Waste Advisory Board Meeting, New York , N.Y., December 7, 1994.
Suskind, R.R., and V.S. Hertzberg. 1984. Human health effects of 2,4,5-T and its toxic contaminants. JAMA 251: 2372-2380.
Susskind, L., and J.L. Cruikshank. 1987. Breaking the Impasse: Consensual Approaches to Resolving Public Disputes . New York: Basic Books.
Takenaka, S., H. Oldiges, H. Konig, D. Hochrainer, and G. Oberdorster. 1983. Carcinogenicity of cadmium chloride aerosols in W rats. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 70(2): 367-373.
Tarlock, A.D. 1987. State versus local control of hazardous waste facility siting: Who decides in whose backyard? Pp. 137-158 in Resolving Locational Conflict, R.W. Lake, ed. New Brunswick, N.J.: Center for Urban Policy Research. Reprinted from Zoning and Planning Law Report, 1984. New York: Clark Boardman.
Taueg, C., D.J. Sanfilippo, B. Rowens, J.Szejda, and J.L. Hesse. 1992. Acute and chronic poisoning from residential exposures to elemental mercury—Michigan, 1989-1990. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. 30(1): 63-67.
Taylor, F.H. 1966. The relationship of mortality and duration of employment as reflected by a cohort of chromate workers. Am. J. Public Health 56: 218-229.
ten Bruggen Cate, H.J. 1968. Dental erosion in industry. Br. J. Ind. Med. 25(4): 249-266.
Tennant, R., H.J. Johnston, and J.B. Wells. 1961. Acute bilateral pneumonitis associated with the inhalation of mercury vapor: Report of five cases. Conn. Med. 25(2): 106-109.
Theelen, R.M.C. 1991. Modeling of human exposure to TCDD and I-TEQ in the Netherlands: Background and occupational. Pp. 277-288 in Banbury Report, 35. Biological Basis for Risk Assessment of Dioxin and Related Compounds, M.A. Gallo, R.J. Scheuplein, and K.A. Van Der Heijden, eds. Plainview, N.Y.: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
Thoits, P.A. 1983. Multiple identities and psychological well-being: A reformulation and test of the social isolation hypothesis. Am. Sociol. Rev. 48(2): 174-187.
Thomas, K.W., E.D. Pellizzari, C.A. Clayton, D.A. Whitaker, R.C. Shores, J. Spengler, H. Ozkaynak, S.E. Froehlich, and L.A. Wallace. 1993. Particle Total Exposure Assessment Methodology (PTEAM) 1990 study: Method performance and data quality for personal, indoor, and outdoor monitoring. J. Expo. Anal. Environ. Epidemiol. 3(2): 203-226.
Thun, M.J., T.M. Schnorr, A.B. Smith, W.E. Halperin, and R.A. Lemen. 1985. Mortality among a cohort of U.S. cadmium production workers—an update. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 74(2): 325-333.
Thurston, G. 1996. A critical review of PM10-mortality time-series studies. J. Expos. Anal. Environ. Epidemiol. 6(1): 3-21.
Thurston, G.D., K. Ito, P.L. Kinney, and M. Lippmann. 1992. A multi-year study of air pollution and respiratory hospital admissions in three New York State metropolitan areas: Results for 1988 and 1989 summers. J. Expos. Anal. Environ. Epidemiol. 2(4): 429-450.
Thurston, G.D., K. Ito, C.G. Hayes, D.V. Bates, and M. Lippmann. 1994. Respiratory hospital admissions and summertime haze air pollution in Toronto, Ontario: Consideration of the role of acid aerosols. Environ. Res. 65(2): 271-290.
TNRCC (Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission). 1995. Critical Evaluation of the Potential Impact of Emissions from Midlothian Industries. Toxicology Risk Assessment Section, Office of Air Quality, Austin.
Tolls, J., and M.S. McLachlan. 1994. Partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds between air and Lolium multiflorum (Welsh ray grass). Environ. Sci. Technol. 28(10: 159-166.
Topp, E., I. Scheunert, A. Attar, and F. Korte. 1986. Factors affecting the uptake of carbon-14 labeled organic chemicals by plants from soil. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 11(2): 219-228.
Toth, K., S. Somfai-Relle, J. Sugar, and J. Bence. 1979. Carcinogenicity testing of herbicide 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy ethanol containing dioxin and of pure dioxin in Swiss mice. Nature 278(5704): 548-549.
Townshend, R.H. 1982. Acute cadmium pneumonitits: A 17-year follow-up. Br. J. Ind. Med. 39: 411-412.
Trapp, S. and M. Matthies. 1997. Modeling volatilization of PCDD/F from soil and uptake into vegetation . Environ. Sci. Technol. 31(1): 71-74.
Trapp, S., M. Matthies, I. Scheunert, and E.M. Topp. 1990. Modeling the bioconcentration of organic chemicals in plants. Environ. Sci. Technol. 24: 1246-1252.
Travis, C.C., and A.D. Arms. 1988. Bioconcentration of organics in beef, milk, and vegetation. Environ. Sci. Technol. 22(3): 271-274.
Travis, C.C, and B.P. Blaylock. 1992. Validation of terrestrial food chain models. J. Expo. Anal. Environ. Epidemiol. 2(2): 221-239.
Travis, C.C., and S.C. Cook. 1989. Hazardous Waste Incineration and Human Health. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC.
Travis, C.C., and H.A. Hattemer-Frey. 1987. Human exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Chemosphere 16(10-12): 2331-2343.
Travis, C.C., and H.A. Hattemer-Frey. 1988. Uptake of organics by aerial plant parts: A call for research. Chemosphere 17(2): 277-284.
Travis, C.C., and S.T. Hester. 1991. Global chemical pollution. Environ. Sci. Technol. 25(5): 814-819.
Trenholm, A.R., and R. Thurnau. 1987. Total mass emissions from a hazardous waste incinerator. Pp. 304-317 in Land Disposal, Remedial Action, Incineration and Treatment of Hazardous Waste: Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Research Symposium, Cincinnati, Ohio, May 6-8, 1987. Report No. EPA/600/9-87/015. U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development, Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH.
Trenholm, A., P. Gjorman, and G. Jungclaus. 1984. Performing Evaluation of Full-Scale Hazardous Waste Incinerators, Vols. 1-5 . EPA/600/2-84/181a-3. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory, Cincinnati,Ohio.
Troen, P., S.A. Kaufman, and K.H. Katz. 1951. Mercuric bichloride poisoning. N. Engl. J. Med. 244: 459-463.
Tsubaki, T., and H. Takahashi. 1986. Recent Advances in Minamata Disease Studies: Methylmercury poisoning in Minamata and Niigata, Japan. Tokyo: Kodansha.
Turner, D.B. 1970. Workbook of Atmospheric Dispersion Estimates. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Programs, Research Triangle Park, N.C.
Tversky, A., and D. Kahneman. 1991. Loss aversion and riskless choice: A reference-dependent model. Q. J. Econ. 106(4): 1039-1061.
U.K. Ministry of Health. 1954. Mortality and morbidity during the London fog of December 1952. Report by a committee of departmental officers and expert advisers appointed by the Minister of Health. Report on public health and medical subjects; v95. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
U.S. Congress, House of Representatives. 1994. Public Health Impacts of Incineration, Hearings Before the Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations Subcommittee of the House Committee on Governmental Operations, 103d Cong., 2d Sess.
United Church of Christ Commission for Racial Justice. 1987. Toxic Wastes and Race in the United States: A National Report on the Racial and Socio-economic Characteristics of Communities with Hazardous Waste Sites. New York: Public Data Access: Inquiries to the Commission.
Urabe, H., H. Koda, and M. Asahi. 1979. Present state of yusho patients. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 320: 273-276.
USNRC (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission). 1975. Reactor Safety Study: an Assessment of Accident Risks in U.S. Commercial Nuclear Power Plants. WASH-1400 (NUREG-75-014). Washington, D.C.
USNRC (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission). 1977. Regulatory Guide 1.109, Calculation of Annual Doses to Man from Routine Releases of Reactor Effluents for the Purpose of Evaluating Compliance with 10 CFR Part 50 appendix I (Revision 1). Office of Standards Development.
Utell, M.J., P.E. Morrow, D.M. Speers, J. Darling, and R.W. Hyde. 1983. Airway responses to sulfate and sulfuric acid aerosols in asthmatics. An exposure-response relationship. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 128(3): 444-450.
Van Miller, J.P., J.J. Lalich, and J.R. Allen. 1977. Increased incidence of neoplasms in rats exposed to low levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Chemosphere 9: 537-544.
Van Ordstrand, H.S., R. Hughes, J.M. DeNardi, and M.G. Carmody. 1945. Beryllium poisoning. JAMA 129(16): 1084-1090.
Verschoor, M., A. Wibowo, R. Herber, J. van Hemmen, and R. Zielhuis. 1987. Influence of occupational low-level lead exposure on renal parameters . Am. J. Ind. Med. 12(4): 341-351.
Verschueren, K. 1983. Handbook of Environmental Data on Organic Chemicals. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Visalli, J.R. 1987. A comparison of dioxin, furan and combustion gas data from test programs at three MSW incinerators. JAPCA 37(12): 1451-63.
Vogg, H., H. Hunsinger, A. Merz, and L. Stieglitz. 1992. Influencing the production of dioxin-furan in solid waste incineration plants by measures affecting the combustion as well as the flue gas cleaning systems. Chemosphere 25(1-2): 149-152.
Von Winterfeldt, D., and W. Edwards. 1984. Patterns of conflict about risky technologies. Risk Anal. 4(1) : 55-68.
Vroom, F.Q., and M. Greer. 1972. Mercury vapour intoxication. Brain 95(2): 305-318.
Walsh, E., R. Warland, and D.C. Smith. 1993. Backyards, NIMBYs, and incinerator sitings: Implications for social movement theory. Soc. Probl. 40(1): 25-38.
Wang, J.Y., T.R. Hsiue, and H.I. Chen. 1992. Bronchial responsiveness in an area of air pollution resulting from wire reclamation. Arch. Dis. Child. 67(4): 488-490.
Wania, F., and D. Mackay. 1993. Global fractionation and cold condensation of low volatility organochlorine compounds in polar regions. Ambio 22(1): 10-18.
Warkany, J., and D.M. Hubbard. 1953. Acrodynia and mercury. J. Pediatr. 42: 365-386.
Waste-Tech (Waste Energy Technologies). 1991. The New York City Medical Waste Management Study, Task 4 Final Report: The New York City Medical Waste Management Plan. Prepared by Waste Energies Technologies, Houston, TX - New York, New York for The City of New York, New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation.
Watson, J.G., C.F. Rogers, and J.C. Chow. 1995. PM10 and PM2.5 Variations in Time and Space. Report No. 4204.1F. Prepared for TRC Environmental Corporation, Chapel Hill, N.C., by Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV.
Weast, R.C., M.J. Astle, and W.H. Beyer, eds. 1986. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics: A Ready Reference Book of Chemical and Physical Data, 67th ed. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press.
Webster, T., and P. Connett. 1998. Dioxin emission inventories and trends: The importance of large point sources. Chemosphere 37(9-12): 2105-2118.
Weden, R.P., D.K. Mallik, and V. Batuman. 1979. Detection and treatment of occupational lead nephropathy. Arch. Intern. Med. 139: 53-57.
Weinstein, N. 1988. Attitudes of the Public and the Department of Environmental Protection Toward Environmental Hazards. New Brunswick, N.J.: Department of Human Ecology and Psychology, Rutgers University.
Wernette, D.R., and L.A. Nieves. 1992. Breathing Polluted Air. EPA J. 18(1): 16-17.
Whicker, F.W., and T.B. Kirchner. 1987. Pathway: A dynamic food-chain model to predict radio-nuclide ingestion after fallout deposition. Health Phys. 52(6): 717-737.
Whitby, K.T. 1978. The physical characteristics of sulfur aerosols. Atmos. Environ 12: 135-159.
WHO (World Health Organization). 1995. Update and Revision of the Air Quality Guidelines for Europe. Meeting of the Working Group “Classical” Air Pollutants, Bilthoven, The Netherlands, 11-14 October 1994. Report No. EUR/ICP/EHAZ 94 05/PB01. Copenhagen: World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe.
Williams, F.L.R., A.B. Lawson, and O.L. Lloyd. 1992. Low sex ratios of births in areas at risk from air pollution from incinerators, as shown by geographical analysis and 3-dimensional mapping. Int. J. Epidemiol. 21(2): 311-319.
Wilson, W.E., and H.H. Suh. 1997. Fine particles and coarse particles: Concentration relationships relevant to epidemiologic studies. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 47(12): 1238-1249.
Winger, P.V., D.P. Schultz, and W.W. Johnson. 1990. Environmental contaminant concentrations in biota from the lower Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 19(1): 101-117.
Wohlslagel, J., L.C. DiPasquale, and E.H. Vernot. 1976. Toxicity of solid rocket motor exhaust: Effects of HCl, HF, and alumina on rodents. J. Combust. Toxicol. 3: 61-70.
Wolf, C.P. 1980. Getting social impact assessment into the policy arena. Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. 1(1): 27-36.
Woodruff, T.J., J. Grillo, and K.C. Schoendorf. 1997. The relationship between selected causes of postneonatal infant mortality and particulate air pollution in the United States. Environ. Health Perspect. 105(6): 608-612.
Wu, M.-M., T.-L. Kuo, Y.-H. Hwang, and C.-J. Chen. 1989. Dose-response relation between arsenic concentration in well water and mortality from cancers and vascular diseases. Am. J. Epidemiol. 130(6): 1123-1132.
Wynne, B. 1992. Risk and social learning: Reification to engagement. Chapter 12 in Social Theories of Risk, S. Krimsky, and D. Golding, eds. Westport, Conn.: Praeger.
Yanders, A.F., C.E. Orazio, R.K. Puri, and S. Kapila. 1989. On translocation of 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin time dependent analysis at the Times Beach experimental site. Chemosphere 19(1-6): 429-432.
Yasuhara, A., H. Ito, and M. Morita. 1987. Isomer-specific determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in incinerator-related environmental samples. Environ. Sci. Technol. 21: 971-979.
Zaldivar, R. 1974. Arsenic contamination of drinking water and foodstuffs causing endemic chronic poisoning in man: Dose-response curve. Beitr. Pathol. 151: 384-400.
Zeiss, C. 1991. Community decision-making and impact management priorities for siting waste facilities. Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. 11(3): 231-255.
Zeiss, C., and J. Atwater. 1989. Waste facility impacts on residential property-values. J. Urban Plan. Dev. ASCE 115(2): 64-80.
Zmirou, D., B. Parent, and J.-L. Potelon. 1984. Etude épidémiologique des effets sur la santé des rejets atmosphériques d'une usine d'incinération de déchets industriels et ménagers. Rev. Epidém. Santé Publ. 32: 391-397.
Zober, A., P. Messerer, and P. Huber. 1990. Thirty-four-year mortality follow-up of BASF employees exposed to 2,3,7,8-TCDD after the 1953 accident. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 62: 139-157.